Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-40 Warhawk with “sharktooth” nose

A few nice car finance pictures i came across:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-40 Warhawk with “sharktooth” nostrils
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Image by Chris Devers
See more photographs with this, plus the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Regardless of whether referred to as Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 became a fruitful, flexible fighter through the very first half World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" travelled in China from the Japanese continue to be one of the most popular airplanes of this war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the initial US ace of World War II as he shot down six Japanese plane in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this aircraft as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk we in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air power. U.S. Air power workers at Andrews Air energy Base restored it in 1975 to portray an aircraft associated with the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

Contributed because of the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Maker:
Curtiss Aircraft Company

Date:
1939

Nation of Origin:
United states

Proportions:
In general: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

Products:
All-metal, semi-monocoque

Physical Information:
Solitary motor, solitary seat, fighter aircraft.

Longer Definition:
Whether or not it had been the Tomahawk, Warhawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 had been a successful and functional fighter plane through the first 1 / 2 of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that General Claire Chennault led contrary to the Japanese stay one of the most preferred airplanes of war. In the Phillipines, Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II while flying a P-40E when he shot down six Japanese plane during mid-December 1941. P-40s had been first-line Army Air Corps fighters in the very beginning of the war nevertheless they soon offered solution to more complex designs such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt plus the Lockheed P-38 Lightning (see NASM collection for both aircraft). The P-40 just isn’t rated one of the better total fighters associated with the war but it was a rugged, effective design for sale in vast quantities at the beginning of the war when America along with her allies urgently needed them. The P-40 stayed in production from 1939 towards end of 1944 and a complete of 13, 737 had been built.

Design engineer Dr. Donovan R. Berlin layed the inspiration when it comes to P-40 in 1935 when he created the nimble, but lightly-armed, P-36 fighter designed with a radial, air-cooled motor. The Curtiss-Wright Corporation won a production contract for 210 P-36 airplanes in 1937-the biggest Army plane agreement granted since World War I. Worldwide, fighter aircraft designs matured quickly during late 1930s plus it had been quickly obvious that the P-36 had been no match for more recent European styles. Thin air performance specifically became a priceless product. Berlin attempted to increase the P-36 by redesigning it into accommodate a turbo-supercharged Allison V-1710-11 inline, liquid-cooled motor. The newest plane ended up being designated the XP-37 but proved unpopular with pilots. The turbo-supercharger had not been reliable and Berlin had placed the seat past an acceptable limit straight back in the fuselage, restricting the view towards the front associated with fighter. Nevertheless, whenever engine wasn’t giving difficulty, the more-streamlined XP-37 was even faster as compared to P-36.

Curtiss tried again in 1938. Berlin had customized another P-36 with a new Allison V-1710-19 motor. It had been designated the XP-40 and first flew on October 14, 1938. The XP-40 seemed encouraging and Curtiss supplied it to Army Air Corps frontrunners whom evaluated the plane at Wright Field, Ohio, in 1939, along with other fighter proposals. The P-40 won your competitors, after some changes, and Curtiss got an order for 540. At the moment, the armament bundle contained two .50 quality machine firearms within the fuselage and four .30 caliber machine firearms within the wings.

After production began in March 1940, France bought 140 P-40s nevertheless the British took distribution among these airplanes when Paris surrendered. The British called the aircraft Tomahawks but found they performed poorly in high-altitude fight over north Europe and relegated all of them to low-altitude businesses in North Africa. The Russians bought over 2,000 P-40s but details of their particular operational history stay obscure.

Once the United States declared war, P-40s furnished most Army Air Corps’s forward line fighter devices. The plucky fighter eventually saw combat in nearly every theater of functions being the utmost effective into the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater. Of the many CBI groups that gained more notoriety regarding the entire war, and continues to be to this day synonymous with the P-40, may be the United states Volunteer Group (AVG) or perhaps the Flying Tigers. The machine was arranged following the Chinese provided previous U. S. Army Air Corps Captain Claire Lee Chennault practically 9 million bucks in 1940 to get plane and recruit pilots to fly contrary to the Japanese. Chennault’s most significant assistance within the Chinese federal government came from Madam Chiang Kai-shek, a Lt. Colonel in the Chinese Air energy and for a time, the solution’s overall commander.

