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London February 10 2014 040 Visitor Pass Parliament
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Flooding
3.35 pm

Maria Eagle (Garston and Halewood) (Lab)
(Urgent Question): To ask the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government to make a statement on the Government’s recent response to the flooding in Somerset, and to clarify his comments this weekend accusing the Environment Agency of giving poor advice.

The Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government (Mr Eric Pickles):
As evident from the dark skies outside, we continue to face extraordinary and sustained wet weather. Cobra has met every day since my oral statement on Thursday, with all Departments working closely together, including my comrades from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. We have made it clear again that every resource is available to local communities affected. We will keep providing whatever immediate practical support and assistance is needed, whether extra pumps and sandbags, military support on the ground, or emergency funds from the severe weather assistance fund for local councils.

The Somerset moors and levels have been some of the areas hardest hit by the weather, with 65 million cubic metres of floodwater on the land. The Rivers Tone and Parrett have been particularly affected by the continuous rainfall, leading to heightened river levels. In total, people in 150 properties across the Somerset levels, where there is a threat of severe flooding, have been advised to leave their homes. A rest centre has been established in Bridgwater. Military personnel have been tasked to work alongside local authorities, and are currently filling sandbags for deployment. Pumping continues, but it is a challenge to keep at the correct pace with the inflow from the latest rainfall, and levels are increasing in some areas. It is likely to take weeks to remove the sheer volume of floodwater, once there is a significant break in the weather.

Across the Thames valley and Surrey, the River Thames is rising and bursting its banks at certain locations. A sandbag programme is in place at key points of vulnerability. A multi-agency gold command has been set up in Croydon to co-ordinate the response locally, and a major incident has been declared. There is a high risk that the Thames, the Severn and the Wye will flood in the middle of next week. Local residents are actively engaged in planning and preparation.

As I told the House on Thursday, I commend the hard work of the emergency services, local authorities, the armed services and the staff of the Environment Agency on the ground. As I have said, there are lessons to be learned, including about its policy on dredging and how its £1.2 billion budget is spent.

I note that the issue of international development funding was touched on over the weekend. Let me say this: just as it is a false choice to cast town versus country, it is also wrong to pit helping the victims of flooding at home against helping those suffering abroad. We can and should do both—to help the plight of those facing the awfulness of flooded homes in Britain, just as we take action to help malnourished children dying from dirty water abroad. But I believe that taxpayers’ money should be well spent, and this applies just as much to quangos as it does to the international aid budget. By spending money wisely, we can better meet our moral obligations, first to Britain and then to the world, but the first and primary obligation of Her Majesty’s Government is the defence of the realm—urban and rural, city and county—and that is exactly what we are doing.

Maria Eagle:
I thank the Secretary of State for his update.

I have no doubt that those who are being affected by the severe flooding in Somerset and now in the Thames valley welcome the assistance that they are now receiving. It is a considerable relief to those who are living and farming on the Somerset levels that the Army has been made available to assist in the efforts to protect homes, farms and other businesses. That news, combined with the efforts of the fire and rescue services, the police, Environment Agency staff and the many volunteers, shows that there is finally a concerted effort to respond to the floods.

Does the Secretary of State understand people’s anger and frustration that it took so long for the Government to organise that level of response, considering that many of them have been dealing with rising water levels since before Christmas? Will he ensure that it does not take so long to help those in the Thames valley who face flooding today? Why did the Prime Minister remain so disengaged from what was clearly a worsening crisis for so long, in sharp contrast to his predecessor in 2007? What lessons have been learned to ensure that we never again see flooded communities left abandoned for weeks? Will the Secretary of State assure the House that the same level of assistance will be made available to those in Berkshire and Surrey, where severe flood warnings are in place?

Will the Secretary of State provide an update on the work to restore vital rail connectivity to Devon and Cornwall? Have Ministers formally asked Network Rail to present options for a long-term solution to the vulnerability of the line, including the option of re-routing?

On the Environment Agency, does the Secretary of State agree with the Prime Minister that

“This is a time for everyone to get on with the jobs that they have… This is not the time to change personnel, this is the time to get on and do everything we can to help people. I back the Environment Agency. I back the work they are doing.”?

If so, why did the Secretary of State go to such lengths yesterday to give the opposite impression as he toured the TV studios? Does he believe that

“the Environment Agency has been remarkably good in giving good, accurate information”?

Those are the words that he used on “The World at One” last Wednesday. Will he explain what changed his mind about the quality of the advice from the Environment Agency in the following 48 hours, other than the fact that he spotted a convenient scapegoat to distract attention from the Government’s failure?

Will the right hon. Gentleman explain why the Prime Minister has been unable to deny that the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has been forced to write a letter objecting to the attack on one of his Department’s agencies by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government? Does he accept, in hindsight, that it was wrong to launch such a direct attack on the staff of the Environment Agency, and will he take this opportunity to apologise? Does he really believe that the cut of £97 million or 17% in real terms to the annual funding of the Environment Agency, which was required by Ministers, did not impact on the agency’s ability to prevent the flooding that we have seen?

In the House last Thursday, I asked the Secretary of State about the Pitt review, which was commissioned by the last Government after the 2007 floods. He was unable to answer my questions and instead commented that,

“The hon. Lady asked why we have not updated the Pitt review. She will recall that we set up the Flood Forecasting Centre… Perhaps she should spend a little less time in the television studios and more time with Google.”—[Official Report, 6 February 2014; Vol. 575, c. 447.]

Of course, a quick search using Google would have informed the right hon. Gentleman that the Flood Forecasting Centre was set up by the previous Government and opened by my right hon. Friend the Member for Leeds Central (Hilary Benn) in 2009. I hope that he is better informed today.

Will the Secretary of State explain why the Government stopped producing progress reports on the implementation of the 92 recommendations of the Pitt review in January 2012, despite 46 of them being labelled “on-going”? Is it still the case that none of the recommendations under

“Knowing where and when it will flood”

have been implemented in full? What has happened to the six recommendations on reducing the risk of flooding, the 10 on being rescued and cared for during an emergency and the seven on maintaining power supplies that had not been implemented in full? How many of those have still not been completed by Ministers? Will he explain why the Government axed the Cabinet Committee on improving the country’s ability to deal with flooding and the national resilience forum, both of which were recommended in the Pitt review and established by the last Government? Finally, will the Secretary of State reconsider his refusal to agree to our request that regular progress reports on the implementation of the Pitt review be restarted? Will he commit to presenting the first update to the House by the end of this month?

Mr Pickles:
The hon. Lady seems to be obsessed by process. We are much more concerned with making a concerted effort to deal with the problem of flooding.

On readiness, we understand that as the week progresses, there will be increased flooding along the Thames valley. The substantial gravel layers in the valley will make it more difficult to put barriers up. Nevertheless, we have continued to ensure that demountables are available and the enormous help from the military will continue. [Hon. Members: “Answer the question.”] Forgive me, but I thought that I was answering about flooding, not some peculiar problem with regard to procedure.

Today I was in Croydon looking at a water station that ensures there is clean water for 47,000 properties. I looked at the magnificent work of the Environment Agency and of local gold command, which is putting together a team for action to ensure that properties are not flooded and that clean water is available.

On the Environment Agency, it is entirely wrong for the hon. Lady to suggest for one moment that I have issued even the slightest criticism of its marvellous work force. My admiration for the work of the Environment Agency exceeds no one, and I believe it is time for us all to start to work together, not to make silly party political points. I am confident that with the help of the Environment Agency, the armed forces and the good work of local councils, that is exactly what we will do.

Miss Anne McIntosh (Thirsk and Malton) (Con):
I believe that we need a period of calm in the House because those who have been flooded, and those who are on the verge of being flooded, look to us to give some leadership. May we look at what is required to be done now in terms of clean water and sanitation to avoid a public health issue for those who have been unable to use their own facilities for a period of time? I welcome what the Prime Minister told the House last week, which was that everything that has happened under that Government, this Government, or any Government, will be looked at anew. We need leadership; the Environment Agency will do whatever its political masters ask it to do, and I think it has done that to the best of its ability. In future we can look at what lessons can be learned from this episode, but we are in the middle of an emergency and must allow the emergency services, including the Environment Agency, to do their work.

Mr Pickles:
I entirely agree with my hon. Friend. Her knowledge of matters relating to the environment, and particularly flooding because of the peculiar circumstances of her own constituency, is considerable. She is absolutely right, and it is a matter of some priority to ensure that those strategic sites, pumping stations, gas stations and those relating to electricity, are protected and can withstand the rigours of this terrible weather.

Mr Ben Bradshaw (Exeter) (Lab):
I cannot remember a more complacent or inadequate response from a Cabinet Minister to a serious matter in this House. Last year, after last winter’s floods and the travel disruption in the south-west, the Government announced £31 million of new money for improved rail resilience in the south-west. That money has still not materialised. Why should anybody believe any of the new promises the Secretary of State is making when he has failed to deliver on any of them in the past?

Mr Pickles:
I am sorry that the right hon. Gentleman seems to resort to petty insults across the Chamber. There are people right now risking their lives and working on the railways to get them running and get a proper price worked out, and frankly, to play this rather pathetic game of who is to blame—[Interruption.] There will be a time when we will look closely into the causes of the floods and the reaction of the Government, but right now we should get on with the job.

Mr David Heath (Somerton and Frome) (LD):
On behalf of the people of Somerset may I say a big thank you to all those who have been working in the here and now, dealing with our emergency? I particularly welcome some of the biggest pumps that I have ever seen arriving on the levels over the weekend. There will come a time when we have to look at the emergency response, and also at long-term policies and the advice that we in Somerset have given to successive Governments and agencies over 20 years. Will the Secretary of State look at the funding stream available to local authorities, not just to deal with emergencies but to enable us to maintain these delicate structures far into the future?

Mr Pickles:
I am most grateful to my hon. Friend for his remarks. It is perhaps good to make the point that my hon. Friend the Member for Bridgwater and West Somerset (Mr Liddell-Grainger) cannot be with us today—he is down there dealing with flooding matters. I am sure he would have made similar points.

I felt it was about time somebody apologised to the people of Somerset and I was happy to do so. The Prime Minister has endorsed that apology. It is true that the advice was solidly given, and that the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs last autumn started some preliminary dredging on the two rivers. That was due to start up again, and it will do so, but in a more enhanced role. That decision was taken by the wisdom of the Secretary of State.

Joan Walley (Stoke-on-Trent North) (Lab):
Today we have had a summary of the short-term, overdue measures that the Government are taking, but what about the long-term implications? What about climate change? Will Cobra, when it meets, look not only at adaptation, but at mitigation? Will the right hon. Gentleman speak to the Chancellor and ensure that we implement the fourth carbon budget review?

Mr Pickles:
Of course, we take climate change into consideration in all the modelling we do with regard to flooding, but the hon. Lady will accept that the weather patterns we have had have been truly remarkable—nothing like them have been seen since the latter part of the 18th century. I will ensure that her remarks on flooding are passed on to my right hon. Friend the Chancellor.

Mr John Redwood (Wokingham) (Con):
As the two main A roads from my constituency into Reading have been closed by floods, and as many homes, businesses and gardens have been inundated, sometimes with foul as well as surface water, will my right hon. Friend assure me that, in future, the £1,200 million budget and the near £100 million cash that the Environment Agency started the year with will be available for schemes that I and others recommend which could stop that water in future? Is it not about time that we had the promise of some action from the Environment Agency?

Mr Pickles:
We need to deal with the short-term effects of the floods given what is likely to happen over the next few weeks, but my right hon. Friend makes a reasonable point—it is not just the size of the Environment Agency budget, but what it does with it and what priorities it has. I am sure that, as the water recedes, there will be a lot of discussion between the Government and the Environment Agency.

Mr Peter Hain (Neath) (Lab):
May I suggest to the Secretary of State that, instead of engaging in this arrogant bluster, he answers the questions put to him by my hon. Friend the Member for Garston and Halewood (Maria Eagle) from the Opposition Front Bench, and by colleagues who, along with their constituents, have experienced the terrible impacts of the flooding? He ought to apologise instead of continuously passing the buck and saying that it is everybody else’s responsibility but not the Government’s.

Mr Pickles:
For me, sorry is not the hardest word. I have been criticised for saying sorry to the people of Somerset, and the Prime Minister has said sorry to them. The problem with Labour Members, who talk of hubris and arrogance, is that they are never prepared to admit that they have done anything wrong and go around defending bad practice. The Government are prepared to say that we got it wrong, along with the Environment Agency, with regard to dredging. Had it not been for the campaigning efforts of the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, that dredging would not have started.

Mrs Cheryl Gillan (Chesham and Amersham) (Con):
We have had some flooding in Old Amersham and Chalfont St Peter. I praise the fire service and the local authorities, and the Environment Agency and its subcontractors, which have been pumping and saving buildings from flooding by the River Misbourne. Will the Secretary of State look very carefully at the Government’s spending priorities? I believe that the Government should protect our existing transport infrastructure, our towns and our countryside before spending money on new shiny projects that have a disgraceful cost-benefit ratio compared with the 1:8 cost-benefit ratio imposed on the Environment Agency?

Mr Pickles:
The House has grown to appreciate my right hon. Friend’s doughty defence of her constituents and her dislike of high-speed rail. The Under-Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, my hon. Friend the Member for Great Yarmouth (Brandon Lewis) has just come back from Marlowe, where he examined the state of preparedness, and he reports the fantastic work of local firefighters, working alongside Environment Agency staff and the local police. No doubt my right hon. Friend will be calling him very soon to offer them some moral support.

John McDonnell (Hayes and Harlington) (Lab):
I met Fire Brigade Union representatives, representing firefighters in the south-west, last week, and they report that firefighters are working extremely hard for long hours. I pay tribute to them. But they asked me to make the point that they are being hampered by job cuts—2,000 firefighters over the last 18 months. In addition, although there has been an improvement in equipment, the Government still have not decided to establish a statutory duty on fire authorities to deal with flooding, which would protect investment in equipment in the future.

Mr Pickles:
I am sure that the hon. Gentleman would also like to thank the thousands of retained firefighters for working hard on behalf of their local communities. I, too, had the opportunity to speak to firefighters this morning in Croydon. I was remarkably impressed by their dedication, hard work, cheerfulness and adaptability in ensuring that an important water pumping station remains open. We will ensure that firefighters have the best possible equipment to deal with this issue, and we have a strategic reserve of high-volume pumps that are being used extensively throughout the Thames valley and the Somerset levels.

Richard Benyon (Newbury) (Con):
I would like to use this time to talk about Somerset and the decision that I took there, but I feel I must talk about my constituents, many of whom have had an utterly miserable week and have tough times ahead. Rivers such as the River Kennet, which I have known for all my 53 years, have never been dredged and never should be dredged, because it would mean that the water would flow very fast through my constituency and end up in Reading and beyond. Does my right hon. Friend agree that we give false hope to certain communities if the question comes down to the binary decision—to dredge or not to dredge? Getting it right has to be right for that catchment.

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend was a very distinguished environment Minister and he is 100% correct. What works in the Somerset levels might not be appropriate elsewhere. I represent an Essex constituency where several fields are regularly flooded, offering enormous protection to communities along the coast. His point about the Kennet is correct. It is the same problem when pumping out—the need to ensure that the flow is not so fast that it just creates additional flooding.

I do not think that my hon. Friend made a bad decision: I think that I would have made the same decision on the information that was available. He should not ascribe any blame to himself.

Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green):
I am glad that the Secretary of State is in a mood for apologies, because he might like to apologise to the Environment Agency, instead of engaging in a blame game that helps nobody. Sustainable urban drainage systems can play a key role in managing surface water flooding, and the Government’s statement that they will implement schedule 3 of the Flood and Water Management Act 2010 for new housing developments is long overdue. Does he agree that people in existing housing should benefit from the cost-effective flood protection provided by sustainable urban drainage schemes, and will he agree to a comprehensive retrofit programme so that they can do so?

Mr Pickles:
The hon. Lady’s question is based on a false premise. I have not criticised the Environment Agency, whose staff are doing an excellent job. Merely expressing doubts about one aspect of the agency’s approach in the Somerset levels hardly qualifies as a criticism. The Under-Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the hon. Member for North Cornwall (Dan Rogerson) informs me that the very regulations that she seeks will be laid in April, and I hope that she will volunteer to serve on the relevant Delegated Legislation Committee.

Stephen Gilbert (St Austell and Newquay) (LD):
Cornwall faces a repair bill in the tens of millions of pounds, and it will take months to put right the damage that the storms have caused. Will my right hon. Friend assure the House that when claims are made under the Bellwin scheme, they will be expedited as quickly as possible?

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend is absolutely right about the battering that the coast of Cornwall has received. The decision I announced last week on the changes to the Bellwin formula—the first time in 30 years that we have changed the threshold—was made specifically to help Cornwall. I look forward to working with him and the county council to ensure it is compensated for the enormous effort it has put in.

Chris Ruane (Vale of Clwyd) (Lab):
For every £1 spent on flood defence, there is an £8 return. In the last year of the Labour Government, capital flood defence spending was £371 million. The following year, it was cut by this Government by £87 million, then £115 million, £94 million, £53 million and £35 million. Will the Secretary of State take this opportunity to apologise to the people of Rhyl, St Asaph, Somerset levels, Dawlish and the Thames valley for the £400 million of costly capital cuts that have totally backfired and will cost this country billions?

Mr Pickles:
The hon. Lady—[Laughter.] I would never mistake the hon. Gentleman for a lady. I am so sorry.

We need to look at the straightforward arithmetic. In their last five years the Labour Government spent £2.7 billion. We will be spending £3.1 billion—a lot more money. They had added to it in 2007, so theirs is a boosted figure that is well below ours.

Mr David Davis (Haltemprice and Howden) (Con):
The misery of the current floods is confined to one region of the country, but the fear of flooding extends to all regions of the country, particularly those that have suffered floods before. My right hon. Friend is right to commend and make the most of the emergency services and the help being given by them. It is, however, undoubtedly true that the best way to deal with flooding is prevention, not cure. For example, it will cost £200 million to £300 million to reinstall the Humber defences. That sounds like a lot of money until the day after a storm surge or major flood, so will my right hon. Friend make it clear to the Treasury that, unlike the previous Government, it should not go in for being penny wise and pound foolish?

Mr Pickles:
I am very familiar with the area to which my right hon. Friend refers, which has a sizeable proportion of holdings below sea level. I know the nature of the river and the historic floods that have taken place around Beverley and across to the constituency of my hon. Friend the Member for Thirsk and Malton (Miss McIntosh) towards York. People have suffered from flooding there in the past and he is right that there is a fear of floods. For years afterwards, people who have been flooded worry every time it rains. It is almost like being burgled: it is not just cleaning up the mess, but the psychological damage. The Government have a responsibility to ensure that residents are kept dry and that we do all we can to alleviate flooding. As my right hon. Friend rightly points out, we were playing, very heavily, catch-up.

John Cryer (Leyton and Wanstead) (Lab):
Will the Secretary of State now answer the question from my hon. Friend the Member for Hayes and Harlington (John McDonnell) and tell us what assessment he has made of making flood attendance a statutory duty on fire services? If he has not made that assessment, will he do so and then report back to the House?

