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UK 2010 election: imagine if the Spanish electoral system had been used?
Image by oledoe
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UK 2010 “what if” general election outcomes
The united kingdom recently voted in a broad election therefore the outcome is a parliament without any party having an outright bulk. One of the problems being hotly debated is electoral reform, possibly altering from a plurality (first-past-the-post) system to a single of proportional representation. There are various designs for this, each with positives and negatives. Some look for to mirror the diverse views for the electorate since precisely as you possibly can, others reduce this precision for greater governability or sensed equity (e.g. amplifying or decreasing results for small events or areas).
This is certainly only a believed experiment to fulfill my desire for just what the UK parliament would seem like had the ballots in 2010 general election been cast in an unusual electoral system. The four examples offered are “pure proportional representation”, the Spanish system, the German system and counting the vootes in line with the d’Hondt method. Due to the differences in amounts of MPs, regions and amounts of ballots, the results of these examples are necessarily approximations. If these system ended up being utilized in the UK, it would very first have to be adjusted to its special situations. Lastly, numerous voters might have voted in a different way in an unusual system. Therefore, do add a grain of sodium to those results!
Actual British results for comparison: flic.kr/p/7Zv9yA
"Pure" proportional representation: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Gy
Spanish system: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md
German system: flic.kr/p/7ZrYpv
d’Hondt system: flic.kr/p/7ZZD7e
Note: so that you can attempt to illustrate possible majorities, I had to put the functions into some type of purchase from remaining to right. Since I have always been unfamiliar with most smaller parties, they might be in an order it doesn’t make much sense. No offence meant. I’d appreciate ideas for enhancement.
Note: the data resource may be the election result as reported by the BBC here: news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/election2010/results/ . During the time of writing, 649 off 650 seating being declared. Where appropriate to these calculations, I am assuming that the Conservatives will win the seat in Thirsk & Malton.
Note: in which applicable, I did not actually determine variety of seats using an approach including d’Hondt or Sainte-Laguë, as it is carried out in truth. Instead I simply utilized proportions and rounded the outcomes. This might lead to a difference of a seat or two every now and then according to which strategy is used.
— ABOUT THIS IMAGE —
This image ( flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md ) reveals the hypothetical result of the UK 2010 basic election if the seating in Parliament was allocated in accordance with the exact same system that chairs are allocated in Spanish Congreso de los Diputados. Truth be told there, each area gets a number of chairs in line with population dimensions, that are then distributed towards the functions proportionally relating to their leads to these areas. There is a 3per cent entry threshold, which means that parties who don’t get 3per cent of the vote, do not get any seating.
Hypothetical seat allocation within scenario:
Conventional: 240 seats
Labour: 199 seating
Liberal Democrat: 154 chairs
British Independence Party: 15 chairs
Scottish National Celebration: 11 seating
Democratic Unionist Party: 6 seating
Sinn Fein: 6 seats
British National Celebration: 5 seats
Plaid Cymru: 4 seats
Social Democratic & Labour celebration: 4 seating
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new energy: 4 chairs
Alliance Party: 1 chairs
Conventional Unionist Voice: 1 seats
So that you can approximate the Spanish electoral system utilising the Uk ballots, here’s what I did:
In place of the Spanish regions We used the 9 government workplace areas of England plus Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, leading to 12 regions. The Spanish Congreso de los Diputados has actually 350 chairs, whereas the united kingdom Parliament has 650 (which can be 1.86 times the maximum amount of). Therefore, rather than allocating 2 automatic seating to each area, we allocated 4 to every. The remaining 602 seats where allotted to the regions based on population information from the 2001 census ( www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001 ).
The Spanish system has a threshold of 3per cent of this vote for a celebration to get seats inside Congreso. I actually do perhaps not understand whether this limit is applied on the across the country results or within each area. But if it was applied to the entire British instead of by area, then just the big three plus UKIP would get any chairs, barring such events because the SNP or Plaid Cymru from entry into Parliament (ultimately punishing all of them for maybe not fielding prospects in England). Since I have never believe that such a system would previously be contemplated, I used the 3percent limit within each area. Therefore, the seating for every single area are distributed proportionately between all parties that received at least 3percent of the vote for the reason that area.
