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restored quadriga atop Brandenburg Gate ►pale-verdigris portal build-up (“horses’-herma”) in gloomy evening◄
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The quadriga atop the Brandenburg Gate —restored since 1991— is shining in pale-verdigris against a black colored background of a gloomy evening.

In 1793, — whenever so-called ‘French Revolutionary Wars’ throughout Europe had been to start —, Schadow installed in a nervous & defiant motion towards the revolutionary Paris a peace-goddess (PAX) supporting a coronal of olive results in a roman, triumphal carriage. – Under those political conditions that build up had been obviously meant as an apotropaic allegory resistant to the upcoming, second revolution of this Great Revolution that was looming through the other side of the Rhine …

In 1806 that sculpture ended up being needless to say dislodged and travelled into Louvre by the victorious Napoléon Bonaparte but currently eight many years later — in 1814— the booty was tracked down and re-confiscated by the prussian General Blücher. Back Berlin the restituted trophy had been overhauled and revised by Schinkel in 1815: The once pre-reactionary Fräulein PAX (roman peace-goddess) ended up being nevertheless switching its back resistant to the Madame France in the western but now she was classified into a full-blown reactionary NIKE (hellenic victory-goddess). Encouraging that hiding inclination he supplemented as some new fittings the erect shaft between the sets of horses (“Pferdeherme”), the use when it comes to four domesticated animals additionally the coronet of oak leaves for goddess, and then he establish the “perch”, in other words. the banner-like standard using metal cross inside a wreath of oak leaves & acorns where an eagle coronated by a christian cross atop a prussian top holds lookout.

The iron cross regarding the Brandenburg ended up being posted in 1815 and possesses the initials ‘FW’ and figure ‘1813’ in commemoration of the endowment whilst the prussian war decoration by Friedrich Wilhelm III. in the year 1813 which marks the start of initial restoration—the second these types of reanimation had been instigated because of the Hitlerists in 1933 underneath the pompous subject “Third Reich”—of the 1806 passed away cadaver for the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation by ‘freedom wars’ (‘Befreiungskriege’) that were the prussian tribute to ‘the wars of the 6th coalition’ (1812-1814) for breaking Napoleon’s hegemony over Europe. On 18th Oktober 1913, i.e. at the eve of WWI, throughout the triumph goddess regarding the Brandenburg triumphal arch a wilhelmine state act happened because of the german emperor; like everywhere within the suburbs of this Berlin and German Reich it absolutely was celebrated the centenary of the Battle of Leipzig

Initially an emblematic build up into the Restoration epoch (1815-1848) the “horses’—herma” ended up being rededicated in 1991 and refurbished 2000/02 by private businessmen therefore the Berlin Monument Conservation Foundation that have been sponsored to indulge their “faible” for the “imperial prussian flair”.

The Brandenburg Gate in 1945 was mostly of the frameworks nonetheless sitting on the Pariser Platz although relics for the copper quadriga atop it had to be melted down; only the mind of one of the four ponies had been preserved and will be seen when you look at the Märkisches Museum. In 1958 a replica of bronze ended up being developed to change the copper quadriga.
Automobiles and pedestrians could travel freely through thouroughfare until 13th August 1961; then the wall along with its demise strip ran just behind it.

On 26th of June 1963, — couple of years following the put-up associated with the Wall —, U.S. President John F. Kennedy officially went to West-Berlin and the Wall on Brandenburg Gate, where he himself and West-Berlin gran wanted him to provide their prepared message nevertheless the west-german chancellor that was demonstratively all the time associated him concurred with all the western allies that the venue nearby the soviet industry would-have-been much too provocative. So he cannot hold their oratio in sight of the contended cold-war-focus-point but must shift to another area: That was the square at the office-building regarding the then ruling mayor Willy Brandt. Unlike Ronald Reagan whom can potentially overtake the site twenty-four many years later—only safeguarded by clear bullet-proof glass to avoid possible snipers from behind the wall surface and two decades of détente (“Ostpolitik”) accompanied up by glasnost & perestroika.
«Two thousand years back the proudest boast had been “civis romanus sum” {translation lat-engl: “I’m a roman citizen”}. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is „Ich bin ein Berliner“. {translation ger-engl: “I’m a Berliner”, after these four words interpreter Lochner is heard whispering instructions to him on how to pronounce the four german words more correctly, and he’s answering insinuatingly into the open microphone: “I appreciate my interpreter translating my German!”}
{JFK continues:} There are many people in the world who really don’t understand, or say they don’t, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. „Lass’ sie nach Berlin kommen! [Lust z nach Bearlen comen]“ Let them come to Berlin. – KA: „Aber lass ebenso Sie nach Berlin kommen!“ {heckled the standing-by Bundeskanzler Konrad Adenauer who obviously had’nt quite understood the english words of the speech}
{JFK continues:} Freedom has many troubles and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to place a wall surface up to keep our individuals in, to prevent them from leaving united states. … whilst wall surface is one of apparent and vivid demonstration associated with the problems associated with Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction in it, …
… All no-cost men, anywhere they could stay, are people of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free of charge man, I just take pride into the words „Ich container ein Berliner!“
» (speech by President John F. Kennedy on 26 June 1963 at ‘Rathaus Schöneberg’ in West-Berlin
When he attempted to simply take picture of the Brandenburg Gate thereon sultry summerday climbing on tourists’ platform regarding the after that Hindenburg-Platz he had been ‘welcomed’ by huge red curtains that were hung to the five doorways associated with the arch to prevent the VIP from speaking and spying towards East …

Inside 1980s, decrying the existence of two German says, the then western Berlin gran Richard von Weizsäcker stated:
The German concern will remain available as long as the Brandenburg Gate is closed.”