Mr Pickles:
That is contained within the Civil Contingencies Act 2004, with the local resilience forum. With enormous respect to the hon. Gentleman, I saw in Croydon what I have seen at all major incidents: a number of services working together very well. The local resilience forum, as I saw today in Croydon, is an exemplar of the way to do things. Making this a statutory duty would not help anything and would not make a single community safer.

Nicholas Soames (Mid Sussex) (Con):
As my right hon. Friend wisely reflected, it is the exceptional weather that is responsible for flooding. Does he agree that, in the end, the forces of unstoppable nature humble us all, as we have faced the wettest January since 1767? As he rightly says, the time for review will come later, but does he agree that one lesson, as outlined wisely by my hon. Friend the Member for Newbury (Richard Benyon), is that land management needs to be looked at again in the different areas where floods have taken place?

Mr Pickles:
As always, my right hon. Friend is correct. We cannot have conventional orthodoxy, and neither should we replace one inflexible orthodoxy with another. We have only to stand close to these rivers, some of which were previously gentle and meandering, or to see that monstrous gap in Brunel’s railway to see the sheer strength of nature. Conventional orthodoxy has to be re-examined, and instead we need bespoke solutions for each area of the country.

Angela Smith (Penistone and Stocksbridge) (Lab):
When he got the job, the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs removed from his Department’s list of priorities an intention

“to prepare for and manage risk from flood and other environmental emergencies”.

Does the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government agree that this was a terrible error of judgment on the part of his colleague?

Mr Pickles:
My right hon. Friend replaced an enormous, overbearing bureaucratic system with an emphasis on some key issues, one of which was flood defences. As a consequence, we are spending more on this than the Labour party did in its last five years in office, and no matter how much the Opposition huff and puff, they cannot get away from that basic fact.

Philip Davies (Shipley) (Con):
Will the Secretary of State reconsider his comments about overseas aid? When natural disasters take place in other parts of the world, the Government are quick to provide financial assistance to people who suffer, yet it appears that the provision of financial assistance to people in this country has been much slower. At a time when money is tight, the overseas aid budget is the only one not under financial pressure. If people need help and aid, should the aid budget not be there to support them? The Government should not treat people abroad more favourably than people at home.

Mr Pickles:
The Prime Minister has made it absolutely clear that we will spend and do whatever it takes to ensure that our communities feel safe from flooding. I recognise that my hon. Friend has a distinguished record on this matter, but I do not agree with him—I hope he will forgive me—on this occasion. I think it is possible to deal with overseas problems. I do not think that this great island nation achieved anything by looking inwards.

Mike Gapes (Ilford South) (Lab/Co-op):
Last year, the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, in response to a question from me about whether the Thames barrier could be overwhelmed in 100 years or 10 years, said:

“We have begun preliminary investigations of the prospects of long-term flooding.”—[Official Report, 16 May 2013; Vol. 563, c. 781.]

Have those preliminary investigations come to any conclusions, and what will be done about it, given the threat to the Thames barrier from climate change and other issues?

Mr Pickles:
We have deployed the Thames barrier several times in recent weeks, and it has proved remarkably effective at protecting London and some of the islands in the upper Thames. We are confident that it will continue to play a massively important part in the defence of London well beyond the foreseeable future.

Sir Tony Baldry (Banbury) (Con):
The hearts of those of us whose homes, communities and constituencies have not been flooded go out to those of our neighbours whose homes or constituencies have been. In the interests of community solidarity, could the Government not take the lead in setting up a charitable fund to which we and our constituents can contribute to support those who are under-insured, uninsured or in some other difficulty? That way we could show some solidarity and deal with these personal, human tragedies, rather than using this occasion, as some are, to score points?

Mr Pickles:
That is exactly the kind of attitude that makes the Chamber a worthwhile place, rising above petty politics. A number of charities are offering help. The Under-Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, my hon. Friend the Member for Great Yarmouth (Brandon Lewis), met a number of co-ordinating groups, but I accept the criticism—perhaps I should apologise again—that we have not done enough to signpost them. We will ensure that there are good signposts to these excellent voluntary organisations to help people in distress.

Ian Lucas (Wrexham) (Lab):
May I invite the Secretary of State, if he has not already done so, to view Friday’s edition of “Newsnight”, which showed the powerful impact of the flooding in Somerset on individuals? When will he give us a report on the impact of climate change on these events? That is an important determinant of present policy, and we must assess the impact of present policy on the future.

Mr Pickles:
Sadly, I missed Friday’s “Newsnight”, but I will do my best to pick it up on iPlayer. With regard to climate change, the best advice I have received is that the flooding probably has something to do with climate change. That is not necessarily the case—some of it may be the result of changing patterns—but the effects that we have to deal with are the same. I have no doubt that as part of the process of looking at how we can improve the response of the Government and the Environment Agency, we will consider that and give the hon. Gentleman, who asks a very sensible question, that kind of outlook.

Sarah Newton (Truro and Falmouth) (Con):
The Prime Minister has shown decisive leadership in dealing with the here and now. Will my right hon. Friend do the same by calling on BT and other phone companies to ensure that they provide a priority service to reconnect vulnerable elderly people who live alone and whose lives depend on their having a working phone?

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend makes a reasonable point. I will make those representations. Looking at the local resilience forum, I have noticed that people have a good idea where those who are vulnerable live, and I saw examples of people working together to make sure that someone who has not been about for a few days is checked up on, but that in no way diminishes my hon. Friend’s point, and I will pass on her remarks to BT and other telephone providers.

Diana Johnson (Kingston upon Hull North) (Lab):
Support for individuals and families is vital when they are at risk of flooding or they have been flooded. In Hull in 2007 the National Flood Forum charity did excellent work, providing practical assistance both before and after families found themselves flooded out. Is there any additional money for the National Flood Forum to provide such assistance on the huge scale that it faces now?

Mr Pickles:
We are working closely with the forum. As the hon. Lady suggests, it is doing a terrific job. I do not know about levels of funding, but clearly, if it is taking on additional work for us, we do not want it to be out of pocket.

Richard Harrington (Watford) (Con):
What plans do the Government have to provide an assessment of local authorities’ plans for flood prevention in the years to come, particularly asking Hertfordshire what plans it has to stop the River Colne flooding and causing disruption to my constituents?

Mr Pickles:
Local plans are fed in through the local resilience forum to our teams. One thing that has been clear in dealing with all these emergencies is that there have been pretty well worked out plans. We have found it a lot easier when we are dealing with the worries about the Thames valley that a well established pattern is in place. For example, a number of authorities have what they call flood ambassadors, who will liaise individually with individual houses and offer them support. But I will look specifically at my hon. Friend’s constituency.

Chris Bryant (Rhondda) (Lab):
Much of the land on which this Parliament is seated is reclaimed land. Indeed, King Canute was the first king to build anything here at all, so would it not be a fine tribute to parliamentary tradition if we were all to unite around building full resilience for the future, rather than permanently bickering every two or three years about what happened last week?

Mr Pickles:
I knew it would happen at some stage in my parliamentary career, but it came a little sooner than I thought: I absolutely agree with the hon. Gentleman.

Duncan Hames (Chippenham) (LD):
The Environment Agency staff, some brand new flood defences and, indeed, those on loan from Bristol city council were a welcome presence in Bradford-on-Avon this weekend. We would like to record our thanks to them. Will the Minister show the same resolve as we have seen in learning the lessons from the floods at Christmas time in taking preventive measures in all the locations that have been affected by floods this week, not just those on the levels?

Mr Pickles:
Of course, and I am very happy that the beautiful town of Bradford-on-Avon has received those additional flood prevention measures. The number of demountables that we have been able to get out has been something of a record, and I have seen them in operation and how effective they are. Of course it is right that we must learn from the past, not be frightened to apologise and ensure that communities are protected from flood water, even though these have been exceptional events.

Paul Flynn (Newport West) (Lab):
Why on this problem, as with all others, do the Government first blame the last Government, then the European Union and then the civil service? Will the Secretary of State tell us on what precise date the Government will take responsibility for their own conduct and cuts? When will he answer the claim by the chairman of the UK Statistics Authority that last week they fiddled the figures?

Mr Pickles:
It is certainly not those on the Government Benches who are seeking to make political capital from this or engage in some kind of blame game. I am not entirely sure what we got out of this afternoon, but I can tell the hon. Gentleman that there are a lot of people working extremely hard right now to keep him and his constituents warm and dry.

Sir Peter Luff (Mid Worcestershire) (Con):
When it comes to advice on flooding from the Environment Agency, is not the real problem that it has too often been ignored by local authorities and the Planning Inspectorate, leading to inappropriate development that makes flooding worse?

Mr Pickles:
I know that my hon. Friend has had some particular problems. I looked carefully at the figures for building where there was an acute risk of flooding, and I am delighted to tell him that the number of buildings in high-risk areas is at an all-time low. I am also pleased to say that where there have been objections from, say, the Environment Agency, they have been adhered to on 99.3% of occasions.

Geraint Davies (Swansea West) (Lab/Co-op):
As the former chair of Flood Risk Management Wales, charged with adapting Wales to climate change in respect of flood risk management and flood systems, may I ask the Secretary of State why he has failed to apply for EU solidarity funding, which gave this country £162 million in 2007 and has given another 23 countries £3.5 billion since 2002? Is it because he is against European money because he is prejudiced or is it because he thinks there is a greater priority for investment than flood risk management for devastated communities? They are upset in Somerset—very upset.

Mr Pickles:
I answered this the last time I appeared in the House. The reason is that there is a threshold of €3.7 billion to get over, and even should we get over the excitement of getting over the threshold to get the EU money, the way the system works means we would have to pay most of it back.

Nick Herbert (Arundel and South Downs) (Con):
My constituency has experienced some river flooding, but it has not been as severe as that in other areas. However, there are particular problems with surface water flooding in the local villages, including the very unpleasant effects of foul water and overflowing sewerage systems. A substantial amount of new housing is proposed in those areas, at a level that local authorities consider to be unsustainable. Can my right hon. Friend assure me that in setting housing numbers, local authorities will be able to take into account the adequacy of the infrastructure to support new housing, so that the current problems do not become worse in the future?

Mr Pickles:
My right hon. Friend has conducted a long campaign in this regard, and he has made a number of very reasonable points. I think that such decisions must be made on the basis of scientific fact. The rising level of groundwater will continue to cause problems in my right hon. Friend’s constituency, my constituency and, indeed, most constituencies until well into June, even if from now on things start to shine.

Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab):
The Environment Agency says that last year it allocated £400,000 for dredging in the Somerset levels, which is the maximum level that Treasury rules permit, but that other Government agencies and partner bodies such as local authorities were not able to “match contribute” towards the £4 million total cost of the scheme. Given the Secretary of State’s leadership role in local government, may I ask when he was made aware of its inability to contribute? May I also ask what representations he made to the Chancellor with the aim of bringing about a change in the Treasury rules?

Mr Pickles:
That is why I apologised to the people of Somerset, and that is why the Under-Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, my hon. Friend the Member for North Cornwall (Dan Rogerson), insisted on starting the dredging last autumn in order to demonstrate its efficacy. Sadly, however, the turbulent weather arrived before that excellent study could be completed, but we now know that we shall start to dredge, and we shall start to dredge in earnest.

David Morris (Morecambe and Lunesdale) (Con):
Is my right hon. Friend aware that the last Government stripped the “hold the line” flood defence systems criteria from 10 to five in 2009? Will he please look into that, in order to prevent more flooding in coastal areas such as my constituency?

Mr Pickles:
I did note that, but I did not want this to be a partisan exchange, which is not the attitude of the Labour party—I did not want to criticise the Labour party. [Interruption.] My hon. Friend the Under-Secretary of State has just reminded me that we will look at bespoke patterns of support that will enable us to ameliorate the effects of flooding, and to ensure that people feel safe in their own homes.

Mr Speaker:
Mr Wayne David.

Wayne David (Caerphilly) (Lab):
Thank you for the sigh of confidence that you gave before calling me, Mr Speaker.

Everyone in the House would agree that we need a united Government response to this crisis. How does the Secretary of State respond to suggestions that there is a damaging Cabinet rift between him and the Environment Secretary?

Mr Pickles:
I think that you spoke for the whole House with that sigh, Mr Speaker. Let me make it absolutely clear that the Environment Secretary and I are two peas in a pod. We are two brothers from a different mother. We speak on a regular basis. I am the mere custodian of his wishes, and I look forward fervently to the day when he stands at this Dispatch Box and responds to the hon. Gentleman.

Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes) (Con):
Devon contains a longer road network than any other local authority area in the country, and anyone travelling there will see the devastation that the flood waters are causing. Will the Secretary of State recognise that later this week, and give extra assistance to Devon?

Mr Pickles:
We are offering extra assistance, and we will continue to do so. I think that we must accept, because of the nature of the weather, that we will see exceptional turbulence and disruption to transport in the region. Obviously we need to repair the rail system and make it safe, but we also need to provide alternative ways of getting about, which is why we have laid on extra coaches and the like. Once it stops raining, Devon will be a terrific place to visit, and a terrific place in which to set up a business.

Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East) (Lab):
Obviously the immediate priority has got to be to help the people in Somerset and elsewhere who are living in an absolutely desperate situation at the moment, but in the longer term—and following on from the very interesting answer the Secretary of State gave to the right hon. Member for Mid Sussex (Nicholas Soames)—how will the Government use the common agricultural policy direct payments budget and the Environment Agency’s maintenance budget to ensure long-term flood protection and to look at things like land management issues?

Mr Pickles:
I cannot tell the hon. Lady when the consultation finishes, but we are in the middle of the process of doing exactly that. If the hon. Lady wants to make a contribution she could write to the Under-Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, my hon. Friend the Member for North Cornwall and that will be taken into consideration in the review and consultation.

Andrew Percy (Brigg and Goole) (Con):
As I keep reminding the House, when the rivers Aire, Ouse and Trent and the Dutch river and the Humber estuary flooded hundreds of my constituents’ homes in December, due to international events we may not have got the media attention, but at least we avoided becoming a political football. At that time we were very well supported by some very dedicated Environment Agency staff. That said, however, local farmers and the drainage boards are desperate for a change in the way in which we manage river catchments in this country so that we can have more localised solutions. May I urge the Secretary of State to ensure that happens after this flooding is finished?

Mr Pickles:
I know from my discussions with the Environment Secretary that he has very strong views about this matter, because often local people know and understand individual culverts and watercourses better than other authorities, albeit that that authority might be benign, efficient and full of very good people. The point my hon. Friend highlights must be taken into consideration in the long-term review.

Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and Penarth) (Lab/Co-op):
Communities in my constituency, particularly along the Penarth coastline, have also been affected by these unprecedented events in recent weeks, albeit not, thankfully, to the extent we have seen elsewhere in Wales or, indeed, in the south-west and the Thames valley. Can the Secretary of State please assure the House that he has, and will continue to have, close co-operation with Welsh Ministers, Welsh local authorities and Natural Resources Wales given that climate change, wind, waves and rain respect no boundaries?

Mr Pickles:
Absolutely. Of course, our great nations are joined together and what happens on the river Severn has a very big impact. I can give the hon. Gentleman that assurance unequivocally.

Mr Nick Gibb (Bognor Regis and Littlehampton) (Con):
My right hon. Friend will be aware that in addition to high rainfall, the people of Pagham in my constituency also face problems from the sea, where the growth of the Pagham harbour spit has led to massive erosion of the shingle beach fronting hundreds of properties. Will he ask one of the Ministers from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs to come to Pagham to see the very real danger this is presenting and to help us secure the funding and the permissions we need to cut a channel through the spit before it leads to the loss of people’s homes?

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend is talking about a very beautiful part of the world. I am sure DEFRA Ministers will come and visit, but I was rather hoping in the not too distant future to come and visit myself, because he raises an important matter. The amount of shingle and the like that has gone is truly breathtaking.

Mr Laurence Robertson (Tewkesbury) (Con):
The Secretary of State is right to focus on the areas he has discussed, but may I inform him that when I left my constituency this morning three of the four roads into the town of Tewkesbury were cut off, and with further heavy rainfall expected this week we expect that, sadly, a number of houses may be flooded, so will he bear us in mind as well as all the other areas he understandably has to concentrate on?

Mr Pickles:
I certainly will. As I said to my hon. Friend the last time I spoke at the Dispatch Box, I remember very vividly a visit to his constituency in the summer floods of 2007, I think, and the devastating effect on local businesses and a local public house. He more than anybody understands the effect repeated flooding has on communities and the psychological damage it does. Indeed, the fate of Tewkesbury and neighbouring communities bears heavily on the mind of the Government.

Tessa Munt (Wells) (LD):
The European Union Commissioner responsible for these matters has made it clear that regional disaster funding is available, with no minimum limit. The Government can define the size of the affected region, and the funding can be made available provided that serious and lasting damage has occurred, that there have been repercussions for economic stability and living conditions in the region and that 50% of people living there are affected. Does the Secretary of State acknowledge that Somerset clearly qualifies for such funding, and will he ask his colleagues at DEFRA to apply for it without delay?

Mr Pickles:
The Under-Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, my hon. Friend the Member for North Cornwall has just volunteered to meet the hon. Lady, and I am sure that—

Mr Speaker:
Order. We wish to see the Secretary of State’s face, looking at us all fully rather than just at those on his own Benches. He has a habit of gyrating around; let us see the man’s face.

Mr Pickles:
I apologise. I have always felt that those on my own Benches scrubbed up rather well, and it is uplifting to the spirit to look at them.

As I have said, my hon. Friend the Under-Secretary has agreed to meet the hon. Member for Wells (Tessa Munt) to discuss that matter, and I am sure that those deliberations will be worth while.

Mr Crispin Blunt (Reigate) (Con):
I understand that the Secretary of State will be in touch with my right hon. Friend the Member for Banbury (Sir Tony Baldry) shortly. The Secretary of State will be aware that a bankrupt country would find it much more difficult to defend itself, and it is to this Government’s credit that they managed marginally to increase flood defence funding on coming into office. However, the long-term investment strategy put out by the Environment Agency in 2009 made it clear that we were going to have to almost double our investment in flood defences. Will my right hon. Friend and his colleagues make that point forcefully to the Treasury?

Mr Pickles:
The Treasury is taking an enormous interest in the promises that Ministers are making from the Dispatch Box. Even when representatives of the Treasury are not physically in the room, their presence is always felt.

Jake Berry (Rossendale and Darwen) (Con):
Will the Secretary of State ensure that local Environment Agency workers have the ability to team up with farmers, particularly to work on catchment area solutions such as tree planting? Will he also ensure that the agency takes some of the reported £2.4 million that it has spent on public relations services and puts it into the Rossendale valley to prevent flooding on the River Irwell, the River Darwen and the River Ogden?

Mr Pickles:
Many hon. Members have made that point about local solutions. We are looking for an integrated approach from local drainage boards, local authorities and the Environment Agency to deal with these problems. It is often the people on the ground who understand the problems better.

Neil Parish (Tiverton and Honiton) (Con):
The flooding on the Somerset levels during the past six weeks has destroyed homes, farmland and wildlife habitat, and I welcome the Secretary of State’s commitment to look into dredging. For 20 years, successive Governments have not done so, and have not dealt with the problem.