For completeness, here are the intermediate figures associated with computations:
Region :: Population :: Pop per cent :: automated seats :: chairs for pop :: Total chairs
Scotland :: 5,062,011 :: 8.61% :: 4 :: 52 :: 56
Wales :: 2,903,085 :: 4.94per cent :: 4 :: 30 :: 34
Northern Ireland :: 1,685,267 :: 2.87per cent :: 4 :: 17 :: 21
North-west :: 6,729,764 :: 11.45percent :: 4 :: 69 :: 73
North East :: 2,515,442 :: 4.28% :: 4 :: 26 :: 30
Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: 4,964,833 :: 8.45percent :: 4 :: 51 :: 55
East Midlands :: 4,172,174 :: 7.10percent :: 4 :: 43 :: 47
Western Midlands :: 5,267,308 :: 8.96per cent :: 4 :: 54 :: 58
Eastern :: 5,388,140 :: 9.17per cent :: 4 :: 55 :: 59
South East :: 8,000,645 :: 13.61per cent :: 4 :: 82 :: 86
South West :: 4,928,434 :: 8.38% :: 4 :: 50 :: 54
London :: 7,172,091 :: 12.20% :: 4 :: 73 :: 77
TOTAL :: 58,789,194 :: 100.00per cent :: 48 :: 602 :: 650
SEATS with PARTY BY REGION (only those functions with 3percent or higher regarding the ballots in that area):
Scotland :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Labour :: 1035528 :: 0.43 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 465471 :: 0.19 :: 11
Scottish National Celebration :: 491386 :: 0.2 :: 11
Traditional :: 412855 :: 0.17 :: 10
Total :: 2405240 :: 1 :: 56
Wales :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Labour :: 531601 :: 0.39 :: 13
Conventional :: 382730 :: 0.28 :: 9
Liberal Democrat :: 295164 :: 0.21 :: 7
Plaid Cymru :: 165394 :: 0.12 :: 4
Total :: 1374889 :: 1 :: 34
Northern Ireland :: Ballots :: percent :: Chairs
Democratic Unionist Celebration :: 168216 :: 0.27 :: 6
Sinn Fein :: 171942 :: 0.28 :: 6
Social Democratic & Labour celebration :: 110970 :: 0.18 :: 4
Alliance Celebration :: 42762 :: 0.07 :: 1
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new power :: 102361 :: 0.16 :: 3
Traditional Unionist Voice :: 26300 :: 0.04 :: 1
Total :: 622551 :: 1 :: 21
North West :: Ballots :: percent :: Seats
Labour :: 1292978 :: 0.41 :: 30
Traditional :: 1038967 :: 0.33 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 707770 :: 0.23 :: 16
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 103782 :: 0.03 :: 2
Complete :: 3143497 :: 1 :: 73
North-east :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Labour :: 518261 :: 0.46 :: 14
Traditional :: 282347 :: 0.25 :: 7
Liberal Democrat :: 280468 :: 0.25 :: 7
British National Party :: 51940 :: 0.05 :: 1
Total :: 1133016 :: 1 :: 30
Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: Votes :: percent :: chairs
Labour :: 821368 :: 0.37 :: 20
Conservative :: 769895 :: 0.34 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 543684 :: 0.24 :: 13
British National Celebration :: 104177 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2239124 :: 1 :: 55
East Midlands :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Conventional :: 915933 :: 0.42 :: 20
Labour :: 661813 :: 0.3 :: 14
Liberal Democrat :: 462988 :: 0.21 :: 10
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Celebration :: 72659 :: 0.03 :: 2
British Nationwide Party :: 69706 :: 0.03 :: 1
Complete :: 2183099 :: 1 :: 47
West Midlands :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Traditional :: 1044081 :: 0.42 :: 24
Labour :: 808114 :: 0.32 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 540160 :: 0.22 :: 13
British Independence Celebration :: 106273 :: 0.04 :: 2
Complete :: 2498628 :: 1 :: 58
Eastern :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Conventional :: 1356739 :: 0.5 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 692932 :: 0.25 :: 15
Labour :: 564581 :: 0.21 :: 12
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 123437 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2737689 :: 1 :: 59
South-east :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Conservative :: 2140895 :: 0.52 :: 44
Liberal Democrat :: 1124786 :: 0.27 :: 23
Labour :: 697567 :: 0.17 :: 14
UK Independence Celebration :: 177269 :: 0.04 :: 4
Complete :: 4140517 :: 1 :: 86
South-west :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Conventional :: 1187637 :: 0.44 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 962954 :: 0.36 :: 19
Labour :: 426910 :: 0.16 :: 9
British Independence Party :: 123975 :: 0.05 :: 2
Complete :: 2701476 :: 1 :: 54
London :: Ballots :: per cent :: Chairs
Labour :: 1245637 :: 0.39 :: 30
Traditional :: 1174568 :: 0.37 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 751561 :: 0.24 :: 18
Total :: 3171766 :: 1 :: 77
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33_and in 1860 27 per cent regarding the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
Image by Jim Surkamp
Hamilton Hatter role 2 – publications would be the Holy path TRT: 25:43s
Browse script with matching photos –
(songs) mama of limestone fountains! My heart extends back using establishing sunshine — My heart, my heart is within the Mountains!