On Summer 12, 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan talked into the western Berlin populace in the Brandenburg Gate:
To those hearing in East Berlin, a special term: Although I cannot be with you, I address my remarks for you in the same way surely concerning those standing here before me personally. For we join you, when I join your other countrymen within the western, within company, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin. … we genuinely believe that freedom and protection go collectively, that advance of man freedom can just only fortify the cause of globe serenity …Perhaps this gets to the root associated with matter, into the most fundamental difference of all of the between East and western. The totalitarian globe produces backwardness because it does such physical violence into the nature, thwarting the personal impulse to produce, to enjoy, to worship. The totalitarian world discovers consistent symbols of love and of worship an affront. Years ago, prior to the East Germans began rebuilding their particular churches, they erected a secular structure: the tv screen tower at Alexander Platz. Virtually since, the authorities have-been attempting to correct what they view while the tower’s one major flaw, managing the glass world at the top with shows and chemical substances of each and every kind. Yet even now once the sunlight hits that sphere — that sphere that towers overall Berlin the light makes the sign of the cross.
Demanding the razing associated with Berlin Wall and handling the after that General Secretary of Communist celebration of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan said:
And we invite Mr. Gorbachev: why don’t we strive to bring the Eastern and Western components of the town closer collectively, making sure that most of the residents of all of the Berlin will enjoy the advantages that come with life in one of the great towns worldwide. To start Berlin still further to all or any Europe, East and western, let us expand the vital air use of this town, finding methods for making commercial air solution to Berlin easier, much more comfortable, plus economical. We look to a single day when West Berlin becomes the primary aviation hubs in every main European countries.
… There is one indication the Soviets make that would be unmistakable, that could advance significantly the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you look for serenity, in the event that you look for prosperity when it comes to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, in the event that you seek liberalization: Come here for this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall surface! … The wall surface cannot withstand freedom.

On July 12, 1994, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke at Gate about comfort in post-Cold War European countries.
On December 21, 2000, the Brandenburg Gate ended up being privately refurbished at a 6 million $ cost.
Depiction of German euro coinage: regarding the obverse edges regarding the 1 € and 2 € coins, there are stylized prussian eagles; on the 50¢, 20¢ and 10¢ coins you will find the Brandenburg Gates; regarding the 5¢, 2¢ and 1¢ coins you will find twigs with five pine leaves as well as 2 acorns.