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend has been a powerful advocate of dredging, and that was the principal reason why I felt it was appropriate to apologise to the people of Somerset for us ignoring their views. As hon. Members on both sides of the House have pointed out, however, there is no single solution that fits everywhere. Dredging there would be a sensible thing to do, for example, but dredging on the River Kennet would not be sensible. We are therefore looking for bespoke solutions in particular areas.

Andrew Griffiths (Burton) (Con):
I congratulate the Secretary of State on his robust management of this crisis, and on focusing on what matters—namely, helping those people who are knee-deep in water. Given that the River Parrett has not been dredged since 2005, does he not find the response from those on the Opposition Benches a bit hypocritical?

Mr Pickles:
I am never surprised by those on the Labour Benches. It is true that I take a robust view on this and sometimes may have erred on the wrong side of robust, but I believe that the things I say in public should be those that I believe in private. I certainly believe that someone whose house is flooded, someone who is worried about their future employment or someone who is worried about their communities wants to know whether the Government are going to get on and deal with the job, or are they going to bicker on pointless procedural points?

Steve Brine (Winchester) (Con):
A great number of my constituents in place such as Kings Worthy, Twyford and Winchester have had a truly miserable weekend. I met people with very young children and very elderly people who have been in tears this weekend, and it brings home the real human cost of this, not the petty politics that we are sometimes seeing today. The Secretary of State will understand the sheer helplessness that many of my constituents feel right now. What advice does he have for those who are rightly concerned about the public health threats that will arise if flood waters around their homes persist for a long period?

Mr Pickles:
We are, of course, not only constantly monitoring the rise of the flood waters, but analysing what is within them, with a view to public health. I congratulate my hon. Friend on being out and about with his constituents, as I am sure everybody here will be. One thing that has become very clear through this is that people in public office, be it Members of Parliament or councillors, have taken a considerable lead, not just in pressing for resources or offering help, but in rolling their sleeves up and getting involved—they should be commended.

Neil Carmichael (Stroud) (Con):
First, I wish to thank all the people in my constituency in the agencies and services who have done so much on prevention and risk-management. In order effectively to sharpen the focus on flood defence perhaps there should be a strategic review, so does the Secretary of State agree that it needs to be reinforced and informed by strong local input?

Mr Pickles:
I entirely agree with my hon. Friend that strong local input is immensely important. Although authorities from nearby cities or from London can have a grand strategic view, local people know how the rivers and culverts flow, and are in a position to offer good advice.

Stephen Barclay (North East Cambridgeshire) (Con):
The Environment Agency is spending £18 million on waterlogging some of the best farmland in the country in my constituency to create a habitat for birds, in a scheme due to start in a couple of months. Will my right hon. Friend examine the resource allocation within the Environment Agency, because it is not just dredging, but wider river maintenance that matters in areas such as the Cambridgeshire fens?

Mr Pickles:
I am somewhat conflicted on this, as when I am not here I am somewhat of a twitcher and I was very much looking forward to the particular habitat my hon. Friend was talking about. He makes a reasonable point: we now need to look at priorities. We need to consider things not only in terms of where people live, but in terms of ensuring that we are able to produce sustainably the products from agriculture that this nation so desperately needs, and so reduce our imports and dependency on elsewhere. He makes a very good point.

Eric Ollerenshaw (Lancaster and Fleetwood) (Con):
The residents of Fleetwood are extremely grateful to the Government for the £60 million-plus they agreed in the summer to provide much-needed new sea defences. But the residents of Thurnham, just along the coast, are being told by the Environment Agency that it will not maintain their sea defences beyond 30 years because of Treasury rules about the valuation of farming land. As part of the Secretary of State’s long-term plan on flooding, can he get the Treasury to re-examine these rules?

Mr Pickles:
The Under-Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the hon. Member for North Cornwall (Dan Rogerson) is going to be very busy, because he would like to speak to my hon. Friend the Member for Lancaster and Fleetwood (Eric Ollerenshaw) on precisely this issue. I would not be flippant and say that 30 years is a long time and things can change, but this set of storms has been a big wake-up call, not just for government and the Environment Agency, but for the nation as a whole, and we need to make some valuable judgments about where it is appropriate to have defences.

Dr Thérèse Coffey (Suffolk Coastal) (Con):
I am sure that my right hon. Friend will join me in thanking the volunteers from Halesworth who proactively filled sandbags and put them out along the thoroughfare and outside houses on Friday night. More importantly, although a tragedy is happening in the Thames valley and the south-west, there is a silver lining, as we once again have an opportunity to reflect on the strategy on making space for water and the principles on which the Flood and Water Management Act 2010 was founded. Will he assure me that a review will involve a consideration of the flood, water and habitat directives, and that there will be a recognition that some of the things we have to do are, frankly, bonkers, while common-sense stuff is being left aside?

Mr Pickles:
I assure my hon. Friend that we will consider all matters relating to flooding and the storms, whether that is the habitat directive or questions of global warming, but I hope she will forgive us that, right now, we need to get on with the process of making communities feel safe.

Mr Graham Stuart (Beverley and Holderness) (Con):
We had a wake-up call in 2000, when the then Prime Minister made promises to MPs in No. 10 Downing street. That happened again in 2007 and it is happening now, so the one question remaining for the House is how we put in place a long-term framework that will mean that, when the political spotlight moves on, flooding does not drop down the list of priorities, as has been the case under successive Governments.

Mr Pickles:
My hon. Friend makes a firm point, but these storms have been so dramatic, widespread and all-encompassing that the coalition Government’s resolve is that we are determined not to flunk the decisions and make the mistakes of the past.

Christopher Pincher (Tamworth) (Con):
The River Mease in my constituency has regularly flooded near Elford, Haunton and Harlaston, partly because the Environment Agency, with other agencies, has refused to allow farmers to clear and manage their watercourses. May I echo others by asking my right hon. Friend to encourage the practitioners of conventional orthodoxy to pay close attention to the concerns and advice of farmers, who are as expert at managing their fields and watercourses as anyone in the EA?

Mr Pickles:
We have looked to farmers and those in similar professions to help us out during this whole process and their local knowledge has often made the difference. As I have said from the Dispatch Box, my right hon. Friend the Environment Secretary believes in that principle passionately, and I believe that good management is operated, if only by acting as an agency for the agency.

Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire) (Con):
Does my right hon. Friend agree that if the Environment Agency were subject to a duty to take account of economic growth such as that proposed in the Deregulation Bill, it would have a welcome opportunity to redefine, refocus and improve its long-term policies and direction?

Mr Pickles:
I am sure that many in the Environment Agency, which is made up of excellent people, will have listened with great interest to my hon. Friend and may well be taking those wise words into account……….End…..
4.43 pm Afghanistan

The Secretary of State for Defence (Mr Philip Hammond):
With permission, Mr Speaker, I would like to make a statement on Afghanistan. At the end of this year we will have completed our combat mission in Afghanistan, so today is an opportunity not just to pay tribute to the courage and sacrifice of the men and women of our armed forces, but to reflect on why the mission matters and what we have achieved so far and to look forward to the completion of Operation Herrick.

It is well over a decade since September 11, but the events of that day still have the power to shock. The operation that began later in 2001, and continues to this day, has been hard fought and has cost us dear, but the cost of doing nothing and abandoning Afghanistan to the terrorists and insurgents would have been much greater. Thankfully, in today’s Afghanistan al-Qaeda is a shadow of its former self, and we are all safer as a consequence.

Since the start of operations in 2001, 447 members of our armed forces have made the ultimate sacrifice, two of them since my right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for International Development made the last quarterly statement on Afghanistan to the House on 17 October. I know that the whole House will want to join me in paying tribute to the extraordinary courage and commitment of those individuals, and of their families, who have to live daily with the loss of their loved ones, and of the many hundreds more who have suffered life-changing injuries. Their sacrifice will never be forgotten. They have protected our national security by helping the Afghans take control of theirs. Working with our international security assistance force partners and the Afghans themselves, they have ensured that Afghanistan is neither a safe haven, nor a launch pad for terrorists who despise everything we stand for and seek to destroy our way of life.

The security situation in Afghanistan today represents very real progress since 2003. When the campaign started, the Afghan national security forces did not exist. Today they are leading operations, protecting the population and taking on the Taliban. For example, as part of the security operation for the Loya Jirga in November, the ANSF established a layered security zone a week before the event. It was a complex, large-scale operation in which all elements of the ANSF co-operated. The results were impressive: 6 tonnes of home-made explosives were interdicted and the event ran safely and smoothly.

A major operation in December spanning Kandahar, Zabul and Daykundi provinces, and involving over 4,000 ANSF personnel, had a similarly successful outcome. More than 250 villages were cleared of insurgents and more than 600 improvised explosive devices were destroyed, with few casualties sustained. The Afghan air force flew resupply missions and evacuated casualties during the operation, with ISAF support limited to advice, intelligence and a small number of air support operations.

The ANSF have almost reached their surge strength target of 352,000 army, police and air force personnel, and between them they are leading 97% of all security operations and carrying out over 90% of their own training. While work continues on professionalising the forces and addressing high attrition levels, their ability to provide security for the Afghan people and maintain the momentum generated by a coalition of 50 nations remains a significant achievement—a source of pride to the Afghan forces themselves and a source of confidence to the civilian population.

As the ANSF have grown in stature, so our role in Afghanistan has evolved from leading combat operations to training, advising and assisting the ANSF. Today, UK forces are primarily engaged in mentoring their Afghan counterparts, providing world-class training and support and undertaking our own draw-down and redeployment activity. The progress of the ANSF is helping to drive the pace of transition, enabling us to meet our target of reducing our military footprint in Afghanistan to 5,200, down by nearly half from this time last year, when there were around 9,000 UK personnel in theatre.

As the nature of the mission has changed and the Afghans have taken the lead responsibility for security across central Helmand’s three districts, we have significantly reduced the number of British bases, from 137 at the height of our engagement to 13 last January and just four plus Camp Bastion today. Our draw-down trajectory will reduce our footprint to one forward observation post and the main operating base at Camp Bastion following the elections. Subsequently, as we enter the final phase of the Herrick campaign, the UK will combine its headquarters at Camp Bastion with those of the US Marine Corps.

Our efforts have not just focused on building the necessary security apparatus. The UK-led provincial reconstruction team, currently operating from Camp Bastion ahead of the completion of its mission next month, has helped deliver real progress in Helmand. Today, 80% of the local population can access health care within 10 km of their home, improved security and infrastructure conditions have meant the reopening of local bazaars and the reinvigoration of the local economy, 260 km of roads have been added to the existing network since 2012, and we have seen the completion of the paving of the strategically important Route 611 in Helmand, a project funded jointly by the UK and the United Arab Emirates.

Ordinary Afghans have seen the quality of their life improve significantly, and we can be proud of the role we have played in making this possible.

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* If it feels right, it is [and vise versa]

Johanna don’t like my very first design.

I became sat here, having placed myself intentionally in the available in lounge of my mum’s level in place of inside my usual place saved within my mum’s small cubby area working on this computer.

I happened to be sat here within my mum’s eternal old pine table, appreciating catching a glimpse of Johanna as she flitted about, beguilingly pushing my mama’s ancient hoover all over level in front of the lady, smiling beguilingly whenever our paths crossed [as she constantly does].

[Johanna calls me You-liun, whenever she says hello if you ask me.]

Seeing me drawing within dining table, Johanna – Yo-hanna – had come far from the woman hoover for a second together with walked to be beside myself within head of the table to consider what I had been performing.

"I do not such as your drawing", she’d thought to me personally straight away, instinctively repulsed.

"It has bad energy!" she’d stated. "You needs to be positive!!" she’d then coaxed in a caring, correcting-motherly sort of a way [she has a teenage son back Poland she dates back is with every 6 days after the woman 6-week intensive, money-gathering work stint in the UK).

Johanna had demonstrably believed that I became home on unfavorable much too a great deal.

"It’s a poster for economics", I’d appealed, attempting to lose the duty for the nasty grey picture I would only produced.

[I’m smiling today when I write this – I’m right back indeed there, drawing at table on Johanna-Friday, watching Johanna flit about, the kitchen radio playing gladly in the background…. She really causes my mum’s level an extra special happy location to inhabit – I adore her for it.]

That grey, obnoxious image of outrageous expectations and cruel threats provided an individual’s certain failure to do, had been impressed from records I would just made about performance management, and the ones appeared from me personally reflecting and wanting to unpack that bloody JCP’s shoddy treatment of me and people like me, in addition to callous control regime that it’s all created away from – created from pure, black colored, negative power and hate.

The thing is I experienced just sketched down a menu of alternate decision-behaviour-control-return performance management habits the other night.

There were the positive, loving-parent and accountable adult, happier types.

But there were additionally a couple which had made me personally feel unwell to your core [I would labelled all of them Abusive therefore the worst one, Psychopathic].

And there was usually the one I’d branded Autistic – we realised which was appropriate right here, too.

Attracting that horrible grey picture to illustrate this idea regarding following day, I would subconsciously fallen regarding the unpleasant, unfavorable scenario as my focus [Im sour and crazy at just what this all way to myself once I remind myself from it all. Composing that page to David Cameron had been intense for me. And current occasions in the news and barrage of gutter politics spewing forth, and my limitless inappropriate therapy, additionally the prolonged …. suffering of my children and close friends…with no end however around the corner — i’m ashamed to acknowledge it, however it *is* hard for me to reduce sometimes! But I need to get all this work out.]

Johanna had seen straight thru Julian’s playful small mask.

She’d seen my residual stress in her own first glimpse of my face plus in that horrible grey picture that I became busily attracting [although she had no clue at that time the reason why I happened to be attracting it and exactly what set behind it all].

You notice: Johanna has *insight*.

I experienced already been intending to make that nasty grey picture my aesthetic summary of exactly how NOT to allow things work, in our little community of good Britain.

But Johanna is simply what the doctor bought.

Just bellowing hellfire and damnation from your pulpit, pretending becoming the scariest control freak into the area – wanting to control by worry and force – is never the very best way: it’s just too damned negative!!

And now, look: here I happened to be about to get it done myself!!

[don’t bitch and blame – concentrate on the good and empower, Julian!]

I have the Before plus the After visions in both head when attempting to make it clear to myself what visual appearance like and what I need move from, so [and, as though by black magic, to invisibly please Johanna and so to help make myself feel great about myself inside work in realizing that this could have pleased her] I tossed myself into the second – that is where that sunny image of a cheerfully messy however industrious youth bedroom and its always-open home to its interesting person globe beckoning beyond the maternal threshold all originated in.

[lego collectively had been our thing, in the home of Julian].

I really’d drawn that happier picture this day, Sunday, filled with color and sunlight, really proudly and cheerfully sat once more here inside my mum’s old dining table over breakfast today – driven when I then had been by my sight of some thing demonstrably a great deal, far better; desiring urgently to really make it genuine.

Johanna’s way.

We see great overall performance administration – a questionnaire organised behaviour control – as the best thing.

Nevertheless i am aware you’ll want to fit the proper overall performance administration regime off to the right performance administration problem.

Done right, the worth of great overall performance administration to united states is in the energy it affords united states to provide ourselves a substantially much better chance of realising our very own vision of our very own success.

Done it wrong – as some sort of lopsided dogma beast – and everybody suffers.

So performance administration must be a well-engineered, measured solution.

Where someone or group think there’s a real possibility of dropping anything of importance to them, thru their potential neglect of efficient control, then there is a need to implement that exact degree of control to make sure that everything executes cheerfully in the end. In this case, more [ie more beneficial] control is A VERY GOOD THING.

I’m labouring this aspect because control has actually a negative rap in some sectors.

Appropriately so.

You blunder in and unwittingly only such as utter the first syllable of word "CON-TR…" many people [like my beloved sibling for instance] explode into hellfire, as a fire-breathing dragon with really bad indigestion.

And appear at myself: i am whingeing-on right here about experience over-controlled and under-served to the level of harm by Big Dave’s "back to the office or no benefits" regime!?

We today see this matter rather clearly:

The word ‘control’ is an undesirable relic of a word from our usually rather trusty English language – it has greatly different definitions in different contexts for each person.

My sister appropriately puts prospects on her behalf dogs whenever she goes out on her everyday puppy walks; and also using their tangible prospects taken off when each is safely situated at the woman neighborhood dog-running park, her puppy menagerie nonetheless just sit indeed there obediently, loyally wagging their particular tails, waiting with great pleasure [daring never to such as fart] unless and until my sibling – their undisputed frontrunner – has given all of them that now really well-rehearsed twitch of these mistress’s eyebrow – the sign this means they are now let-off their particular invisible psychological leashes as they are set free to play because they might [in a controlled fashion].

A more sophisticated and kind-hearted system of performance administration and control, skillfully implemented and preserved. Yes?

Er, No: Big Sis won’t ever take her Little Brother calling what she does that! Accountable dogmanship, sis might need to call it [maybe!?…]

The truth is, I think my sis features a conceptual sunburn issue using entire "control" idea – suggests anything really stupid and upsetting to her i do believe.

I agree: it often can.

In a harmful commitment, when a mean lover might cruelly reject you standard individual nutrition unless and and soon you perform some degrading act to their own self-satisfaction, including.

That would undoubtedly be regarded by most as "controlling" ie "nasty" – but in this scenario the oppressor will be mean to his or her lover in to the discount.

Therefore, yes: it isn’t healthier control. It really is over-control. Bad control. Cruel!

However, particularly in formal task management circles, the systematised use of the term "control" can be really definitely regarded.

Control is seen right here as the whole point of your financial investment in a more elaborate system to guide your whole enterprise – it is the needed business function that is assigned with getting your loved ones’s inspiring eyesight into the future; with making solid plans to achieve that eyesight; with delegating a sufficiency of work to make usage of that program; with making certain its effortlessly used within an organised environment of severe and yet joyful industry; and with the tracking and steerage of all of the that to secure your ultimate success.

[very similar to the 2012 London Olympics!! – brilliant illustration of good control.]

For project managers, control is a no-brainer: if there’s value then there is risk and in case there’s threat then there is a necessity for effective control.

And to provide that efficient control there has to be a healthy performance management regime underpinning all of it – beginning with a reliable plan. Otherwise forget it.

Ie neglect the whole enterprise, after all!

For without correct form of overall performance administration and control, THE ENTERPRISE SHALL FAIL.

So all companies [note: using one’s group of 26 puppies, 14 kitties and the moulting budgerigar out to the local community because of its everyday stroll is also a kind of "enterprise"] all enterprises benefit from a great control regime of some information.

But there is however constantly the yin additionally the yang for them; the fuzzy therefore the concrete; the duties together with freedoms; the unconditional nutrition while the incentives for additional work and large success.

The formal performance management system shall secure our crucial hierarchy of must-haves, however it must provide us a plenty of built-in liberal areas for all our unavoidable unknowns; for new discoveries, as well as all our nice-to-get recommended extras.

In personal settings, certain, there is the need for the casual strong arm around the shoulder when proper, but this must always have a good amount of the I-trust-you-Julian-carry-ons very prominently when you look at the combine.

And extremely, all companies and their particular formalised administration methods must be produced out-of an excellent heart.