2_The “Most Exceptional” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (songs) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,
3_seizes opportunities to find out and over come
Hamilton Hatter seizes possibilities to find out and over come. At one university he builds youthful thoughts plus its structures –
4_then launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia
after that launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia once more – building thoughts – and buildings. But first he had to overcome. (music)
5_and I am able to rejoice today inside belief your CLASS GOES ON
"and I Could rejoice today when you look at the belief that THE CLASS IS CERTAINLY GOING ON!”
6_The children had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years of age
The kids had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years old, nicely and comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful,
with an unusual assortment of acceptable and intelligent countenances peering on the tops of the desks.
8_Northern reporter John Trowbridge found Charlestown
North reporter John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summertime of 1865, a war-worn town
9_with its ruins and seething
along with its ruins and seething and six months before Hatter’s school was exposed here.
10_Trowbridge reached Charlestown
Trowbridge attained Charlestown in about might, 1865 anticipating nothing in particular.
11_At the termination of an extended hour’s ride
At the conclusion of a lengthy time’s trip, we arrived at Charles Town, mainly of great interest in my opinion due to the fact host to John Brown’s martyrdom.
12_on the edge of boundless unfenced industries
We alighted from the train in the edge of boundless unfenced areas, into whoever melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied by themselves – streams to that particular ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected feminine sitting,
13_sorrowfully from the wayside
sorrowfully regarding the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses dropped negligently about functions which could as soon as being attractive.
14_On the tips of a boarding household
In the tips of a boarding residence i discovered an acquaintance whoever countenance gleamed with satisfaction
15_“at sight,” as he stated, “of an individual devoted face
“at picture,” as he said, “of a single loyal face because nest of secession.” He’d already been two or three days within the location waiting around for baggage which was in fact miscarried.
16_the belief toward secession through the entire County before the Civil War varied extensively
While Jefferson County, West Virginia continues to be little, the belief toward secession through the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist belief in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large facilities.
17_“They are all Rebels right here – all rebels!”
“They are typical Rebels here – all rebels!” he exclaimed while he took his cane and stepped beside me. “They tend to be a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there’s absolutely no profit the spot, and barely anything to consume.
18_We have actually for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We now have for morning meal salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for lunch. At supper, the fare is slightly diverse, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason.
19_My landlady’ s child is south fire incarnate
My landlady’ s girl is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern folks in addition to government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Often I venture to resolve this lady, whenever she flies at me, figuratively talking, like a cat. The ladies aren’t the only out-spoken Rebels, even though they would be the worst.
20_The males don’t think twice to declare their particular sentiments
The guys don’t think twice to declare their sentiments, in period and out of season.” My buddy determined with this specific figure:
21_The war sensation the following is like a burning bush with a wet blanket
“The war sensation let me reveal like a burning-bush with a wet blanket covered around it. Viewed through the outside, the fire appears quenched. But simply peep underneath the blanket and truth be told there its, all alive and eating, consuming in. The wet blanket is the present government plan; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is permitting in such air to feed the fire.”
22_The time Hamilton came to be
The day Hamilton was born in April, 1856,
23_36-year-old Frank Hatter seems to be working
his daddy 36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working certainly one of Washington family homesteads into the County and
24_his mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord ended up being working
most useful evidence shows their mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord had been using the household Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their particular Charles Town house at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.