The income from Asia diverted an order put because of the British Royal Air energy for 100 Curtiss-Wright P-40B Tomahawks but buying airplanes was only one crucial step up producing a fighting air device. Trained pilots had been required, and rapidly, as tensions across the Pacific escalated. On April 15, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quietly signed an Executive Order allowing Chennault to hire directly from ranks of American armed forces book pilots. Within a few months, 350 leaflets joined up with from goal (fighter), bomber, and patrol squadrons. In all, approximately half the pilots in Flying Tigers came from the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps while the Army Air Corps supplied one-third. Factory test pilots at Bell, Consolidated, and other businesses, and commercial air line pilots, filled the remaining slot machines.

The Flying Tigers flew their particular very first goal on December 20. The system’s title was produced by the ferocious fangs and teeth painted in the nose of AVG P-40s at either side of the unique, big radiator air-intake. The theory is said to originate from photos in a magazine that revealed Royal Air energy Tomahawks of No. 112 Squadron, running inside western wilderness of North Africa, adorned with fangs and teeth painted around their environment intakes. The Flying Tigers were the first genuine resistance japan armed forces experienced. Within just 7 months of action, AVG pilots ruined about 115 Japanese aircraft and destroyed just 11 planes in air-to-air fight. The AVG disbanded on July 4, 1942, as well as its assets, including a few pilots, became an integral part of the U. S. Army atmosphere causes (AAF) 23rd Fighter Group into the newly activated 14th Air Force. Chennault, now a Brigadier General, assumed demand associated with 14th AF by war’s end, the 23rd was one of several highest-scoring Army fighter teams.

As wartime expertise in the P-40 mounted, Curtiss made numerous alterations. Designers included armor-plate, better self-sealing gasoline tanks, plus powerful engines. They modified the seat to enhance exposure and changed the armament bundle to six, wing-mounted, .50 quality device firearms. The P-40E Kittyhawk ended up being the very first design with this firearm package plus it entered service eventually to offer when you look at the AVG. The past design stated in amount had been the P-40N, the lightest P-40 built-in quantity, and much quicker than past models. Curtiss built an individual P-40Q. It absolutely was the fastest P-40 to fly (679 kph/422 mph) nonetheless it cannot match the overall performance for the P-47 Thunderbolt together with P-51 Mustang so Curtiss finished growth of the P-40 series with this particular design. In addition to the AAF, numerous Allied nations purchased and flew P-40s including England, France, China, Russia, Australian Continent, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and Turkey.

The Smithsonian P-40E would not offer within the U. S. military. Curtiss-Wright built it in Buffalo, ny, as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk IA on March 11, 1941. It served in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air energy (RCAF). When the Japanese navy relocated to attack Midway, they sent a diversionary struggle group to menace the Aleutian isles. Canada relocated No. 111 Squadron to Alaska to aid protect the spot. Following the Japanese threat diminished, the machine returned to Canada and finally transferred to England without its P-40s. The RCAF declared the NASM Kittyhawk IA surplus on July 27, 1946, therefore the plane ultimately returned to the usa. It had a few proprietors before ending up with the Explorer Scouts youth team in Meridian, Mississippi. During early sixties, the Smithsonian began looking for a P-40 with a documented reputation for solution in the AVG but found not one. In 1964, the Exchange Club in Meridian donated the Kittyhawk IA toward National Aeronautical Collection, in memory of Mr. Kellis Forbes, an area guy devoted to young men Club activities. A U. S. Air power Reserve team airlifted the fighter to Andrews Air energy Base, Maryland, on March 13, 1964. Andrews employees restored the aircraft in 1975 and painted it to portray an aircraft regarding the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air energy.

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Curtiss P-40 Warhawk:

The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk ended up being an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. It absolutely was utilized by the atmosphere causes of 28 nations, including those of many Allied abilities during World War II, and remained right in front range service before end associated with the war. It absolutely was the 3rd most-produced American fighter, following the P-51 and P-47; by November 1944, when production of the P-40 stopped, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation‘s main manufacturing facility at Buffalo, New York.

The P-40 design ended up being an adjustment for the past Curtiss P-36; this paid down development some time allowed an instant entry into manufacturing and working solution.

Warhawk ended up being title the united states of america Army Air Corps adopted for all designs, rendering it the state title in the United States for many P-40s. The British Commonwealth and Soviet environment forces utilized title Tomahawk for designs equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, and name Kittyhawk for models comparable to the P-40D and all sorts of later on variants.