[Otherwise what exactly are we all right here for!?]

But this is simply not development to anyone these days.

So just why does it go wrong?

Really, one reason is the fact that the larger an organization gets, the greater amount of you will need to de-skill to afford its size, and the much more you employ low-skilled staff to help keep costs down, the more you’ll want to orchestrate the easiest of tasks. Therefore the more you you will need to pin down everyone else to just these jobs, the even worse everything behaves.

It is bad adequate in "safe" conditions like manufacturing – the source of much professional distress and unrest for all of us for a long time. But when there are men and women being "processed" in place of nuts and bolts – watch out!!

Another unwelcome effect with dimensions are chinese whispers.

Massive federal government organisations according to billion-pound service-provider pyramids delivering immature service designs are affected through the mama of all chinese-whisper syndromes [even when they have the ability to manage to get thier solution design and staffing right on coalface – big if!!] A harsh voice near the top of the pyramid unavoidably becomes the brutalising regime at the end.

My work programme provider office supervisor had been just lapping-up the usage of his favourite word "brutal" to explain his conception associated with the government’s brand new back-to-work regime now-being rushed down their pipes. But he clearly was lacking the insight to realize and recognize the reality: he was area of the evil. He and his bottom-tier government benefit company [a social charity] – hastily set up to fully capture the huge cooking pot of profit being doled out from above – are psychologically one step taken from experiencing morally obligated to be careful.

* within fuzzy dysfunctional pyramid of our own design, no body should blame for their very own immorality.

And this also has just happened in my opinion: Law.

The legal system itself is the best chinese-whisper device previously conceived by guy or beast!

Through time-honoured machinery of Justice and Good national, mankind and financial sanity get elaborated and transmuted into some of the worst types of neighborhood toxins Civilisation features ever seen, via this HUMONGOUS chinese-whisper merry-go-round:

But definitely it all starts perfectly, mind, with…

GENUINE HUMAN AND EXPERT ISSUE for the primary and pushing personal and financial matters regarding the day.

For-instance: a person struggles to keep their task, fails, then he and his whole household becomes distressed, economically and emotionally. Their pals fall after that then the neighbours along with his business associates [whom he never truly got on with but now needs to "network" to look for work, as all the standard vacancy panels are barren] so now community issue is appropriately recognised by those who work in a position to use the essential corrective steps to aid.

Today this is certainly after that beautifully morphed, through time-honoured and delicately honed municipal rehearse into:

INITIAL LAW [where some genuine MP and Civil Servant effort is allocated to dotting all of the civil liberties and crossing all of the cost-effective system-building powers… and while the heady concoction of news and election brownie points for many singing advocates is really on the line]

Like this first Law the Jobseekers Act 1995 [ i am aware: that’s not the original legislation either, but enable me], which begins: "An Act to deliver for a jobseeker’s allowance and also to make other provision to advertise the employment of this unemployed as well as the assistance of people without a settled life style. Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the guidance and consent associated with Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, inside present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the identical, below:"…. Sound’s all jolly great! Yes? Should always be: Look! The Queen’s also put her Good hand upon it!…]

Now the chinese-whisper dry-rot assaults, due to the fact very first layers for this glimmering appropriate iceberg, invisible just underneath the frozen media waterline start to kick in, morphing that first Law into:

AMENDED LAW [where nobody cares and all sorts of manner of cruel twists could possibly get invest from the nod – that is where Georgie Boy extends to ply their evil, along with his most useful buddy, Mr Silent Death, that various other welfare reforming Saint; you realize the only; that leadership failure; that socio-political luminary possessing most of the warm-hearted intellect and charisma of Dr Shipman…. wait a moment!… It *is* Physician Shipman! Well I never!?]

Eg we find this: Shipman’s Welfare Reform Act 2012: "…The level of a prize of universal credit is to be reduced … if a claimant … fails for no-good explanation to adhere to a necessity imposed because of the Secretary of State… [for an interval] not surpassing three-years…"

THREE YEARS!! No food for 3 entire many years!!! Shipman himself got less, did not he!??

Just imagine.. if Great Brit welfare pyramid, by some random analytical anomaly, had just a few chinks with its implementation, assuming some bad souls became sanctioned in error…

Gosh! Just Picture. No cash for three years!… We better do a cashflow spreadsheet to see if it’s any effect on my winter months skiing journey this year… three-years! oh well – the guy just who’d get a sanction most likely deserved it – not well worth delaying the appropriate instrument for the! Most likely, offering a complete raft of Queen’s message things to provide this parliament. Must press on.

Chop chop!

However there is even more, a lot more.

Since this then quietly and sneakily, deeply below the frozen waterline, from all news interest, gets cunningly morphed into:

NATIONAL AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS [where Big Brother Frankenstein is bolted together – including Doctor Shipman’s personal exact and favourite concept of just what "one plate of warmish soup" shall indicate [at most]]

which morphs into:

DWP SYSTEM DESIGNS [no "design" after all in fact – only throw out change after change and lash everything along with big dollops for the welfare IT budget making it at the very least appear "professional"]

And CRITICALLY: that is where the good top guy – that Secretary of State – gets dehumanised and cost-effectively systematised in to the kind of any mean and moronic robot the DWP or any one from it’s 1000 parasitical agencies consider as fit to place into the woman many honourable shoes.

That "Advisor" dealing with you now has actually all capabilities regarding the Queen’s national over you.

The powers to feel pleased; or to sanction you at might.

But capabilities aren’t adequate. Abstract systems require routinised person processes to deploy their particular power thereby applying real social force. For, in a democratic society, all persons [whether he be a beneficial’n or bad’n] shall need because of Process.

Plus a big pyramid system such as this one, where complexity abounds and where operator abilities are particularly difficult to get, crucial [life and demise] Decision Makers shall always require obvious rules and informative guides if they’re to possess any chance of understanding how to relax and play their small part inside entire.

And so, through this careful implementation, we would genuinely aspire to deliver the general system competence that the voting general public truly deserve.

Therefore after that, our glorious system styles today have more morphed into:

JCP DECISION-MAKER GUIDES.

These are very well written today, actually, but totally ignored by the forward line providers who’ve neither read all of them nor passed any multiple-choice test to their content, and who feel compelled to misquote all of them gaily [to protect their power bluff over the claimant] in an unwell benefit centre game of Trivial Pursuit!

[they’ve been immense documents hidden in enormous DWP web pages]

And thus we discover, hidden within these high quality administration marvels [carrying the total, clear appropriate fat of Clause 42.3 Part a. 1 Amendment 4 Part B Item 3c of "The Act"] just a little inconspicuous annex; an easy dining table which fleetingly notifies your decision Maker [and the "customer" too, only if that they had troubled to create a claimant guide] how these justly calculated sanctions are now actually becoming fairly and proportionately metered on:

"… failure to participate with work programme… missed visit… instant sanction… 26 days…. expecting girl… slashed benefit to £6 per 24 hours… healthier adult male…. slashed benefit to………. Nil – no-claim to difficulty; no interim survival payments during attraction……… [we question the length of time the appeal is???… prob only a couple of days… hmmm….] ….. Ah! Appeal…. wait unspecified….. usage of appropriate aid?……………. Nil. Crisis financial loans?……………. banned if sanctioned."

Oh dear.

[so whenever that JCP welcome work desk lady said every person get 60per cent about, she had not been talking the… errrr….. Truth!!?]

Oh gosh: do hope my work programme consultant likes men and women anything like me!!

And then these beautifully engineered quality management guides have morphed into:

JCP FRONT LINE CUSTOMER SUPPORT TREATMENTS [including those warm-hearted customer care high quality posters flanked by those gently smiling protection guards with in-ear walkie talkies…]

DWP Customer Support Treatment.

Document Number: 14-1234-16.b-2013-rev107.46.23-Beta.

Title: JCP consultant "actively jobseeking" client analysis conference.

Process:

1. Make conference [stonewall all consumer requests for personal choice]. In the case consumer declines Advisor’s first convenience,

a. hit F7 [block repayment for past 2-weeks + report any doubt as "available for work" to line supervisor for customer interrogation]. ** note to keyboard operator: take the time to perhaps not press F9 in error

b. notify customer that every his advantage repayments are actually suspended indefinitely; that his advantages might be paid off or cancelled going forwards; and don’t pledge any moment for the next tortured process to perform it really is grim course

c. deploy stonewall "tough love" face

2. need written proof [in a form to fulfill the Advisor, perhaps not the customer].

3. Presume consumer’s guilt additionally the DWP’s 100per cent infallibility of its whole system.

4. Challenge veracity of research delivered aggressively ["tough love" plan analysis, November fifth, 2012].

5. browse secret information links to consumer’s work programme supplier case folder regarding reports regarding the customer’s failure to take part. [do perhaps not disclose WPP reports to client – just because he begs]

6. Upon very first failure noted:

a. hit F9 [block payment for earlier 2-weeks + publish to choice manufacturer waiting line for initial review].

b. notify buyer that their benefit repayments are now actually suspended indefinitely; that his advantages may be paid down or cancelled going forwards; and DO NOT guarantee anytime for the following tortured procedure to complete it really is grim course

c. deploy stonewall "tough love" face

7. Be sure to frustrate any efforts our appreciated buyer makes to complain [eg give him not the right form].

Which finally, deep, deep into the blackness associated with icy depths, all morphs into

WHICH MEANS THAT ROUTINE MAIL-READING OLD BAT, PICKING ON THAT BAD DEFENCELESS NOT-SO-OLD TRAMP TRYING TO REQUIRE THAT NEXT BOWL OF SOUP WHICH HE’S CERTAIN HE’S LEGALLY DUE.

But obviously – let us be fair right here! – MPs were not remiss in investing in that brilliant provision for the rapier-like wrong-righting process, The JCP client Complaint Process; imposing absolutely the the least trouble upon our plucky British Law Protected homeless citizen, should he so decide to phone upon it is perfect support….. did not they!?

To ensure grey old bitch won’t ever see the light of day… A 1-in-a-million opportunity!

Honest!!

In passing, We note there is something else possibly dysfunctional about our legal system we should-be aware of: the idea of the written-in-time legislation is actually invalid. Its tablets-of-stone quality has actually evaporated.

Considering a lot of rules and also regular law amendments – as seen these days with Herr Cameronz unt Herr Oswald’s red-hot machine gun releaze of zee Velfare Reformz – the conventional potential law breaker has not a hope in Hell of understanding ahead of his criminal activity what what the law states actually is! [The same goes for that potential truthful and striving MP squeezing every private benefit out of their "lawful" Westminster costs; or even the Tramp, to know what he IS rightfully entitled to claim for!]

I assume that, for law be effective, regulations should propagate thru the grape vine to embed as time passes and thru many years of cultural inseminations. In that way regulations is mainly effective as an all natural deterrent – type of tacit mind training for the neighborhood all together – kind of a progressive redefinition of the concept of community and Sociable [or anti-sociable] behaviour; so younger Julian gets taught by their goodly mummy Right from Wrong the moment he decides to leave the womb…

Change it every fortnight as Georgie Boy loves to do while the deterrent value of The Law – it’s frightening and numinous reputation from the street – falls to nil; so damaged until all there is certainly left to-do is beef-up Big Brother Frankenstein to have any shred of the possibility of earning the controlled behavior happen used…

Which will need an entire extra raft of lawmaking and system bastardising…..

And some more vast amounts of your fees…

And another reason overall performance control can get defectively wrong is when tunnel vision is permitted to happen.

a hospital tradition seeking to protect it’s cherished ranking for 100per cent appointment success, for example, will systemically falsify its admission stats to demonstrate any bed double-booking it will [the only way to make this happen 100% misconception without incurring unsupportable excess prices] as patient’s fault (as a DNA) in the place of as truthful and organisationally mature evaluation of WFU.

In this, the hospital [a deeply personal charity] has after that neglected the essential well-being of the patients: it’s now systemically "happy" to fail with its main ethical duty!

[happened in my opinion]

Organisations of any sort are not intrinsically capable of *insight*. Tho human being driven, the mankind is all removed out when people work to a very time-managed system.

I do believe all organisations are best viewed as psychopaths. Is regarded with sensible and cautious expert scepticism from their particular beginning.

But this is actually the reverse of what our newly chosen parties would wish us to trust. The incoming government’s huge organisational changes are often beacons of specific success; even though the outgoing institution-bastardising government’s white elephants will always the item of one’s own wicked methods.

Another blunder will be allow organisations in order to become separatist from the communities that they’re likely to provide.

When we are allowed to regard entire classes of men and women as "outsiders" – "foreigners" – we are mentally primed to permit ourselves permission to dehumanise all of them – relieving ourselves of most normal empathy and guilt in harming other individuals. In a war setting by way of example, bombing the Hun and all sorts of his young ones ended up being difficult titty for "it". It’s a normal uneducated homo sapien personal thing, I worry.

But this social phenomenon creeps insidiously into modern-day lifestyle every also readily aswell.

Managing companies doing work for the government tend to be naturally enthusiastic about how they view on their own – as keepers regarding the crown jewels; as defenders against the hoards of "scroungers" banging to their wise company house windows from external. They come to be oblivious into reality which they only have a carer’s task because your plight, their regrettable care-ee!

Quality "Our Consumer is King" posters in this environment are just such squandered report.

There’s no possibility of a real client concern right here.

It is you against them. Those "scroungers" will be the opponent; scum to be exterminated.

This, I now see, may be the root cause of pervading mistreatment in Uk benefit centres these days.

And there is that good undertake desirable social discipline and effective control, "tough love". How about that?

Hard enjoy – Julian’s all-natural family means [sorry, myself kiddlees!!] – is good control, but just in tough and loving configurations; in strive and play tough group options when overall performance really counts.

Like in the army, in which your life depends on your belief into the specific competences of their peers. Delinquency here is not an alternative.

Sport is yet another. And within masculine-dominated teams [not to exclude tomboyish females within combine too] – males thrive in this hard performance tradition.

But difficult performance administration with no presence of an authentic overriding concern for the members of your device, staff, neighborhood or family – with no "love" – isn’t tough love. It is simply indicate.

SO, we incorporate an apparently great precept of something similar to "tough love" with an entrenched, pyramid-like separatist, rushed-through, mean-spirited, crucial overall performance factor-optimised, austerity-cut, anti-social national "service" so we have?…..

Back to the purpose after that: what about jobs therefore the economy and all that?

What shall Good Control seem like, here?

At the extremely minute I write this [after faultlessly doing my day-to-day dose of JCP-required useless work advertising flogging, please be aware] i will be reading that younger muppet, Adolf Osborne, bellowing down at myself, while he quaffs their benefactor’s high wines and fine cheeses, in his usual affectation of fury regarding the self-righteous rich guy: "NO HANDOUTS FOR LITTLE!!"

"TAKE JULIAN’S ADVANTAGES AWAY!!!"

"TAKE AWAY HIS KIDS ADVANTAGES TOO!!!", he screams.

After which there’s that mean JCP woman – deliberately withholding Julian-the-tirelessly-carrying-on’s sorely needed cash, just so she could well keep him wastefully pinned-down for another entire hour, unilaterally bastardising Julian-the-actively-seeking-employment-no-hoper’s jobseekers’ "agreement" he is obliged to help make with Adolf for his "money for nothing" food allowance. For he could be trapped into submission.

And there’s that other JCP manager woman, flanked by her animal safety protections, cruelly doubting their last appropriate usage of food until Julian-on-the-breadline jumps thru the girl mean small office-power-hoop, just to pleasure by herself.

And that various other youthful woman, throwing Brighton housing resources scraps of report at Julian-the-streetsleeper, screwing her entire body up at him in a bellow of disgust that he’d dare ask this lady on her assistance.

Which The-Computer-Says-No A&E front desk staff in Bury medical center, smiling and turning this lady straight back on Julian-the-got-no-money-to-get-home-again-scrounger, jealously guarding just what she thinks is *her* NHS patient transport budget.

And Work Programme coach whom plays power games and keeps Julian the job-seeker waiting. And just who summons Julian to their desk by remaining sitting whilst calling completely Julian by his first-name across the open-plan workplace, for several to see. And pointedly omits to apologise for [avoidable] disservice keeping in mind their buyer waiting. And whom snarls, whenever Julian – obviously notably offended, enquires indirectly what the time of conference had been – intentionally demeaning him: "WHY!? are you experiencing someplace else is."

Hence JCP "advisor" individual – tasked with switching Mr Partridge’s sign-on time to convenience her office brood but that is now strategically conditioned not to invite a discussion from the matter with "clients" – when Julian [impossibly overloaded however extremely firmly time organised today; an admirable success without concern, deciding on] say’s politely: "I’d rather not – it’ll inconvenience myself." – says bluntly: "We have a concern you are unavailable for work; Im reporting one to the supervisor."

And EVERY piece of paper they provide you with has YOU WILL END UP SANCTIONED IF YOU FAIL TO COOPERATE daubed all over it. With absolutely nothing much more informative than that to enable you to definitely claim your fair dues and rightful treatment…

….. do i have to give more examples!?

I think my point listed here is obvious.

You inject hateful a few ideas at the top of our national social pyramid as Osbourne and co are continuously performing now, and you may anticipate many spiteful and sinful cultural exaggerations to straight away appear, just as if by black magic, down on really base.

And it’s really here, at the end, where in actuality the outrage truly gets metered out; because of the thickest together with greyest ones; behind all their closed doorways and organized blind alleys, in a cruel conspiracy of legal and deadly silence.

Many thanks Georgie Boy, mate! Remind us to vote for you as well as your contacts once more the next occasion!

And Georgina has got another couple of principles tits-up here too [probably intentionally]:

1. Welfare the bad is not pudding. It is air.

2. The phenomenon of unemployment is out there precisely while there is a scarcity into the system of productive work to do. So survival help during periods of jobless is obviously going to be for "nothing" – financially speaking [in the eyes regarding the myopic bean-counter, which!].

3. The persistent unemployed size of under-25s isn’t significantly because of the "lifestyle choice" to endure on his kindness – it really is considering George’s very own ineffectiveness at delivering the easy conveyor from school into strive to make it natural and organic and easy for those young "scroungers" to succeed on their own.

[morals for the psychopath]

So we contain it:

Regrettable general poverty becomes godly municipal readiness to help becomes economic help becomes disastrously expensive means-tested advantage becomes dubious demeaning and error-prone regime becomes intermittent cash flow for basics paid in arrears becomes continual environment of menace becomes medical anxiety becomes dangerous welfare centre knowledge becomes wrongful discipline becomes huge personal distress and inconvenience becomes refusal of most assistance becomes family breakdown becomes blighted communities becomes absolute poverty becomes problems for every part of a person’s independent capacity to self-rescue becomes….

Patricide.

——-

today, faced with the specific situation in the photo above, unlucky as you are to find your self when you look at the dangerous "welfare" environment into far appropriate for the picture [to be clear: the one regarding the far correct I have branded as "WRONG"] what is the sane man inside regrettable predicament to do?

Really, #1: you will do the controlled task perfectly, of course! [and usually in a forgiveable state of large anxiety]

Although *SMART* thing to do is certainly not this.

The wise method is do your oppressor’s task only sufficiently enough to buy your self the necessary time to plan and deliver your following, Great, Escape.