25_or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, whom lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors regarding the big landowner here, Logan Osburn.
it is unclear whether Hamilton, his cousin George (who had been born in 1853) and his sibling Charlotte (created in 1858) existed using their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, just who lived-in Kabletown, and being next-door neighbors of large landowner here, Logan Osburn.
26_School may be the Holy path
Class could be the Holy path Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868
27_Once the totally free will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a college
After the complimentary will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a school to teach those today freed,
28_Hamilton each day would go to the school
Hamilton every day would go into school in Charles Town for freed African-Americans in which
29_he would dedicate the newest act
he would dedicate the brand new work of learning to read, compose and think critically,
30_setting his footsteps regarding the long, hard but enthralling roa
establishing their footsteps on the lengthy, difficult but enthralling road to large grant and achievement.
31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of the women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, ended up being one of many ladies coming from Maine borne by their complimentary will most likely Baptist faith to begin Mission institutes in places like Charlestown.
32_They were determined to release the thoughts
They were determined to release the minds of only freed African-Americans –
33_and in 1860 27 percent associated with the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
plus 1860 27 per cent of this County’s residents had been enslaved people. Multiple had opted during war. Dudley, in addition a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,
34_and two various other teachers
as well as 2 other teachers who does show at Charlestown
35_came straight down by ship and train
arrived down by ship and train,
36_likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Skip Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach-in the Charlestown Mission college too.
38_Dudley penned Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley published Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight miles from Charles Town: “I am going to Charlestown to open a college there a few weeks.
39_The nature that hung John Brown however life
The nature that hung John Brown nevertheless life, plus the individuals are highly against schools the Freedman indeed there, also right here.
I go alone, but I trust the law and also the Lord will protect myself.”
41_townspeople at best had been okay with training
More the townspeople at the best had been okay with training
42_but having refined feamales in public connection
those as soon as enslaved, but having processed ladies in public connection with those they when had enslaved breeched a hackneyed presumption.
43_lady regarding the town to associate with such a woman eg Miss Dudley
And a lady for the city to associate with these types of a female particularly skip Dudley from elsewhere – worse nevertheless from a Yankee condition – would-be a personal suicide in Charlestown.
44_Dudley composed: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding location for almost 2 months”
Dudley penned: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding place for almost 8 weeks (for it would have been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee educators while the
45_there could be no return to pals and society
Rubicon as soon as passed, there might be no return to buddies and culture, no more than on the hills of caste in Asia, as community belief ended up being)
46_so I became here alone
thus I had been here alone, boarding myself and teaching night and day,
47_until I had 150 scholars of ages and complexions”
until I experienced 150 scholars of centuries and complexions” training the rudiments of reading to any or all “from white to black,
48_and of all of the many years
as well as all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” With this shunning, Dudley could only discover board and a school space all
49_freed African United States blacksmith
in solitary roofing of freed African United states blacksmith Achilles Dixon along with his partner.
50_southeast part of Samuel and Liberty streets
It had been on the southeast part of Samuel and Liberty roads.
51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – formally the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. Initially arranged in July, 1865, – 30 days after Trowbridge’s go to –
52_crucial part enforcing the legal rights
the Bureau stretched its jurisdiction on Eastern Panhandle seeing the requirement and played a vital role implementing the legal rights associated with the
53_when the western Virginia local government ended up being not able
recently freed and their educators at a time whenever West Virginia local government had been incapable of do so, particularly in Jefferson County.
54_the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s lease
Actually, the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent so she could have a college room, albeit just fifteen sqft. After being confronted by a mob, the soldiers using Freedmen’s Bureau gave her an escort.
55_Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter during the mind of my sleep during the night,
56_resolved to sell my entire life as dearly as possible – if you need to
resolved to sell my entire life as dearly possible – if necessary.”