The P-40’s decreased a two-stage supercharger made it inferior compared to Luftwaffe fighters for instance the Messerschmitt Bf 109 or perhaps the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in high-altitude fight also it ended up being rarely found in businesses in Northwest European countries. Between 1941 and 1944, however, the P-40 played a crucial role with Allied environment forces in three significant theaters: North Africa, the Southwest Pacific and China. In addition had an important role when you look at the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern European countries, Alaska and Italy. The P-40’s overall performance at large altitudes was not as crucial in those theaters, in which it served as an air superiority fighter, bomber escort and fighter bomber.

P-40s very first saw combat aided by the Brit Commonwealth squadrons of Desert Air Force (DAF) in the centre East and North African campaigns, during June 1941. The Royal Air Force‘s No. 112 Squadron had been among the first to operate Tomahawks, in North Africa, and device was the first to ever feature the "shark mouth" logo, copying comparable markings on some Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighters. [N 1]

Although it gained a post-war reputation as a mediocre design, appropriate just for close environment support, more recent study including scrutiny regarding the documents of specific Allied squadrons indicates that P-40 performed surprisingly really as an air superiority fighter, occasionally enduring extreme losings, but also taking a really hefty cost on enemy plane. The P-40 provided the extra advantageous asset of low priced, which held it in manufacturing as a ground-attack fighter even after it absolutely was outdated floating around superiority part.

At the time of 2008, 19 P-40s were airworthy.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird (end view)
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Image by Chris Devers
See more photographs of the, together with Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has actually managed globally much more dangerous airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71, society’s quickest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s overall performance and functional accomplishments placed it at pinnacle of aviation technology advancements during Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service aided by the U.S. Air power. On its final journey, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from la to Washington, D.C., in an hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 kilometers) each hour. At the journey’s conclusion, they arrived at Washington-Dulles airport terminal and switched the aircraft over to the Smithsonian.

Transmitted from Usa Air Energy.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Measurements:
Total: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Products:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe built largley of titanium and its own alloys; vertical end fins tend to be made out of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet motors function large inlet surprise cones.

Longer Explanation:
No reconnaissance plane ever sold has operated much more aggressive airspace or with these types of complete impunity as compared to SR-71 Blackbird. This is the quickest plane propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s overall performance and operational achievements put it in the peak of aviation technology advancements through the Cold War. The plane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe achieved amounts approaching a full-blown crisis within the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed precise tests of Soviet worldwide military deployments, specially close to the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance plane had been an able system although U. S. Air Force recognized that reasonably slow aircraft was already in danger of Soviet interceptors. They even understood the rapid growth of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave threat. The risk proved reality whenever a U-2 had been shot down by a surface to environment missile throughout the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s very first proposition for a new high speed, high-altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, is capable of preventing interceptors and missiles, based on a design propelled by fluid hydrogen. This became impracticable due to considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed after that reconfigured the look for mainstream fuels. This was feasible plus the Central Intelligence department (CIA), already traveling the Lockheed U-2, given a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Functions’ unit (headed because of the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) created the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and travel well above 18,288 m (60,000 legs). To meet up these difficult requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical difficulties. Flying above 3 x the speed of sound yields 316° C (600° F) conditions on outside plane surfaces, which are adequate to melt traditional aluminum airframes. The design group thought we would result in the jet’s outside epidermis of titanium alloy that shielded the interior aluminum airframe. Two main-stream, but extremely effective, afterburning turbine motors propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power flowers needed to function across an enormous speed envelope in-flight, from a takeoff rate of 334 kph (207 miles per hour) to over 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To stop supersonic surprise waves from moving inside the motor intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team must design a complex air-intake and bypass system when it comes to machines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design showing a reduced radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to mirror as little transmitted radar power (radio waves) as you possibly can, and also by application of unique paint made to take in, without reflect, those waves. This therapy became among the first applications of stealth technology, but it never ever completely met the design targets.

Test pilot Lou Schalk travelled the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi tests. The plane revealed great vow however it needed considerable technical sophistication ahead of the CIA could fly 1st functional sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated included in the Air power’s 1129th Unique tasks Squadron beneath the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed carried on to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor form of the plane designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" variation configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved to the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a particular two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were altered to carry a particular reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take-off aided by the D-21 drone, run on a Marquart ramjet motor installed on a pylon between your rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds sufficient to ignite the drone’s ramjet engine. Lockheed in addition built three YF-12As but this sort never ever moved into manufacturing. Two of YF-12As damaged during evaluating. One endures and is on show at USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft part of one of the "written off" YF-12As that was later on used and an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the only real SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 had been lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C as well as 2 SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed built thirty-two Blackbirds. The very first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Considering severe working costs, armed forces strategists decided your more able USAF SR-71s should change the CIA’s A-12s. They certainly were resigned in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mainly over southeast Asia. Air power’s first Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (the main 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) overran the missions, traveling the SR-71 starting in the spring of 1968.