——-

See additionally:

The image Johanna didn’t like www.flickr.com/photos/julianpartridge/10089345416/

Johanna’s way www.flickr.com/photos/julianpartridge/10089340855/

Why good nurses turn bad www.flickr.com/photos/julianpartridge/8310449657/

The page I experienced written to Mr Cameron that had upset me personally a great deal www.flickr.com/photos/julianpartridge/9873117766/

——-

@julianpRED
julianpRED@gmail.com

——-

Postscript:

We think that Johanna has understanding, not just as an obviously gifted mother but in addition as she’s got developed under Communist Oppression, and had escaped that with an incredible number of others 20-odd years ago: We doubt she wants to see any such thing from another location like this appear again.

PPS:

Dr Shipman is clearly the Secretary of State for all these things!

Sigh.

——-

Image from web page 13 of “History of the First Presbyterian Church of Bellefontaine, Ohio, and addresses delivered at the event regarding the thirty-fifth anniversary of this pastorate of this Reverend George L. Kalb, D.D” (1900)
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Identifier: historyoffirstpr00firs
Title: History of the very first Presbyterian Church of Bellefontaine, Ohio, and addresses delivered during the special event regarding the thirty-fifth anniversary associated with the pastorate of the Reverend George L. Kalb, D.D
Year: 1900 (1900s)
Authors: First Presbyterian Church (Bellefontaine, Ohio)
Topics: First Presbyterian Church (Bellefontaine, Ohio)
Publisher: Bellefontaine : Press regarding the Index Printing and Pub. Co.
Adding Library: Princeton Theological Seminary Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Princeton Theological Seminary Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:
the congregation at group meetings held into the lecture roomof the chapel, September 5 and 12, 1898. This does not pretend becoming a fantastic book. No record everwas written without mistakes which by explanation of the mode ofcompilation most likely has many more than is essential. Whatever mistakes or notable omissions tend to be discovered should bereported plus due time they will be corrected or supplied. Different people have furnished important product and helpand it could be almost impossible to give every oneproper credit. Therefore only those are pointed out whom contributedspecial reports. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH HISTORY.

Text Appearing After-image:
ARTICLES. VI CONTENTS .*«»*»/S/»<V4«k GENERAL. Webpage Synods and Presbyteries 1 Pastors 2 Elders 3 Officers, Deacons, Trustees, Clerks, Auditors, Deaconesses, 4 Early Missionaries 8 Very First Presbyterian Church ot Bellefontaine 14 Abstract of Yearly Reports 24 I^ist of this Publications of Record 26 Seating for the Church—18:^9-1836 . 27 Contributors to this Church—1825-1842 28 BIOGRAPHICAL Our Pastors—Reverends Joseph Stevenson, 33; Robert H. Hollyday, D. D. 35;Geo. A. Gregg, 37: Edwin B. RafFensperger, D. D., 38; Geo. P. Bergen, 41;Geo. Iv. Kalb, D. D., 41; Geo. E Davies, 49. The Elders—Joshua Robb, 50; J. W. Marquis, 51; Robt Patterson, 51; Thos.Marquis. 52; John McCracken, 52; James Kerr, 53; David Patterson, 53;Abraham Boyd, 54; John Paris, 55; James D. Campbell, 55; Ezra Bennett,56; Thos. M. Stevenson, 57: Robt Henderson, 58; Wm. G. Kennedy, 58; Dr.S. W. Fuller, 59; Wm. McCulloch, 61; Josiah Moore, 61; J A. Mcllvaine, 62;Geo. A Henry, 63; J. Q. A. Campbell, 63; Dr. J. P. Walla

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning
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Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning

Within the P-38 Lockheed professional Clarence "Kelly" Johnson along with his group of developers created perhaps one of the most successful twin-engine fighters previously flown by any country. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over European countries, the Mediterranean, in addition to Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands into sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots within the Pacific movie theater downed even more Japanese plane than pilots traveling some other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to guage an experimental approach to interconnecting the movement associated with the throttle and propeller control levers. But his right motor exploded in-flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transmitted from the US Air Energy.

Maker:
Lockheed Aircraft Company

Date:
1943

Nation of Origin:
Usa

Dimensions:
In general: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Products:
All-metal

Physical Information:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

Longer Details:
From 1942 to 1945, the thunder of P-38 Lightnings was heard across the world. U. S. Army pilots travelled the P-38 over Europe, the Mediterranean, plus the Pacific; from the frozen Aleutian isles to your sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Measured by success in fight, Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and a team of manufacturers created the most effective twin-engine fighter previously flown by any nation. In Pacific Theater, Lightning pilots downed more Japanese plane than pilots flying other Army Air Forces warplane.

Johnson along with his team conceived this twin-engine, single-pilot fighter airplane in 1936 additionally the Army Air Corps approved the company to build it in June 1937. Lockheed completed building the prototype XP-38 and delivered it toward Air Corps on new-year’s time, 1939. Air Corps test pilot and P-38 project officer, Lt. Benjamin S. Kelsey, very first travelled the aircraft on January 27. Dropping this model in an accident at Mitchel Field, ny, with Kelsey at settings, did not deter the atmosphere Corps from purchasing 13 YP-38s for service evaluation on April 27. Kelsey survived the crash and remained a significant part of the Lightning program. Before the aircraft could possibly be declared ready for fight, Lockheed needed to prevent the effects of high-speed aerodynamic compressibility and tail buffeting, and resolve other dilemmas discovered during the solution tests.

The essential vexing difficulty was losing control in a plunge caused by aerodynamic compressibility. During belated springtime 1941, Air Corps significant Signa A. Gilke encountered serious trouble while diving their Lightning at high-speed from an altitude of 9,120 m (30,000 ft). When he reached an indicated airspeed around 515 kph (320 mph), the aircraft’s tail began to shake violently as well as the nostrils dropped until the plunge was nearly straight. Signa restored and landed safely and also the end buffet issue had been soon dealt with after Lockheed setup brand-new fillets to enhance airflow in which the seat gondola joined up with the wing center area. Seventeen months passed before designers started initially to figure out what caused the Lightning’s nostrils to drop. They tested a scale design P-38 within the Ames Laboratory wind tunnel run by the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and discovered that shock waves formed whenever airflow across wing leading sides achieved transonic rates. The nostrils drop and loss in control had been never completely remedied but Lockheed setup plunge recovery flaps under each wing in 1944. They slowed the P-38 enough to let the pilot to keep up control when diving at high-speed.

Equally the introduction of the North American P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection for those plane) pushed the restrictions of plane performance into unexplored territory, so also did P-38 development. The sort of plane envisioned by the Lockheed design group and Air Corps strategists in 1937 didn’t appear until June 1944. This protracted shakedown duration mirrors the tribulations suffered by Vought in sorting out of the numerous technical problems that held F4U Corsairs off U. S. Navy carrier decks before the end of 1944.

Lockheed’s attempts to trouble-shoot various issues with the design in addition delayed high-rate, mass production. Whenever Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the company had delivered just 69 Lightnings towards the Army. Production steadily increased at its peak in 1944, 22 sub-contractors built various Lightning components and delivered them to Burbank, California, for last set up. Consolidated-Vultee (Convair) subcontracted to create the wing center section as well as the firm later became prime maker for 2,000 P-38Ls but that business’s Nashville plant finished only 113 examples of this Lightning design before war’s end. Lockheed and Convair completed 10,038 P-38 plane including 500 photo-reconnaissance designs. They built even more L designs, 3,923, than any other version.

To help ease control and improve security, specifically at low rates, Lockheed equipped all Lightnings, except a batch purchased by Britain, with propellers that counter-rotated. The propeller to the pilot’s remaining switched counter-clockwise in addition to propeller to his right switched clockwise, so that one propeller countered the torque and airflow effects created because of the other. The plane also done well at large rates while the definitive P-38L design could make much better than 676 kph (420 mph) between 7,600 and 9,120 m (25,000 and 30,000 ft). The design was versatile adequate to carry different combinations of bombs, air-to-ground rockets, and external gasoline tanks. The multi-engine configuration reduced the Lightning loss-rate to anti-aircraft gunfire during ground-attack missions. Single-engine airplanes equipped with power flowers cooled by pressurized fluid, like the us P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection), had been specially susceptible. Even a small nick in a single coolant line might lead to the engine to seize in only a matter of moments.

The initial P-38s to achieve the Pacific combat movie theater appeared on April 4, 1942, whenever a form of the Lightning that carried reconnaissance digital cameras (designated the F-4), joined up with the 8th Photographic Squadron located in Australian Continent. This product established the initial P-38 fight missions over New Guinea and New Britain during April. By May 29, initial 25 P-38s had arrived in Anchorage, Alaska. On August 9, pilots associated with the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air energy, traveling the P-38E, shot down a couple of Japanese flying boats.

Back in the usa, Army Air Forces frontrunners attempted to get a grip on a rumor that Lightnings killed unique pilots. On August 10, 1942, Col. Arthur I. Ennis, Chief of U. S. Army Air Forces pr in Washington, told an other officer "… This is what the 4th Fighter [training] Command is facing… common rumor available your entire western Coast was filled with headless bodies of males which jumped off P-38s and had their particular minds cut off by the propellers." Novice Lightning pilots unfamiliar with the perfect bailout treatments in fact had more to worry through the twin-boom tail, if a crisis dictated using towards the parachute but precisely performed, Lightning bailouts were as safe as parachuting from any other high-performance fighter of day. Misinformation and crazy conjecture about numerous brand new aircraft had been widespread through the early War duration.

And U. S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcats (see NASM collection) and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (see NASM collection), Lightnings had been initial United states fighter airplanes with the capacity of consistently defeating Japanese fighter plane. On November 18, men associated with the 339th Fighter Squadron became initial Lightning pilots to attack Japanese fighters. Flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they advertised three during a mission to escort Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers (see NASM collection).

On April 18, 1943, fourteen P-38 pilots from the 70th in addition to 339th Fighter Squadrons, 347th Fighter Group, achieved one of the most crucial Lightning missions of this war. Us ULTRA cryptanalysts had decoded Japanese communications that disclosed the schedule for a call to the front by the commander for the Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. This charismatic leader had crafted the plan to strike Pearl Harbor and Allied strategists thought his loss would severely cripple Japanese morale. The P-38 pilots travelled 700 km (435 miles) at levels from 3-15 m (10-50 foot) above the ocean in order to prevent detection. Over the shore of Bougainville, they intercepted a formation of two Mitsubishi G4M BETTY bombers (see NASM collection) carrying the Admiral along with his staff, and six Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters (see NASM collection) supplying escort. The Lightning pilots downed both bombers but destroyed Lt. Ray Hine to a Zero.

In European countries, the very first Americans to straight down a Luftwaffe aircraft had been Lt. Elza E. Shahan flying a 27th Fighter Squadron P-38E, and Lt. J. K. Shaffer flying a Curtiss P-40 (see NASM collection) in 33rd Fighter Squadron. The 2 leaflets shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor maritime hit plane over Iceland on August 14, 1942. Later on that month, the very first fighter group accepted Lightnings and began combat functions from bases in The united kingdomt but this device soon moved to fight in North Africa. A lot more than annually passed away before the P-38 reappeared over west European countries. Whilst Lightning ended up being missing, U. S. Army Air Forces strategists had relearned an agonizing concept: unescorted bombers cannot operate successfully in the face of determined opposition from adversary fighters. Whenever P-38s returned to The united kingdomt, the main objective had become long-range bomber escort at ranges of about 805 kms (500 kilometers) and at altitudes above 6,080 m (20,000 ft).

On October 15, 1943, P-38H pilots within the 55th Fighter Group flew their particular first fight goal over European countries at a time if the requirement for long-range escorts was severe. Just the day before, German fighter pilots had damaged 60 of 291 Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses (see NASM collection) during a mission to bomb five ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany. No air force could maintain a loss-rate of nearly 20 per cent for more than various missions but these goals lay well beyond the number of offered escort fighters (Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, see NASM collection). Us war planners hoped the long-range abilities associated with P-38 Lightning could stop this deadly trend, nevertheless very high and very cool environment distinct on European environment war caused serious power-plant and seat home heating problems the Lightning pilots. The long-range escort problem wasn’t completely resolved before the us P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) started initially to get to large numbers at the beginning of 1944.

Poor cockpit home heating in H and J model Lightnings made traveling and battling at altitudes that usually approached 12,320 m (40,000 ft) very hard. It was a fundamental design flaw that Kelly Johnson and his team never expected once they designed the plane six many years previously. In his seminal run the Allison V-1710 motor, Daniel Whitney analyzed in detail other factors that made the P-38 a disappointing airplane in fight over west European countries.

• Many brand-new and inexperienced pilots arrived in England during December 1943, along with the brand new J model P-38 Lightning.

• J model ranked at 1,600 horsepower vs. 1,425 for earlier in the day H design Lightnings. This energy setting needed better maintenance between flights. It seems this work wasn’t carried out in numerous cases.

• During stateside education, Lightning pilots were taught to fly at large rpm options and low engine manifold force during cruise trip. This was quite difficult on machines, and never commensurate with technical directives released by Allison and Lockheed.

• the caliber of gas in The united kingdomt was bad, TEL (tetraethyl lead) gas additive appeared to condense inside engine induction manifolds, causing detonation (destructive explosion of gasoline combination in the place of controlled burning).

• Improved turbo supercharger intercoolers appeared in the J design P-38. These devices considerably reduced manifold conditions but this inspired TEL condensation in manifolds during cruise trip and enhanced spark plug fouling.

Using water shot to reduce detonation could have reduced these engine issues. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt while the us P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) had been fitted with liquid shot systems although not the P-38. Lightning pilots proceeded to fly, despite these handicaps.

During November 1942, two all-Lightning fighter teams, the very first as well as the 14th, began operating in North Africa. When you look at the Mediterranean Theater, P-38 pilots travelled much more sorties than Allied pilots traveling other style of fighter. They stated 608 opponent a/c destroyed in the air, 123 most likely destroyed and 343 wrecked, from the loss in 131 Lightnings.

Within the war against Japan, the P-38 certainly excelled. Combat seldom happened above 6,080 m (20,000 ft) therefore the engine and cockpit comfort problems common in European countries never ever affected pilots within the Pacific Theater. The Lightning’s exceptional range had been regularly complete benefit over the vast expanses of liquid. At the beginning of 1945, Lightning pilots associated with the twelfth Fighter Squadron, eighteenth Fighter Group, flew a mission that lasted 10 ½ hours and covered above 3,220 kilometer (2,000 kilometers). In August, P-38 pilots founded the planet’s long-distance record for a global War II fight fighter once they flew from Philippines on Netherlands East Indies, a distance of 3,703 kilometer (2,300 kilometers). During early 1944, Lightning pilots into the 475th Fighter Group started the ‘race of aces.’ By March, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Lynch had scored 21 victories before he fell to antiaircraft gunfire while strafing adversary boats. Significant Thomas B. McGuire downed 38 Japanese plane before he had been killed whenever his P-38 crashed at low altitude in early January 1945. Major Richard I. Bong became The united states’s highest rating fighter ace (40 victories) but died within the crash of a Lockheed P-80 (see NASM collection) on August 6, 1945.

Museum documents reveal that Lockheed assigned the building quantity 422-2273 towards nationwide Air and Space Museum’s P-38. The Army Air Forces accepted this Lightning as a P-38J-l0-LO on November 6, 1943, as well as the solution identified the plane with the serial quantity 42-67762. Recent investigations performed by a team of specialists in the Paul E. Garber Facility, and Herb Brownstein, a volunteer within the Aeronautics Division at the nationwide Air and area Museum, have actually revealed many hitherto as yet not known aspects toward reputation for this aircraft.

Brownstein examined NASM files and papers at nationwide Archives. He discovered that a few days following the Army environment causes (AAF) acknowledged this airplane, the Engineering Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, granted Lockheed permission to transform this P-38 into a two-seat instructor. The company added a seat behind the pilot to allow for a teacher who would train civil pilots in instrument flying strategies. Once trained, these test pilots assessed brand-new Lightnings fresh off the assembly-line.

In a teletype sent because of the Engineering Division on March 2, 1944, Brownstein in addition found that this P-38 premiered to Colonel Benjamin S. Kelsey from March 3 to April 10, 1944, to perform unique tests. This step had been verified the next day in a cable through the War Department. This same pilot, after that a Lieutenant, flew the XP-38 throughout the US in 1939 and survived the crash that ruined this Lightning at Mitchel Field, ny. At the beginning of 1944, Kelsey ended up being assigned towards Eighth Air power in England and then he obviously traveled into the Lockheed factory at Burbank to get the P-38. Further information about these tests and Kelsey’s involvement stay an intriguing question.

Among Brownstein’s important discoveries ended up being a tiny file wealthy with information on the NASM Lightning. This file included a cryptic mention of a "Major Bong" who travelled the NASM P-38 on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field. Bong decided to travel for an hour to judge an experimental approach to interconnecting the action of throttle and propeller control levers. Their flight finished after twenty-minutes when "the correct engine blew up before I had an opportunity [to conduct the test]." The curator during the Richard I. Bong history Center confirmed that America’s greatest scoring ace made this flight when you look at the NASM P-38 Lightning.

Working in Building 10 in the Paul E. Garber center, Rob Mawhinney, Dave Wilson, Wil Lee, Bob Weihrauch, Jim Purton, and Heather Hutton invested almost a year through the springtime and summer of 2001 carefully disassembling, examining, and washing the NASM Lightning. They discovered every hardware modification in line with a model J-25 aircraft, perhaps not the design J-10 painted inside information block under the artifact’s remaining nose. This fact dovetails completely with understanding uncovered by Brownstein. On April 10, the Engineering Division once again cabled Lockheed asking the company to prepare 42-67762 for transfer to Wright Field "in standard setup." The standard P-38 setup during those times was the P-38J-25. The work took weeks and also the fighter cannot show up on Wright Field documents until might 15, 1944. On Summer 9, the flight-test area at Wright Field circulated the fighter for trip studies targeted at collecting pilot reviews how the airplane managed.

Wright Field’s Aeromedical Laboratory ended up being the second company associated with this P-38. That device installed a kit on July 26 that probably sized the force necessary to go the control wheel left and directly to actuate the power-boosted ailerons installed in all Lightnings beginning with variation J-25. From August 12-16, the energy Plant Laboratory performed examinations determine the hydraulic pump conditions with this Lightning. Then starting September 16 and lasting about ten times, the Bombing department, Armament Laboratory, tested type R-3 fragmentation bomb racks. The work appears to have ended at the beginning of December. On June 20, 1945, the AAF Aircraft Distribution workplace asked your Air Specialized provider Command transfer the Lightning from Wright Field to Altus Air energy Base, Oklahoma, a temporary holding area for Air energy museum aircraft. The P-38 attained the Oklahoma City Air Depot on Summer 27, 1945, and mechanics prepared the fighter for flyable storage space.