57_to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two instructors
Overwhelmed by work that prompted home Mission Society to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers rather than one in the springtime of 1866, Dudley wrote that February:
58_No it’s possible to previously understand the anxiety i’ve sensed
“No you can ever know the anxiety I have felt, additionally the energy i’ve needed to make these two long months, since I have came here, occupying a harsh wood household, cool as a barn, teaching and boarding in identical rooms because i possibly could perhaps not get board elsewhere, resting there without any guy or son inside your home for single night, although the opponents regarding the school had been threatening without, and not knowing just what next time might deliver; hearing 100 different scholars recite lessons in one day. doing my personal work, obtaining company, writing letters, etc. etc. and I also can rejoice today into the belief that IT WILL CONTINUE!”
59_Every time coming through the little home
Daily coming through little door was the woman fondest hope.
60_Strother described them
Strother described all of them: The room is obviously full to overflowing.
61_reduced one-half due to the necessity
In summer the attendance is decreased one-half due to the requirement of this older pupils going on to service,
62_remunerative labor of some kind
or engaging in remunerative work of some sort.
63_comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful
The children had been of both sexes, nicely and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an unusual array of pleasant and smart countenances peering over the tops for the desks. These people were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,
64_rudeness related to the street-corner brat
without a trace of this barbaric squalor and rudeness with respect to the street-corner brat of former times, sometimes found today among those who didn’t visit college.
He continues on:
65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
As the most the students attended into existence considering that the Emancipation Proclamation, there clearly was however lots more than that event, plus some whose recollections antedate the truly amazing war. Yet within their profession of schooling they have all started even.
66_It are often seen that great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones
It might probably additionally be observed that the great scholars usually are outstripped by the kids, which just visits verify the typically gotten viewpoint that younger plants tend to be more effortlessly transplanted and trained than older ones more positively true at heart and morals compared to horticulture.
67_i will never forget the oft repeated prayer
Dudley published to "The day Star," the complimentary will most likely Baptist book: all of the colored men and women manifested the greatest kindness towards united states. I will remember the oft-repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the instructor which comes a far distance to show united states. Front and fight the woman battles and deliver her safe home to Glory, if you be sure to Jesus.”
The main focus shifted to presenting a permanent school building. State legislation, due to amendments in 1865, segregated pupils by race. State legislation by 1867, additionally required going the duty of providing knowledge to African Us citizens
68_from the goal schools towards regional college board.
through the objective schools towards neighborhood school board. But before a reorganization eliminated the Freedman’s Bureau entirely from Jefferson County in October, 1868,
69_the new school, supplying some 20,000 bricks and money for materials
Bureau management prodded the Charlestown’s college board to building this new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for products to match profits the township college board was to gather to construct the permanent college for its African Americans. The college under new administration unsealed with time the fall program in 1868.
70_The Freedmen Bureau males in addition engineered a match. It resulted in a determination by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit judge reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling ended up being circulated and became getting a de facto plan through the state.
71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) wrote in her own diary: “And right here, i have to confess your instructors at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert your colored individuals of their particular charges will compare positively with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much.”
72_Wrote Strother how the class Board finally came around
Wrote Strother how the class Board eventually emerged around, tossing their reduced objectives: The County Commission of Examiners report many positively associated with general cleverness exhibited by the colored students, and of their particular progress in all the primary limbs of common-school knowledge.
73_One of this bright faces into the class
The brilliant faces in the class room to profit was the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, which saw
74_his world starting
his world opening and vast through reading, it absolutely was the trail to his future.
With generous, community-minded assistance from American Public University program. (The sentiments within manufacturing never by any means mirror modern-day guidelines of APUS). Much more at apus.edu
Investigated, Written, Developed, Narrated – Jim Surkamp
"My Heart is within the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (general public domain) songs by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright laws logo) 2010, GHF Music, (terrytucker.net)
Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (cammillar.com)
Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright laws Shana Aisenberg. (shanasongs.com)
children playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free sfx.uk.com”
Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An United states Phoenix: a brief history of Storer College from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer Printing House.
Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s brand new Monthly mag, nyc, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 concern 292 (September, 1874).
Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land where we had been dreaming, as well as other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, shared ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.
“Sarah Jane Foster: instructor of this Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine girl in the South After the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.
Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Western Virginia.” West Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.
Taylor, James L. “A History of Ebony Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966.”
Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The Southern: a trip of the battlefields and ruined locations, a trip through desolated says, and talks using men and women: being a description of this current state associated with the country – its farming – railroads – business and funds.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.