After the Air energy begun to run the SR-71, it obtained the state title Blackbird– the special black colored paint that covered the plane. This paint had been formulated to soak up radar indicators, to radiate some of the great airframe temperature generated by air rubbing, and camouflage the plane from the dark sky at large altitudes.

Knowledge gained through the A-12 program persuaded the Air Force that traveling the SR-71 safely required two staff members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance techniques Officer (RSO). The RSO operated because of the wide array of monitoring and protective systems set up on the aircraft. This gear included an enhanced Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system might jam many purchase and concentrating on radar. Along with a range of advanced, high-resolution digital cameras, the aircraft may also carry gear built to capture the strength, frequency, and wavelength of indicators emitted by communications and sensor products particularly radar. The SR-71 had been built to fly deeply into dangerous territory, avoiding interception featuring its tremendous rate and thin air. It could operate properly at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen kilometers, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), over the planet. The team must wear stress matches much like those donned by astronauts. These suits had been necessary to protect the staff in case of abrupt cabin force reduction while at operating altitudes.

To rise and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 machines had been built to function constantly in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird in fact accomplished its most readily useful "gas mileage," when it comes to atmosphere nautical miles per lb of gas burned, throughout the Mach 3+ cruise. A normal Blackbird reconnaissance journey may need several aerial refueling businesses from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the team had to descend towards tanker’s height, typically about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the aircraft to subsonic rates. As velocity decreased, therefore performed frictional heat. This cooling impact caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink quite a bit, and the ones covering the gas tanks contracted a great deal that fuel leaked, creating a unique vapor path while the tanker topped off the Blackbird. When the tanks had been filled, the jet’s staff disconnected from tanker, relit the afterburners, and once again climbed to thin air.

Air energy pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational job but various other bases hosted Blackbird businesses, also. The 9th SRW sporadically deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other areas to carryout functional missions. Cuban missions were flown right from Beale. The SR-71 didn’t begin to operate in Europe until 1974, after which just temporarily. In 1982, as soon as the U.S. Air energy based two plane at Royal Air power Base Mildenhall to travel monitoring goal in Eastern European countries.

If the SR-71 became working, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had currently changed manned aircraft to gather intelligence from websites deeply within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot therefore the Blackbird remained an essential tool for international intelligence gathering. On many events, pilots and RSOs traveling the SR-71 offered information that proved important in formulating effective U. S. international policy. Blackbird teams supplied important intelligence in regards to the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli intrusion of Lebanon and its own aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid carried out by American air causes on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 teams travelled a number of missions throughout the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile battery packs that threatened commercial shipping and United states escort vessels.

Once the overall performance of space-based surveillance systems expanded, combined with the effectiveness of ground-based atmosphere protection networks, air energy began to drop passion when it comes to pricey system and 9th SRW stopped SR-71 functions in January 1990. Despite protests by armed forces leaders, Congress revived this system in 1995. Continued wrangling over running budgets, however, shortly led to final cancellation. The nationwide Aeronautics and Space management retained two SR-71As and one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the solution career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird finished with a record-setting flight. This special aircraft bore Air energy serial quantity 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding along with his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this plane from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 moments, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 miles per hour). At the conclusion associated with flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of Smithsonian’s nationwide Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of trip amount of time in Blackbirds, over that any crewman.

This SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, an old nationwide Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections control. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air power Base, Okinawa, Alison logged a lot more than several ‘972 functional sorties. The plane invested twenty-four many years in active Air energy service and accrued an overall total of 2,801.1 hours of journey time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Body Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and additional Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Trick Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: Above My Share of It Every. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and area Museum.

father, 11-11-01

Antique Car Pins through the Soviet Union
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Image by Hugo-90
2 decades ago, whenever my Debbie and I worked when you look at the post-office in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, several Russians stumbled on observe our operation. Partially to aid fund their particular trip and provide them with some spending money, they brought some pins to offer.

I got really excited to see these and since the values were reduced, i purchased many of them, while others endured around and chatted. You can view that i obtained all seven of these for .75.