Airplane Flight Reports with this Lightning in addition describe here tasks and moves:

6-21-45 Wright Field, Ohio, 5.15 hours of flying.
6-22-45Wright Field, Ohio, .35 minutes of flying by Lt. Col. Wendel [?] J. Kelley and P. Shannon.
6-25-45Altus, Oklahoma, .55 hours flown, pilot P. Shannon.
6-27-45Altus, Oklahoma, number 2 engine changed, 1.05 hours flown by Air Corps F/O Ralph F. Coady.
10-5-45 OCATSC-GCAAF (outdoors City Army Air Field, outdoors City, Kansas), guns eliminated and ballast included.
10-8-45Adams Field, Little Rock, Arkansas.
10-9-45Nashville, Tennessee,
5-28-46Freeman Field, Indiana, upkeep check by Air Corps Capt. H. M. Chadhowere [sp]?
7-24-46Freeman Field, Indiana, one hour local journey by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
7-31-46 Freeman Field, Indiana, 4120th AAF Base Unit, ferry journey to Orchard Put [Illinois] by first Lt. Charles C. Heckel.

On August 5, 1946, the AAF relocated the aircraft to a different storage space site on previous Consolidated B-24 bomber system plant at Park Ridge, Illinois. A few days later on, the AAF transferred custody associated with the Lightning and more than sixty other World War II-era airplanes into Smithsonian nationwide Air Museum. During early 1950s, the atmosphere energy relocated these airplanes from Park Ridge to the Smithsonian storage space website at Suitland, Maryland.

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Lockheed P-38 Lightning:

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II United states fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a US Army Air Corps necessity, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and an individual, central nacelle containing the seat and armament. Called "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two planes, one pilot" by the Japanese, the P-38 had been utilized in some roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground-attack, image reconnaissance missions, and extensively as a long-range escort fighter whenever equipped with drop tanks under its wings.

The P-38 was used many effectively into the Pacific Theater of Operations as well as the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the mount of America’s top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). When you look at the South western Pacific movie theater, the P-38 had been the primary long-range fighter of United States Army Air Forces before appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the termination of the war. The P-38 was abnormally peaceful for a fighter, the fatigue muffled by the turbo-superchargers. It was exceedingly forgiving, and could be mishandled in several ways, although price of roll was also slow because of it to succeed as a dogfighter. The P-38 had been the sole American fighter aircraft in production throughout US participation when you look at the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day.

Alternatives: Lightning in maturity: P-38J

The P-38J ended up being introduced in August 1943. The turbo-supercharger intercooler system on previous variations was indeed housed into the leading edges regarding the wings along with proven in danger of combat harm and may burst if the incorrect number of controls had been erroneously activated. In P-38J model, the streamlined motor nacelles of previous Lightnings were altered to match the intercooler radiator amongst the oil coolers, creating a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from the predecessors. Whilst the P-38J utilized the same V-1710-89/91 machines due to the fact H design, the newest core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and allowed a substantial boost in rated energy. The leading edge of the exterior wing was fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, completing the space previously occupied by intercooler tunnels, but these had been omitted on very early P-38J obstructs because of minimal supply.

The ultimate 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility issue through the inclusion of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps only outboard regarding the motors on bottom centerline regarding the wings. With one of these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of virtually 600 mph (970 km/h), even though the indicated air speed was later on fixed for compressibility mistake, and the real plunge rate was lower. Lockheed manufactured over 200 retrofit adjustment kits becoming set up on P-38J-10-LO and J-20-LO already in European countries, although USAAF C-54 holding all of them had been shot down by an RAF pilot who mistook the Douglas transportation for a German Focke-Wulf Condor. Unfortunately losing the kits came during Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier‘s four-month morale-boosting tour of P-38 basics. Traveling a unique Lightning known as "Snafuperman" altered to full P-38J-25-LO specs at Lockheed’s modification center near Belfast, LeVier grabbed the pilots’ full interest by regularly carrying out maneuvers during March 1944 that typical Eighth Air Force wisdom held to be suicidal. It proved inadequate too-late since the decision had been designed to re-equip with Mustangs.

The P-38J-25-LO manufacturing block additionally introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, among the first times these types of a system ended up being fitted to a fighter. This significantly enhanced the Lightning’s price of roll and paid off control causes for the pilot. This production block therefore the after P-38L model are considered the definitive Lightnings, and Lockheed ramped up manufacturing, working together with subcontractors across the country to make hundreds of Lightnings every month.

Noted P-38 pilots

Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire

The United states ace of aces along with his closest competitor both travelled Lightnings while they tallied 40 and 38 victories respectively. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of USAAF competed the top place. Both males were granted the Medal of Honor.

McGuire was killed in air combat in January 1945 across Philippines, after accumulating 38 verified kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Bong was rotated back again to the United States as The united states’s ace of aces, after making 40 eliminates, getting a test pilot. He had been killed on 6 August 1945, the afternoon the atomic bomb ended up being fallen on Japan, when their P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff.

Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limitations of this F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself towards 475th FG traveling P-38s so he could explore the twin-engine fighter. Though a new comer to the equipment, he had been instrumental in expanding the number regarding the P-38 through enhanced throttle configurations, or engine-leaning strategies, particularly by decreasing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, establishing the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which paid down fuel consumption to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of configurations was considered dangerous; it had been thought it can upset the gasoline mixture and cause an explosion. Every-where Lindbergh moved into the Southern Pacific, he was accorded the conventional preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he previously resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel’s commission 36 months before. While using 475th, he held instruction classes and participated in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown skillfully by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In a long, turning dogfight where most of the participants ran from ammunition, Shimada turned their plane straight toward Lindbergh who was only approaching the fight location. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada’s obvious head-on ramming assault. Struck by cannon and machine gun fire, the "Sonia’s" propeller visibly slowed down, but Shimada presented his program. Lindbergh pulled up during the final moment to prevent collision since the damaged "Sonia" moved into a steep diving, strike the sea and sank. Lindbergh’s wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had in addition scored hits regarding "Sonia" after it had started its deadly dive, but Miller had been certain the kill credit had been Lindbergh’s. The unofficial kill wasn’t entered within the 475th’s war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to go back to the united states of america.

Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, flew a Lightning contrary to the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in the famous aircraft, the Putt Putt Maru.

Robin Olds

Principal article: Robin Olds

Robin Olds ended up being the final P-38 ace into the Eighth Air Force and the last in the ETO. Flying a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two individual missions over France and Germany. He later transitioned to P-51s to create seven more kills. After World War II, he travelled F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, ending his career as brigadier general with 16 eliminates.

Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice had been 1st American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he along with his wingman set down on Nitagahara because their wingman was low on gasoline.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Noted aviation pioneer and journalist Antoine de Saint-Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of Groupe de Chasse II/33, out of Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of this P-38, while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both real and mental (he had been considered intermittently subject to despair), was in fact deteriorating and there have been talk of using him off flight standing. There have been suggestions (although no evidence up to now) that was a suicide instead of an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning inside Mediterranean from the coastline of Marseille, plus it had been confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupéry’s F-5B. No evidence of environment combat had been found. In March 2008, a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed to own shot down Saint-Exupéry.

Adrian Warburton

The RAF’s legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from USAAF that became popular on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton did not reach the rendezvous point and had been never seen once more. In 2003, his stays had been recovered in Germany from their wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.

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Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal

Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

Long Description:
From 1942 to 1945, the thunder of P-38 Lightnings was heard around the world. U. S. Army pilots flew the P-38 over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific; from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Measured by success in combat, Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and a team of designers created the most successful twin-engine fighter ever flown by any nation. In the Pacific Theater, Lightning pilots downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Army Air Forces warplane.

Johnson and his team conceived this twin-engine, single-pilot fighter airplane in 1936 and the Army Air Corps authorized the firm to build it in June 1937. Lockheed finished constructing the prototype XP-38 and delivered it to the Air Corps on New Year’s Day, 1939. Air Corps test pilot and P-38 project officer, Lt. Benjamin S. Kelsey, first flew the aircraft on January 27. Losing this prototype in a crash at Mitchel Field, New York, with Kelsey at the controls, did not deter the Air Corps from ordering 13 YP-38s for service testing on April 27. Kelsey survived the crash and remained an important part of the Lightning program. Before the airplane could be declared ready for combat, Lockheed had to block the effects of high-speed aerodynamic compressibility and tail buffeting, and solve other problems discovered during the service tests.

The most vexing difficulty was the loss of control in a dive caused by aerodynamic compressibility. During late spring 1941, Air Corps Major Signa A. Gilke encountered serious trouble while diving his Lightning at high-speed from an altitude of 9,120 m (30,000 ft). When he reached an indicated airspeed of about 515 kph (320 mph), the airplane’s tail began to shake violently and the nose dropped until the dive was almost vertical. Signa recovered and landed safely and the tail buffet problem was soon resolved after Lockheed installed new fillets to improve airflow where the cockpit gondola joined the wing center section. Seventeen months passed before engineers began to determine what caused the Lightning’s nose to drop. They tested a scale model P-38 in the Ames Laboratory wind tunnel operated by the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and found that shock waves formed when airflow over the wing leading edges reached transonic speeds. The nose drop and loss of control was never fully remedied but Lockheed installed dive recovery flaps under each wing in 1944. These devices slowed the P-38 enough to allow the pilot to maintain control when diving at high-speed.

Just as the development of the North American P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and the Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection for these aircraft) pushed the limits of aircraft performance into unexplored territory, so too did P-38 development. The type of aircraft envisioned by the Lockheed design team and Air Corps strategists in 1937 did not appear until June 1944. This protracted shakedown period mirrors the tribulations suffered by Vought in sorting out the many technical problems that kept F4U Corsairs off U. S. Navy carrier decks until the end of 1944.

Lockheed’s efforts to trouble-shoot various problems with the design also delayed high-rate, mass production. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the company had delivered only 69 Lightnings to the Army. Production steadily increased and at its peak in 1944, 22 sub-contractors built various Lightning components and shipped them to Burbank, California, for final assembly. Consolidated-Vultee (Convair) subcontracted to build the wing center section and the firm later became prime manufacturer for 2,000 P-38Ls but that company’s Nashville plant completed only 113 examples of this Lightning model before war’s end. Lockheed and Convair finished 10,038 P-38 aircraft including 500 photo-reconnaissance models. They built more L models, 3,923, than any other version.

To ease control and improve stability, particularly at low speeds, Lockheed equipped all Lightnings, except a batch ordered by Britain, with propellers that counter-rotated. The propeller to the pilot’s left turned counter-clockwise and the propeller to his right turned clockwise, so that one propeller countered the torque and airflow effects generated by the other. The airplane also performed well at high speeds and the definitive P-38L model could make better than 676 kph (420 mph) between 7,600 and 9,120 m (25,000 and 30,000 ft). The design was versatile enough to carry various combinations of bombs, air-to-ground rockets, and external fuel tanks. The multi-engine configuration reduced the Lightning loss-rate to anti-aircraft gunfire during ground attack missions. Single-engine airplanes equipped with power plants cooled by pressurized liquid, such as the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection), were particularly vulnerable. Even a small nick in one coolant line could cause the engine to seize in a matter of minutes.

The first P-38s to reach the Pacific combat theater arrived on April 4, 1942, when a version of the Lightning that carried reconnaissance cameras (designated the F-4), joined the 8th Photographic Squadron based in Australia. This unit launched the first P-38 combat missions over New Guinea and New Britain during April. By May 29, the first 25 P-38s had arrived in Anchorage, Alaska. On August 9, pilots of the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air Force, flying the P-38E, shot down a pair of Japanese flying boats.

Back in the United States, Army Air Forces leaders tried to control a rumor that Lightnings killed their own pilots. On August 10, 1942, Col. Arthur I. Ennis, Chief of U. S. Army Air Forces Public Relations in Washington, told a fellow officer "… Here’s what the 4th Fighter [training] Command is up against… common rumor out there that the whole West Coast was filled with headless bodies of men who jumped out of P-38s and had their heads cut off by the propellers." Novice Lightning pilots unfamiliar with the correct bailout procedures actually had more to fear from the twin-boom tail, if an emergency dictated taking to the parachute but properly executed, Lightning bailouts were as safe as parachuting from any other high-performance fighter of the day. Misinformation and wild speculation about many new aircraft was rampant during the early War period.

Along with U. S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcats (see NASM collection) and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (see NASM collection), Lightnings were the first American fighter airplanes capable of consistently defeating Japanese fighter aircraft. On November 18, men of the 339th Fighter Squadron became the first Lightning pilots to attack Japanese fighters. Flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they claimed three during a mission to escort Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers (see NASM collection).

On April 18, 1943, fourteen P-38 pilots from the 70th and the 339th Fighter Squadrons, 347th Fighter Group, accomplished one of the most important Lightning missions of the war. American ULTRA cryptanalysts had decoded Japanese messages that revealed the timetable for a visit to the front by the commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. This charismatic leader had crafted the plan to attack Pearl Harbor and Allied strategists believed his loss would severely cripple Japanese morale. The P-38 pilots flew 700 km (435 miles) at heights from 3-15 m (10-50 feet) above the ocean to avoid detection. Over the coast of Bougainville, they intercepted a formation of two Mitsubishi G4M BETTY bombers (see NASM collection) carrying the Admiral and his staff, and six Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters (see NASM collection) providing escort. The Lightning pilots downed both bombers but lost Lt. Ray Hine to a Zero.

In Europe, the first Americans to down a Luftwaffe aircraft were Lt. Elza E. Shahan flying a 27th Fighter Squadron P-38E, and Lt. J. K. Shaffer flying a Curtiss P-40 (see NASM collection) in the 33rd Fighter Squadron. The two flyers shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor maritime strike aircraft over Iceland on August 14, 1942. Later that month, the 1st fighter group accepted Lightnings and began combat operations from bases in England but this unit soon moved to fight in North Africa. More than a year passed before the P-38 reappeared over Western Europe. While the Lightning was absent, U. S. Army Air Forces strategists had relearned a painful lesson: unescorted bombers cannot operate successfully in the face of determined opposition from enemy fighters. When P-38s returned to England, the primary mission had become long-range bomber escort at ranges of about 805 kms (500 miles) and at altitudes above 6,080 m (20,000 ft).

On October 15, 1943, P-38H pilots in the 55th Fighter Group flew their first combat mission over Europe at a time when the need for long-range escorts was acute. Just the day before, German fighter pilots had destroyed 60 of 291 Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses (see NASM collection) during a mission to bomb five ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany. No air force could sustain a loss-rate of nearly 20 percent for more than a few missions but these targets lay well beyond the range of available escort fighters (Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, see NASM collection). American war planners hoped the long-range capabilities of the P-38 Lightning could halt this deadly trend, but the very high and very cold environment peculiar to the European air war caused severe power plant and cockpit heating difficulties for the Lightning pilots. The long-range escort problem was not completely solved until the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) began to arrive in large numbers early in 1944.

Poor cockpit heating in the H and J model Lightnings made flying and fighting at altitudes that frequently approached 12,320 m (40,000 ft) nearly impossible. This was a fundamental design flaw that Kelly Johnson and his team never anticipated when they designed the airplane six years earlier. In his seminal work on the Allison V-1710 engine, Daniel Whitney analyzed in detail other factors that made the P-38 a disappointing airplane in combat over Western Europe.

• Many new and inexperienced pilots arrived in England during December 1943, along with the new J model P-38 Lightning.

• J model rated at 1,600 horsepower vs. 1,425 for earlier H model Lightnings. This power setting required better maintenance between flights. It appears this work was not done in many cases.

• During stateside training, Lightning pilots were taught to fly at high rpm settings and low engine manifold pressure during cruise flight. This was very hard on the engines, and not in keeping with technical directives issued by Allison and Lockheed.

• The quality of fuel in England may have been poor, TEL (tetraethyl lead) fuel additive appeared to condense inside engine induction manifolds, causing detonation (destructive explosion of fuel mixture rather than controlled burning).

• Improved turbo supercharger intercoolers appeared on the J model P-38. These devices greatly reduced manifold temperatures but this encouraged TEL condensation in manifolds during cruise flight and increased spark plug fouling.

Using water injection to minimize detonation might have reduced these engine problems. Both the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) were fitted with water injection systems but not the P-38. Lightning pilots continued to fly, despite these handicaps.

During November 1942, two all-Lightning fighter groups, the 1st and the 14th, began operating in North Africa. In the Mediterranean Theater, P-38 pilots flew more sorties than Allied pilots flying any other type of fighter. They claimed 608 enemy a/c destroyed in the air, 123 probably destroyed and 343 damaged, against the loss of 131 Lightnings.

In the war against Japan, the P-38 truly excelled. Combat rarely occurred above 6,080 m (20,000 ft) and the engine and cockpit comfort problems common in Europe never plagued pilots in the Pacific Theater. The Lightning’s excellent range was used to full advantage above the vast expanses of water. In early 1945, Lightning pilots of the 12th Fighter Squadron, 18th Fighter Group, flew a mission that lasted 10 ½ hours and covered more than 3,220 km (2,000 miles). In August, P-38 pilots established the world’s long-distance record for a World War II combat fighter when they flew from the Philippines to the Netherlands East Indies, a distance of 3,703 km (2,300 miles). During early 1944, Lightning pilots in the 475th Fighter Group began the ‘race of aces.’ By March, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Lynch had scored 21 victories before he fell to antiaircraft gunfire while strafing enemy ships. Major Thomas B. McGuire downed 38 Japanese aircraft before he was killed when his P-38 crashed at low altitude in early January 1945. Major Richard I. Bong became America’s highest scoring fighter ace (40 victories) but died in the crash of a Lockheed P-80 (see NASM collection) on August 6, 1945.

Museum records show that Lockheed assigned the construction number 422-2273 to the National Air and Space Museum’s P-38. The Army Air Forces accepted this Lightning as a P-38J-l0-LO on November 6, 1943, and the service identified the airplane with the serial number 42-67762. Recent investigations conducted by a team of specialists at the Paul E. Garber Facility, and Herb Brownstein, a volunteer in the Aeronautics Division at the National Air and Space Museum, have revealed many hitherto unknown aspects to the history of this aircraft.

Brownstein examined NASM files and documents at the National Archives. He discovered that a few days after the Army Air Forces (AAF) accepted this airplane, the Engineering Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, granted Lockheed permission to convert this P-38 into a two-seat trainer. The firm added a seat behind the pilot to accommodate an instructor who would train civilian pilots in instrument flying techniques. Once trained, these test pilots evaluated new Lightnings fresh off the assembly line.

In a teletype sent by the Engineering Division on March 2, 1944, Brownstein also discovered that this P-38 was released to Colonel Benjamin S. Kelsey from March 3 to April 10, 1944, to conduct special tests. This action was confirmed the following day in a cable from the War Department. This same pilot, then a Lieutenant, flew the XP-38 across the United States in 1939 and survived the crash that destroyed this Lightning at Mitchel Field, New York. In early 1944, Kelsey was assigned to the Eighth Air Force in England and he apparently traveled to the Lockheed factory at Burbank to pick up the P-38. Further information about these tests and Kelsey’s involvement remain an intriguing question.

One of Brownstein’s most important discoveries was a small file rich with information about the NASM Lightning. This file contained a cryptic reference to a "Major Bong" who flew the NASM P-38 on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field. Bong had planned to fly for an hour to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. His flight ended after twenty-minutes when "the right engine blew up before I had a chance [to conduct the test]." The curator at the Richard I. Bong Heritage Center confirmed that America’s highest scoring ace made this flight in the NASM P-38 Lightning.

Working in Building 10 at the Paul E. Garber Facility, Rob Mawhinney, Dave Wilson, Wil Lee, Bob Weihrauch, Jim Purton, and Heather Hutton spent several months during the spring and summer of 2001 carefully disassembling, inspecting, and cleaning the NASM Lightning. They found every hardware modification consistent with a model J-25 airplane, not the model J-10 painted in the data block beneath the artifact’s left nose. This fact dovetails perfectly with knowledge uncovered by Brownstein. On April 10, the Engineering Division again cabled Lockheed asking the company to prepare 42-67762 for transfer to Wright Field "in standard configuration." The standard P-38 configuration at that time was the P-38J-25. The work took several weeks and the fighter does not appear on Wright Field records until May 15, 1944. On June 9, the Flight Test Section at Wright Field released the fighter for flight trials aimed at collecting pilot comments on how the airplane handled.

Wright Field’s Aeromedical Laboratory was the next organization involved with this P-38. That unit installed a kit on July 26 that probably measured the force required to move the control wheel left and right to actuate the power-boosted ailerons installed in all Lightnings beginning with version J-25. From August 12-16, the Power Plant Laboratory carried out tests to measure the hydraulic pump temperatures on this Lightning. Then beginning September 16 and lasting about ten days, the Bombing Branch, Armament Laboratory, tested type R-3 fragmentation bomb racks. The work appears to have ended early in December. On June 20, 1945, the AAF Aircraft Distribution Office asked that the Air Technical Service Command transfer the Lightning from Wright Field to Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, a temporary holding area for Air Force museum aircraft. The P-38 arrived at the Oklahoma City Air Depot on June 27, 1945, and mechanics prepared the fighter for flyable storage.

Airplane Flight Reports for this Lightning also describe the following activities and movements:

6-21-45 Wright Field, Ohio, 5.15 hours of flying.
6-22-45Wright Field, Ohio, .35 minutes of flying by Lt. Col. Wendel [?] J. Kelley and P. Shannon.
6-25-45Altus, Oklahoma, .55 hours flown, pilot P. Shannon.
6-27-45Altus, Oklahoma, #2 engine changed, 1.05 hours flown by Air Corps F/O Ralph F. Coady.
10-5-45 OCATSC-GCAAF (Garden City Army Air Field, Garden City, Kansas), guns removed and ballast added.
10-8-45Adams Field, Little Rock, Arkansas.
10-9-45Nashville, Tennessee,
5-28-46Freeman Field, Indiana, maintenance check by Air Corps Capt. H. M. Chadhowere [sp]?
7-24-46Freeman Field, Indiana, 1 hour local flight by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
7-31-46 Freeman Field, Indiana, 4120th AAF Base Unit, ferry flight to Orchard Place [Illinois] by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.

On August 5, 1946, the AAF moved the aircraft to another storage site at the former Consolidated B-24 bomber assembly plant at Park Ridge, Illinois. A short time later, the AAF transferred custody of the Lightning and more than sixty other World War II-era airplanes to the Smithsonian National Air Museum. During the early 1950s, the Air Force moved these airplanes from Park Ridge to the Smithsonian storage site at Suitland, Maryland.

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Lockheed P-38 Lightning:

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. Named "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two planes, one pilot" by the Japanese, the P-38 was used in a number of roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground-attack, photo reconnaissance missions, and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with drop tanks under its wings.

The P-38 was used most successfully in the Pacific Theater of Operations and the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the mount of America’s top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). In the South West Pacific theater, the P-38 was the primary long-range fighter of United States Army Air Forces until the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the end of the war. The P-38 was unusually quiet for a fighter, the exhaust muffled by the turbo-superchargers. It was extremely forgiving, and could be mishandled in many ways, but the rate of roll was too slow for it to excel as a dogfighter. The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day.

Variants: Lightning in maturity: P-38J

The P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbo-supercharger intercooler system on previous variants had been housed in the leading edges of the wings and had proven vulnerable to combat damage and could burst if the wrong series of controls were mistakenly activated. In the P-38J model, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings were changed to fit the intercooler radiator between the oil coolers, forming a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from its predecessors. While the P-38J used the same V-1710-89/91 engines as the H model, the new core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted a substantial increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, filling the space formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels, but these were omitted on early P-38J blocks due to limited availability.

The final 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility problem through the addition of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps just outboard of the engines on the bottom centerline of the wings. With these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 mph (970 km/h), although the indicated air speed was later corrected for compressibility error, and the actual dive speed was lower. Lockheed manufactured over 200 retrofit modification kits to be installed on P-38J-10-LO and J-20-LO already in Europe, but the USAAF C-54 carrying them was shot down by an RAF pilot who mistook the Douglas transport for a German Focke-Wulf Condor. Unfortunately the loss of the kits came during Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier‘s four-month morale-boosting tour of P-38 bases. Flying a new Lightning named "Snafuperman" modified to full P-38J-25-LO specs at Lockheed’s modification center near Belfast, LeVier captured the pilots’ full attention by routinely performing maneuvers during March 1944 that common Eighth Air Force wisdom held to be suicidal. It proved too little too late because the decision had already been made to re-equip with Mustangs.

The P-38J-25-LO production block also introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, one of the first times such a system was fitted to a fighter. This significantly improved the Lightning’s rate of roll and reduced control forces for the pilot. This production block and the following P-38L model are considered the definitive Lightnings, and Lockheed ramped up production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of Lightnings each month.

Noted P-38 pilots

Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire

The American ace of aces and his closest competitor both flew Lightnings as they tallied 40 and 38 victories respectively. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of the USAAF competed for the top position. Both men were awarded the Medal of Honor.

McGuire was killed in air combat in January 1945 over the Philippines, after racking up 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Bong was rotated back to the United States as America’s ace of aces, after making 40 kills, becoming a test pilot. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan, when his P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff.

Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limits of the F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself to the 475th FG flying P-38s so that he could investigate the twin-engine fighter. Though new to the machine, he was instrumental in extending the range of the P-38 through improved throttle settings, or engine-leaning techniques, notably by reducing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings had been considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and cause an explosion. Everywhere Lindbergh went in the South Pacific, he was accorded the normal preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel’s commission three years before. While with the 475th, he held training classes and took part in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown expertly by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In an extended, twisting dogfight in which many of the participants ran out of ammunition, Shimada turned his aircraft directly toward Lindbergh who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada’s apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine gun fire, the "Sonia’s" propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision as the damaged "Sonia" went into a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. Lindbergh’s wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had also scored hits on the "Sonia" after it had begun its fatal dive, but Miller was certain the kill credit was Lindbergh’s. The unofficial kill was not entered in the 475th’s war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the United States.

Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, flew a Lightning against the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous aircraft, the Putt Putt Maru.

Robin Olds

Main article: Robin Olds

Robin Olds was the last P-38 ace in the Eighth Air Force and the last in the ETO. Flying a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two separate missions over France and Germany. He subsequently transitioned to P-51s to make seven more kills. After World War II, he flew F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, ending his career as brigadier general with 16 kills.

Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was the first American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he and his wingman set down on Nitagahara because his wingman was low on fuel.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Noted aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of Groupe de Chasse II/33, out of Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of the P-38, while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both physical and mental (he was said to be intermittently subject to depression), had been deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off flight status. There have been suggestions (although no proof to date) that this was a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning in the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, and it was confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupéry’s F-5B. No evidence of air combat was found. In March 2008, a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed to have shot down Saint-Exupéry.

Adrian Warburton

The RAF’s legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from the USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton failed to arrive at the rendezvous point and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”
correct credit report errors
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Cool Right Credit File Errors photos

Browse these proper credit report errors pictures:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Photomontage of main entrance view, including P-40 Warhawk & F-4 Corsair in advance, SR-71 Background below within the almost length, and Space Shuttle Enterprise beyond
correct credit file mistakes
Image by Chris Devers
Blogged on ☛ HoloChromaCinePhotoRamaScope‽ as: Bye bye, Miss American Pie.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian Nationwide Air and Space Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Whether referred to as Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be an effective, functional fighter throughout the first half World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" travelled in China up against the Japanese continue to be extremely well-known airplanes regarding the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the initial American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft when you look at the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this aircraft as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air power. U.S. Air energy employees at Andrews Air power Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of this 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air energy.

Contributed because of the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Manufacturer:
Curtiss Aircraft Company

Date:
1939

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal, semi-monocoque

Actual Description:
Single motor, single seat, fighter plane.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian Nationwide Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft of all time has managed globally in more hostile airspace or with these types of complete impunity than the SR-71, the entire world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational accomplishments put it within peak of aviation technology advancements during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of trip time during 24 many years of energetic solution because of the U.S. Air power. On its final journey, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from la to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 mins, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) each hour. In the flight’s summary, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and switched the aircraft up to the Smithsonian.

Moved from United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Fashion Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United states

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Products:
Titanium

Actual Information:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance plane; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; straight tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet motors feature large inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Area Museum | Vought F4U-1D Corsair :

By V-J Day, September 2, 1945, Corsair pilots had amassed an 11:1 kill proportion against enemy plane. The plane’s distinctive inverted gull-wing design allowed surface approval when it comes to huge, three-bladed Hamilton traditional Hydromatic propeller, which spanned more than 4 yards (13 legs). The Pratt and Whitney R-2800 radial motor and Hydromatic propeller had been the largest plus one of the most powerful engine-propeller combinations previously flown on a fighter aircraft.

Charles Lindbergh flew bombing missions in a Corsair with Marine Air Group 31 against Japanese strongholds within the Pacific in 1944. This aircraft is coated within the colors and markings associated with Corsair sunlight Setter, a Marine close-support fighter assigned on USS Essex in July 1944.

Transferred through the United States Of America Navy.

Maker:
Vought Aircraft Business

Date:
1940

Nation of Origin:
United states

Proportions:
Overall: 460 x 1020cm, 4037kg, 1250cm (15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 5 9/16in., 8900lb., 41ft 1/8in.)

Products:
All metal with fabric-covered wings behind the primary spar.

Actual Description:
R-2800 radial air-cooled engine with 1,850 horse power, turned a three-blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller with solid aluminum blades spanning 13 feet 1 inch; wing bent gull-shaped on both sides of the fuselage.

• • • • •

See much more pictures of this, and Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and area Museum | Space Shuttle business:

Maker:
Rockwell Overseas Corporation

Nation of Origin:
Usa

Measurements:
General: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Products:
Aluminum airframe and the body with fiberglass functions; payload bay doorways tend to be graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles tend to be simulated (reboundable foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

1st Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test car used for routes when you look at the environment and tests on a lawn; it is not prepared for spaceflight. Even though airframe and journey control elements are like those associated with Shuttles flown in area, this automobile does not have any propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles mainly because functions were not necessary for atmospheric and surface tests. "Enterprise" was rolled on at Rockwell International’s construction facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it joined service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test journey program. Thereafter it had been useful for vibration tests and healthy checks at NASA facilities, and in addition it appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show while the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" toward Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and area Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Area Management

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC, with Northrop P-61C Black Widow inside history
proper credit file mistakes
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Area Museum | Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC:

Hawker Chief Designer Sydney Camm’s Hurricane ranks most abundant in essential aircraft designs in military aviation history. Developed in the late 1930s, when monoplanes had been considered unstable and also radical to reach your goals, the Hurricane was the very first Brit monoplane fighter plus the first British fighter to exceed 483 kilometers (300 kilometers) per hour in amount trip. Hurricane pilots fought the Luftwaffe and aided win the Battle of Britain in the summertime of 1940.

This Mark IIC had been built within Langley factory, near what exactly is today Heathrow Airport, early in 1944. It served as a training plane during World War II when you look at the Royal Air power’s 41 OTU.

Contributed because of the Royal Air Force Museum

Maker:
Hawker Aircraft Ltd.

Date:
1944

Nation of Origin:
Great Britain

Dimensions:
Wingspan: 12.2 m (40 ft)
Length: 9.8 m (32 ft 3 in)
Height: 4 m (13 ft)
Weight, bare: 2,624 kg (5,785 pound)
Weight, gross: 3,951 kg (8,710 pound)
Top speed:538 km/h (334 mph)
Motor:Rolls-Royce Merlin XX, liquid-cooled in-line V, 1,300 hp
Armament:four 20 mm Hispano cannons
Ordnance:two 250-lb or two 500-lb bombs or eight 3-in rockets

Materials:
Fuselage: Steel pipe with aircraft spruce types and textile, aluminum cowling
Wings: Stressed Skin Aluminum
Horizontal Stablizer: Stress Skin aluminum
Rudder: material covered aluminum
Control Surfaces: fabric covered aluminum

Real Description:
Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC single chair, low-wing monoplane ground-attack fighter; enclosed cockpit; metallic pipe fuselage with plane spruce forms and material, aluminum cowling, stressed epidermis aluminum wings and horizontal stablizer, textile covered aluminum rudder and control areas; grey green camoflage top surface paint system with dove grey underside; red and blue nationwide roundel on top wing surface and purple, white, and blue roundel lower wing area; purple, white, blue, and yellow roundel fuselage sides; red, white and blue tail flash; Rolls-Royce Merlin XX, fluid cooled V-12, 1,280 horsepower motor; Armament, 4: 20mm Hispano cannons.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian Nationwide Air and Space Museum | Northrop P-61C Ebony Widow:

The P-61 Ebony Widow had been initial U.S. aircraft made to locate and destroy adversary aircraft through the night as well as in bad weather, a task made possible by the use of on-board radar. The model initially flew in 1942. P-61 fight functions started just after D-Day, June 6, 1944, whenever Black Widows travelled deeply into German airspace, bombing and strafing trains and road traffic. Functions inside Pacific started at about the same time. By the end of World War II, Ebony Widows had seen fight in every movie theater and had destroyed 127 opponent aircraft and 18 German V-1 buzz bombs.

The Museum’s Ebony Widow, a P-61C-1-NO, ended up being brought to the Army Air Forces in July 1945. It participated in cold-weather examinations, high-altitude drop tests, plus in the National Thunderstorm venture, that the very best turret was eliminated to produce area for thunderstorm monitoring gear.

Moved from the United States Air Energy.

Maker:
Northrop Aircraft Inc.

Date:
1943

Nation of Origin:
United states

Proportions:
In general: 450 x 1500cm, 10637kg, 2000cm (14ft 9 3/16in. x 49ft 2 9/16in., 23450.3lb., 65ft 7 3/8in.)

Sweet Correct Credit File Mistakes photographs

Some cool correct credit file errors images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama
proper credit file mistakes
Picture by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian Nationwide Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was probably the most advanced propeller-driven bomber of World War II plus the very first bomber to accommodate its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight when you look at the European movie theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side associated with the globe. When you look at the Pacific, B-29s delivered a number of aerial tools: traditional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two atomic tools.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped 1st atomic tool utilized in fight on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on show during the U.S. Air power Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew since the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A 3rd B-29, the fantastic Artiste, travelled as an observation plane on both missions.

Moved from the United States Air Energy.

Maker:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Nation of Origin:
United states

Measurements:
In general: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Products:
Polished general aluminum finish

Actual Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Refined aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on straight fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on reduced remaining nose.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-38 Lightning, with B-29 Enola Gay behind it
correct credit file mistakes
Image by Chris Devers

See more pictures of the, as well as the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning

Inside P-38 Lockheed professional Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his staff of developers created one of the most effective twin-engine fighters ever before flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over European countries, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian isles towards sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific movie theater downed even more Japanese aircraft than pilots traveling every other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, The united states’s leading fighter ace, travelled this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to judge an experimental approach to interconnecting the movement regarding the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his correct engine exploded in-flight before he could perform the research.

Moved through the Usa Air Energy.

Maker:
Lockheed Aircraft Company

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
In general: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Products:
All-metal

Real Information:
Twin-tail growth and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing equipment.

Extended Definition:
From 1942 to 1945, the thunder of P-38 Lightnings ended up being heard all over the world. U. S. Army pilots flew the P-38 over European countries, the Mediterranean, in addition to Pacific; through the frozen Aleutian Islands on sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Measured by success in combat, Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and a team of developers created the many effective twin-engine fighter ever flown by any country. In the Pacific Theater, Lightning pilots downed more Japanese plane than pilots traveling any kind of Army Air Forces warplane.

Johnson and his team conceived this twin-engine, single-pilot fighter plane in 1936 together with Army Air Corps approved the firm to build it in June 1937. Lockheed finished making the prototype XP-38 and delivered it toward Air Corps on New Year’s Day, 1939. Air Corps test pilot and P-38 task officer, Lt. Benjamin S. Kelsey, very first travelled the aircraft on January 27. Losing this model in an accident at Mitchel Field, nyc, with Kelsey on controls, would not deter the atmosphere Corps from ordering 13 YP-38s for solution evaluation on April 27. Kelsey survived the crash and stayed an important part associated with the Lightning program. Ahead of the airplane could possibly be declared ready for fight, Lockheed must prevent the results of high-speed aerodynamic compressibility and end buffeting, and resolve various other issues found through the service tests.

The most vexing difficulty had been losing control in a diving caused by aerodynamic compressibility. During late spring 1941, Air Corps Major Signa A. Gilke experienced serious difficulty while scuba diving their Lightning at high-speed from an altitude of 9,120 m (30,000 ft). As he achieved an indicated airspeed of about 515 kph (320 miles per hour), the airplane’s tail started to shake violently and nose dropped through to the plunge had been very nearly vertical. Signa restored and landed safely while the tail buffet issue ended up being quickly settled after Lockheed installed new fillets to boost airflow where seat gondola joined the wing center section. Seventeen months passed away before engineers began to determine what caused the Lightning’s nostrils to drop. They tested a scale design P-38 within the Ames Laboratory wind tunnel run because of the NACA (nationwide Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and discovered that surprise waves formed whenever airflow within the wing leading sides achieved transonic speeds. The nostrils fall and losing control was never ever completely treated but Lockheed installed plunge recovery flaps under each wing in 1944. These devices slowed the P-38 enough to let the pilot to keep control when diving at high-speed.

Equally the introduction of the us P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, therefore the Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection of these plane) pushed the restrictions of plane performance into unexplored territory, therefore also did P-38 development. The kind of plane envisioned by the Lockheed design group and Air Corps strategists in 1937 did not appear until Summer 1944. This protracted shakedown period mirrors the tribulations suffered by Vought in sorting out of the many technical problems that kept F4U Corsairs off U. S. Navy service decks through to the end of 1944.

Lockheed’s efforts to trouble-shoot various problems aided by the design additionally delayed high-rate, large-scale manufacturing. Whenever Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the organization had delivered just 69 Lightnings into Army. Production steadily enhanced and also at its top in 1944, 22 sub-contractors built various Lightning elements and shipped them to Burbank, Ca, for final installation. Consolidated-Vultee (Convair) subcontracted to create the wing center area and company later became prime maker for 2,000 P-38Ls but that company’s Nashville plant completed just 113 examples of this Lightning design before war’s end. Lockheed and Convair completed 10,038 P-38 aircraft including 500 photo-reconnaissance designs. They built more L designs, 3,923, than any various other variation.

To relieve control and enhance security, specially at reasonable rates, Lockheed equipped all Lightnings, except a group purchased by Britain, with propellers that counter-rotated. The propeller towards the pilot’s remaining turned counter-clockwise together with propeller to their right switched clockwise, to ensure one propeller countered the torque and airflow impacts created because of the various other. The airplane additionally done well at high speeds and the definitive P-38L design will make a lot better than 676 kph (420 miles per hour) between 7,600 and 9,120 m (25,000 and 30,000 ft). The style was flexible enough to carry various combinations of bombs, air-to-ground rockets, and external gas tanks. The multi-engine configuration paid down the Lightning loss-rate to anti-aircraft gunfire during ground-attack missions. Single-engine airplanes equipped with energy plants cooled by pressurized fluid, like the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection), had been especially vulnerable. Even a tiny nick within one coolant line might lead to the engine to seize in a matter of moments.

The initial P-38s to attain the Pacific fight movie theater came on April 4, 1942, whenever a version of the Lightning that transported reconnaissance digital cameras (designated the F-4), joined up with the 8th Photographic Squadron located in Australian Continent. This unit launched 1st P-38 combat missions over New Guinea and New Britain during April. By might 29, the first 25 P-38s had arrived in Anchorage, Alaska. On August 9, pilots regarding the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air Force, flying the P-38E, shot down a pair of Japanese traveling boats.

Back the United States, Army Air Forces frontrunners attempted to control a rumor that Lightnings killed unique pilots. On August 10, 1942, Col. Arthur I. Ennis, Chief of U. S. Army Air Forces pr in Washington, informed an other officer "… Here’s what the 4th Fighter [training] Command is against… common rumor out there that the entire West Coast ended up being filled with headless figures of males who hopped off P-38s and had their minds cut off by the propellers." Novice Lightning pilots new to the perfect bailout treatments in fact had even more to fear through the twin-boom end, if an emergency dictated using towards parachute but precisely performed, Lightning bailouts had been since safe as parachuting from any kind of high-performance fighter of this time. Misinformation and crazy conjecture about many brand-new plane had been rampant during the early War period.

Alongside U. S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcats (see NASM collection) and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (see NASM collection), Lightnings had been the initial US fighter airplanes with the capacity of consistently defeating Japanese fighter plane. On November 18, guys regarding the 339th Fighter Squadron became initial Lightning pilots to strike Japanese fighters. Flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they reported three during a mission to escort Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers (see NASM collection).

On April 18, 1943, fourteen P-38 pilots from the 70th plus the 339th Fighter Squadrons, 347th Fighter Group, achieved perhaps one of the most important Lightning missions regarding the war. Us ULTRA cryptanalysts had decoded Japanese communications that disclosed the schedule for a call to the front by the commander for the Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. This charismatic leader had crafted the master plan to strike Pearl Harbor and Allied strategists thought his reduction would severely cripple Japanese morale. The P-38 pilots travelled 700 km (435 miles) at levels from 3-15 m (10-50 legs) over the ocean to avoid detection. Throughout the shore of Bougainville, they intercepted a formation of two Mitsubishi G4M BETTY bombers (see NASM collection) carrying the Admiral along with his staff, and six Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters (see NASM collection) providing escort. The Lightning pilots downed both bombers but destroyed Lt. Ray Hine to a Zero.

In Europe, initial Americans to straight down a Luftwaffe plane were Lt. Elza E. Shahan flying a 27th Fighter Squadron P-38E, and Lt. J. K. Shaffer traveling a Curtiss P-40 (see NASM collection) within the 33rd Fighter Squadron. Both leaflets shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor maritime hit plane over Iceland on August 14, 1942. Later that month, the 1st fighter team accepted Lightnings and started combat operations from basics in The united kingdomt but this unit soon relocated to battle in North Africa. A lot more than annually passed away prior to the P-38 reappeared over Western Europe. Although the Lightning ended up being absent, U. S. Army Air Forces strategists had relearned an agonizing class: unescorted bombers cannot operate effectively facing determined resistance from opponent fighters. Whenever P-38s returned to The united kingdomt, the principal objective had become long-range bomber escort at ranges of approximately 805 kms (500 miles) at altitudes above 6,080 m (20,000 ft).

On October 15, 1943, P-38H pilots into the 55th Fighter Group travelled their particular first fight mission over European countries at a time as soon as the need for long-range escorts ended up being severe. Just the time before, German fighter pilots had destroyed 60 of 291 Eighth Air power B-17 Flying Fortresses (see NASM collection) during a mission to bomb five ball-bearing flowers at Schweinfurt, Germany. No air power could maintain a loss-rate of almost 20 % for over some missions but these objectives lay really beyond the range of available escort fighters (Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, see NASM collection). United states war planners hoped the long-range abilities for the P-38 Lightning could halt this dangerous trend, nevertheless the quite high and extremely cold environment peculiar to the European air war caused severe power-plant and cockpit home heating troubles when it comes to Lightning pilots. The long-range escort problem wasn’t entirely resolved until the united states P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) begun to get to vast quantities at the beginning of 1944.

Bad cockpit heating when you look at the H and J design Lightnings made traveling and fighting at altitudes that frequently approached 12,320 m (40,000 ft) very hard. It was a simple design flaw that Kelly Johnson along with his staff never ever expected if they created the plane six many years earlier on. In the seminal focus on the Allison V-1710 motor, Daniel Whitney analyzed thoroughly various other elements that made the P-38 a disappointing airplane in fight over west European countries.

• numerous brand new and inexperienced pilots found its way to England during December 1943, combined with the new J model P-38 Lightning.

• J model ranked at 1,600 horsepower vs. 1,425 for earlier H model Lightnings. This power setting required better maintenance between routes. It seems this work wasn’t carried out in numerous instances.

• During stateside training, Lightning pilots were taught to travel at high rpm configurations and low motor manifold force during cruise journey. It was very hard regarding machines, and not in keeping with technical directives granted by Allison and Lockheed.

• The quality of gas in England may have been bad, TEL (tetraethyl lead) fuel additive seemed to condense inside engine induction manifolds, causing detonation (destructive surge of gasoline blend in place of controlled burning).

• Improved turbo supercharger intercoolers appeared regarding J design P-38. These devices significantly paid off manifold conditions but this inspired TEL condensation in manifolds during cruise flight and increased spark plug fouling.

Using water shot to minimize detonation may have paid off these motor problems. Both the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt additionally the us P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) had been fitted with liquid injection systems however the P-38. Lightning pilots carried on to fly, despite these handicaps.

During November 1942, two all-Lightning fighter teams, the 1st while the 14th, started operating in North Africa. Inside Mediterranean Theater, P-38 pilots flew much more sorties than Allied pilots flying virtually any sort of fighter. They claimed 608 opponent a/c destroyed in the air, 123 most likely damaged and 343 wrecked, against the loss of 131 Lightnings.

In the war against Japan, the P-38 really excelled. Fight rarely occurred above 6,080 m (20,000 ft) additionally the engine and cockpit comfort problems typical in Europe never plagued pilots when you look at the Pacific Theater. The Lightning’s exceptional range had been regularly full benefit above the vast expanses of liquid. At the beginning of 1945, Lightning pilots for the 12th Fighter Squadron, eighteenth Fighter Group, travelled a mission that lasted 10 ½ hours and covered significantly more than 3,220 km (2,000 miles). In August, P-38 pilots established society’s long-distance record for a World War II fight fighter when they flew through the Philippines into the Netherlands East Indies, a distance of 3,703 km (2,300 kilometers). During early 1944, Lightning pilots into the 475th Fighter Group started the ‘race of aces.’ By March, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Lynch had scored 21 victories before he fell to antiaircraft gunfire while strafing opponent boats. Major Thomas B. McGuire downed 38 Japanese aircraft before he was killed whenever their P-38 crashed at low altitude during the early January 1945. Major Richard I. Bong became America’s greatest rating fighter ace (40 victories) but died in the crash of a Lockheed P-80 (see NASM collection) on August 6, 1945.

Museum files show that Lockheed assigned the building number 422-2273 into nationwide Air and Space Museum’s P-38. The Army Air Forces accepted this Lightning as a P-38J-l0-LO on November 6, 1943, and also the service identified the aircraft because of the serial quantity 42-67762. Current investigations carried out by a group of specialists in the Paul E. Garber Facility, and Herb Brownstein, a volunteer when you look at the Aeronautics Division at nationwide Air and Space Museum, have actually revealed numerous hitherto unknown aspects into reputation for this aircraft.

Brownstein examined NASM data and papers at the National Archives. He found that a couple of days after the Army environment causes (AAF) acknowledged this airplane, the Engineering Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, granted Lockheed authorization to convert this P-38 into a two-seat trainer. The firm added a seat behind the pilot to allow for a teacher who would teach civilian pilots in tool flying strategies. When trained, these test pilots evaluated new Lightnings fresh off the assembly-line.

In a teletype delivered by the Engineering Division on March 2, 1944, Brownstein also found that this P-38 premiered to Colonel Benjamin S. Kelsey from March 3 to April 10, 1944, to carry out special tests. This course of action was verified the following day in a cable through the War Department. This exact same pilot, after that a Lieutenant, travelled the XP-38 across the US in 1939 and survived the crash that ruined this Lightning at Mitchel Field, ny. During the early 1944, Kelsey ended up being assigned on Eighth Air Force in England and then he obviously journeyed towards Lockheed factory at Burbank to grab the P-38. Further information about these tests and Kelsey’s involvement stay an intriguing concern.

One of Brownstein’s essential discoveries was a tiny file rich with details about the NASM Lightning. This file included a cryptic reference to a "Major Bong" just who travelled the NASM P-38 on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field. Bong had planned to travel for an hour or so to gauge an experimental way of interconnecting the activity associated with the throttle and propeller control levers. His journey ended after twenty-minutes whenever "the correct motor blew up before I experienced the opportunity [to carry out the test]." The curator at Richard I. Bong history Center confirmed that America’s greatest rating ace made this flight in the NASM P-38 Lightning.

In Building 10 during the Paul E. Garber center, Rob Mawhinney, Dave Wilson, Wil Lee, Bob Weihrauch, Jim Purton, and Heather Hutton invested many months during the springtime and summer of 2001 carefully disassembling, inspecting, and washing the NASM Lightning. They found every equipment modification consistent with a model J-25 aircraft, perhaps not the design J-10 painted inside data block beneath the artifact’s left nose. This fact dovetails perfectly with knowledge uncovered by Brownstein. On April 10, the Engineering Division once more cabled Lockheed asking the company to prepare 42-67762 for transfer to Wright Field "in standard setup." The standard P-38 configuration at that moment ended up being the P-38J-25. The task took many weeks together with fighter will not show up on Wright Field files until May 15, 1944. On June 9, the flight-test area at Wright Field released the fighter for flight studies targeted at gathering pilot reviews how the aircraft managed.

Wright Field’s Aeromedical Laboratory had been the next company associated with this P-38. That device setup a kit on July 26 that probably measured the force needed to move the control wheel left and straight to actuate the power-boosted ailerons set up in most Lightnings you start with version J-25. From August 12-16, the energy Plant Laboratory performed tests determine the hydraulic pump conditions about this Lightning. After that starting September 16 and lasting about ten days, the Bombing department, Armament Laboratory, tested type R-3 fragmentation bomb racks. The task seemingly have ended early in December. On Summer 20, 1945, the AAF Aircraft Distribution Office requested the Air Technical Service Command transfer the Lightning from Wright Field to Altus Air energy Base, Oklahoma, a short-term holding area for Air Force museum plane. The P-38 arrived at the Oklahoma City Air Depot on Summer 27, 1945, and mechanics ready the fighter for flyable storage.

Airplane trip Reports with this Lightning in addition explain listed here activities and motions:

6-21-45 Wright Field, Ohio, 5.15 hours of traveling.
6-22-45Wright Field, Ohio, .35 mins of flying by Lt. Col. Wendel [?] J. Kelley and P. Shannon.
6-25-45Altus, Oklahoma, .55 hours flown, pilot P. Shannon.
6-27-45Altus, Oklahoma, number 2 engine altered, 1.05 hours flown by Air Corps F/O Ralph F. Coady.
10-5-45 OCATSC-GCAAF (outdoors City Army Air Field, Garden City, Kansas), weapons removed and ballast included.
10-8-45Adams Field, Little Rock, Arkansas.
10-9-45Nashville, Tennessee,
5-28-46Freeman Field, Indiana, upkeep check by Air Corps Capt. H. M. Chadhowere [sp]?
7-24-46Freeman Field, Indiana, 60 minutes local trip by first Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
7-31-46 Freeman Field, Indiana, 4120th AAF Base device, ferry flight to Orchard spot [Illinois] by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.

On August 5, 1946, the AAF relocated the plane to some other storage space web site in the former Consolidated B-24 bomber construction plant at Park Ridge, Illinois. A short time later, the AAF transferred custody associated with Lightning and more than sixty other World War II-era airplanes on Smithsonian National Air Museum. Throughout the very early 1950s, air power moved these airplanes from Park Ridge to your Smithsonian storage site at Suitland, Maryland.

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Lockheed P-38 Lightning:

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning had been a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the seat and armament. Named "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two airplanes, one pilot" by the Japanese, the P-38 was found in some functions, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground-attack, picture reconnaissance missions, and thoroughly as a long-range escort fighter when built with drop tanks under its wings.

The P-38 had been utilized many successfully when you look at the Pacific Theater of Operations in addition to China-Burma-India Theater of Operations given that mount of America’s top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). Inside South West Pacific theater, the P-38 ended up being the main long-range fighter of US Army Air Forces through to the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the termination of the war. The P-38 ended up being unusually quiet for a fighter, the fatigue muffled because of the turbo-superchargers. It was extremely flexible, and might be mishandled in many ways, nevertheless price of roll had been also slow for this to excel as a dogfighter. The P-38 had been really the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout US involvement in war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day.

Alternatives: Lightning in readiness: P-38J

The P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbo-supercharger intercooler system on past variants have been housed into the leading sides associated with the wings and had proven vulnerable to fight harm and might burst in the event that incorrect series of settings had been mistakenly activated. Into the P-38J design, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings had been altered to suit the intercooler radiator amongst the oil coolers, creating a "chin" that visually distinguished the J design from its predecessors. Whilst P-38J utilized the same V-1710-89/91 machines while the H model, the newest core-type intercooler better lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted an amazing upsurge in rated power. The best edge of the outer wing ended up being fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, completing the room formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels, but these were omitted on very early P-38J blocks because minimal access.

The last 210 J designs, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility issue through addition of some electrically-actuated diving data recovery flaps just outboard associated with motors on the base centerline of the wings. With one of these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of practically 600 mph (970 km/h), even though indicated air speed ended up being later on fixed for compressibility error, additionally the real dive speed had been reduced. Lockheed manufactured over 200 retrofit modification kits is put in on P-38J-10-LO and J-20-LO already in European countries, nevertheless the USAAF C-54 holding them ended up being shot down by an RAF pilot which mistook the Douglas transportation for a German Focke-Wulf Condor. Unfortunately the loss of the kits arrived during Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier‘s four-month morale-boosting tour of P-38 basics. Flying a new Lightning known as "Snafuperman" modified to full P-38J-25-LO specifications at Lockheed’s modification center near Belfast, LeVier captured the pilots’ complete interest by regularly carrying out maneuvers during March 1944 that typical Eighth Air Force wisdom held is suicidal. It proved inadequate too-late because choice had been made to re-equip with Mustangs.

The P-38J-25-LO production block in addition introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, among the first times such something had been fitted to a fighter. This dramatically enhanced the Lightning’s price of roll and decreased control forces for the pilot. This production block while the following P-38L model are the definitive Lightnings, and Lockheed ramped up production, working together with subcontractors nationwide to produce a huge selection of Lightnings monthly.

Noted P-38 pilots

Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire

The US ace of aces along with his nearest competitor both flew Lightnings because they tallied 40 and 38 victories respectively. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire for the USAAF competed when it comes to top place. Both men had been granted the Medal of Honor.

McGuire ended up being killed in atmosphere combat in January 1945 on the Philippines, after racking up 38 verified kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Bong had been turned back once again to america as The united states’s ace of aces, after making 40 eliminates, becoming a test pilot. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the afternoon the atomic bomb ended up being fallen on Japan, whenever their P-80 Shooting celebrity jet fighter flamed on takeoff.

Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to enhance range and load limitations of F4U Corsair, traveling both routine and fight strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself towards the 475th FG flying P-38s making sure that he could research the twin-engine fighter. Though not used to the machine, he had been instrumental in expanding the range of P-38 through enhanced throttle settings, or engine-leaning strategies, notably by reducing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which paid down gasoline usage to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings was in fact considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and trigger an explosion. Every-where Lindbergh went when you look at the South Pacific, he was accorded the standard preferential remedy for a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel’s fee three years prior to. While with the 475th, he presented instruction classes and participated in many different Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown expertly because of the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In a prolonged, turning dogfight in which most participants ran from ammunition, Shimada turned his plane straight toward Lindbergh who was simply simply approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive effect brought on by Shimada’s apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine-gun fire, the "Sonia’s" propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his training course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision once the damaged "Sonia" went into a steep diving, hit the sea and sank. Lindbergh’s wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had additionally scored hits on the "Sonia" after it had started its deadly plunge, but Miller was certain the kill credit had been Lindbergh’s. The unofficial kill had not been registered into the 475th’s war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the usa.

Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking United states ace, Charles H. MacDonald, flew a Lightning from the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous plane, the putt-putt Maru.

Robin Olds

Main article: Robin Olds

Robin Olds had been the last P-38 ace in the Eighth Air energy together with last in the ETO. Traveling a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two separate missions over France and Germany. He later transitioned to P-51s to make seven even more kills. After World War II, he travelled F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, closing his career as brigadier general with 16 kills.

Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was initial American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, as he along with his wingman set down on Nitagahara because their wingman ended up being reasonable on gas.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Noted aviation pioneer and publisher Antoine de Saint-Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of Groupe de Chasse II/33, from Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of this P-38, during a flight across Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His wellness, both real and emotional (he was reported to be intermittently subject to despair), was deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off journey condition. There has been suggestions (although no evidence to date) that this ended up being a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat reduction. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning when you look at the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, plus it ended up being confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupéry’s F-5B. No proof atmosphere combat had been found. In March 2008, an old Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, advertised to possess shot down Saint-Exupéry.

Adrian Warburton

The RAF’s celebrated photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph goals in Germany. W/C Warburton neglected to get to the rendezvous point and ended up being never ever seen once more. In 2003, their remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.

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Quoting Smithsonian Nationwide Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress had been the essential sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II together with very first bomber to accommodate its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight into the European movie theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side associated with world. In Pacific, B-29s delivered many different aerial weapons: standard bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two atomic weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the very first atomic weapon found in fight on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later on, Bockscar (on screen within U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay travelled because the advance climate reconnaissance plane that day. A 3rd B-29, the truly amazing Artiste, flew as an observation plane on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
Usa

Dimensions:
In general: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Products:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Real Information:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect proportion wings. Polished aluminum finish in general, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower remaining nose.

Whiteboard Law: How A Dispute Letter Works When Fixing Credit Report Errors

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