The Brandenburg Gate & The Wall
Berlin, it is really worth recalling, came of age as a garrison city. Though Friedrich Wilhelm I happened to be maybe not enthusiastic about beautifying the city, he did look for to advertise its growth. Needing more area to quarter soldiers plus artisans to produce their demands, he offered away hundreds of lots and compelled the recipients to create houses to them. He extended the town limitations and, inside 1730s, changed the Great Elector’s old fortifications with a new wall surface built across the expanded town. This is not a fortification but a customs buffer to modify trade and avoid soldiers from deserting. (For all the distinctions, in both these reasons we could see a resemblance to Ulbricht’s later wall.) On the list of wall’s eighteen gates, many prominent lay at the south and western sides of this expanded Friedrichstadt, in which large plazas had been outlined inside the gates: a circular plaza inside the southern Halle Gate, an octagon on Potsdam Gate, and a square during the western terminus of Unter den Linden. Friedrich Wilhelm envisioned all three spaces as military parade reasons.
The final of those gates concludes our glance at the eighteenthcentury city. It marks the exterior end associated with grand axis of Unter den Linden, scene of royal processions, armed forces parades, and stylish promenades through the entire eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years. Though it’s not the initial Brandenburg all of that continues to be associated with the eighteenth-century wall, besides a fragment excavated in Stresemannstrasse. The original baroque gate that separated Unter den Linden through the Tiergarten ended up being changed within purchase of King Friedrich Wilhelm II, Frederick the Great’s successor. The payment provided to the architect Carl Gotthard Langhans ushered in an innovative new age in Berlin design. Into the end of his long life (in 1786), Frederick the Great had insisted on building in embellished rococo kinds which had long since fallen from favor in Europe’s more stylish capitals. Langhans’s Brandenburg Gate, finished in 1791, brought the greater amount of extreme lines of neoclassicism to Berlin.
Langhans’s easy design, modeled regarding the Propylaea of Athens, comprises a double row of Doric columns that frame five open positions. The gate’s other popular function is the copper quadriga that has been attached atop it in 1793. This work of the youthful sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow portrays a goddess riding in a chariot drawn by four horses galloping to the city. The Brandenburg Gate, featuring its quadriga, has long been Berlin’s most famous icon, rivaled only because of the even more ephemeral Wall. Its image features adorned commemorative coins, playing cards, historicist and expressionist paintings, posters for many kinds of events, and East and western Berlin postcards and tourist brochures. It could be an admirable work of architecture and sculpture, but that does not describe its symbolic resonance. Nor does its desired purpose. Unlike numerous nineteenth-century structures, it had been not erected as a national monument. Its dimensions and kind caused it to be a lot more than a utilitarian structure, but it ended up being however a practical gate in town wall surface, flanked by guardhouses.
History made the Brandenburg Gate a German memorial. In the beginning its formal name had been the “Gate of Peace”; it was not, most likely, a Roman triumphal arch. But its identification changed in 1806, whenever Napoleon defeated Prussia and triumphantly entered its capital through western gate. He revealed their admiration for quadriga by purchasing so it be taken down and sent to Paris to participate their various other confiscated art treasures. The emperor thus became understood in your area while the “horse thief of Berlin”, together with denuded gate became the sign of Prussian and German opposition. In 1813 Schadow himself proposed to fill the quadriga’s spot atop the gate with a massive cast of the Iron Cross, the brand new army medal designed by Schinkel within behest of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Upon Napoleon’s beat in 1814, however, a triumphant procession returned the quadriga to Berlin, the neighboring square ended up being rebranded Paris Square (Pariser Platz), and also the “Gate of Peace” became a “Gate of Victory”. Schinkel designed new insignia when it comes to goddess’s staff: a Prussian eagle and, within a wreath, the Iron Cross.
After that, the gate became a lot more solidly established as symbolic of Prussia and its own capital. It became the original background for army parades (following Napoleon’s instance) and for the ceremonial reception of condition visitors. Once the entire traditions wall had been tom down in 1860s, the Brandenburg Gate stayed; after that, it had been strictly a monument. After Germany ended up being unified under Prussian leadership in 1871, the victorious troops returning from France had been welcomed on Brandenburg Gate. The Prussian monument had become solidly established as a German nationwide symbol, the website of numerous more ceremonies before troops marched through it to their way back to France in 1914. The Nazis, too, embraced the old symbol of success. The evening Hitler was appointed chancellor, January 30, 1933, huge number of torch-bearing Nazi brownshirts marched through the gate.
Once the bombers emerged, the Nazis generally performed a better job of evacuating art treasures than saving people. But they apparently would not dare risk morale by eliminating the goddess along with her horses. As an alternative, in 1942 that they had plaster casts made of the quadriga. By 1945, when Soviet soldiers planted their red-flag atop the gate, it absolutely was terribly damaged and only fragments of quadriga remained. The East German leaders just who inherited these damages chose to keep the gate and adopt it as their very own. The shattered quadriga’s fate was less specific. Artists and politicians entertained a few proposals for an appropriate brand new sculpture: several employees, children moving around a globe, a mother with son or daughter, Picasso’s dove of comfort. A Western paper, hearing for the last proposition in 1949, declared that when the dove of serenity had been to nest placidly at entrance toward Communist world, the western would-be obliged to increase a banner as you’re watching gate aided by the words Dante had affixed into gates of Hell in the lnferno: “Abandon all hope, ye whom enter right here.” {N23} ultimately, but the East made a decision to restore the quadriga rather.
Sadly, the gate endured inside Soviet industry, the plaster casts were into the West, and throughout the 1950s the 2 regimes were hectic denouncing both as criminals and usurpers. Following the unsuccessful uprising from the eastern German government on June 17, 1953, the western renamed the street that carried on Unter den Linden west of the gate “the Street of 17 June.“ But the two Berlins had one Brandenburg Gate, plus it supplied an uncommon window of opportunity for cooperation. Western Berlin decided to recreate the statues even though the East restored the gate. This joint venture couldn’t, naturally, proceed without incident. In 1958 the reconstructed quadriga ended up being delivered to the sectoral boundary, a few steps from gate, and just kept truth be told there when it comes to East Germans to claim. Before putting it up, the Easterners sawed the Prussian eagle off the top of the goddess’s staff additionally the Iron Cross out of this wreath. When it comes to Western public, it was vandalism and deceit, nonetheless it should not genuinely have already been a surprise. In 1957 West Germany had legalized the show for the Iron Cross, which the GDR had prohibited as a militarist logo. In 1958 the Eastern hit was full of editorials and letters demanding removing these “fascist“ ornaments. The Brandenburg Gate had been yet again is a gate of serenity, declared the East Berlin government. {N24}
With all the goddess’s staff crowned just by a wreath, the quadriga and gate would remain from 1958 until 1990; only their environment would alter entirely. In the beginning the gate nonetheless blocked traffic passing across the industry range between the Tiergarten in addition to shattered damages along Unter den Linden. Since the two halves associated with town expanded apart, the gate acquired a rich brand new symbolic resonance, grabbed, as an example, in moments regarding the 1961 American comedy movie One, Two, Three, directed by Billy Wilder (whose ties to Berlin went back towards the 1920s) and starring James Cagney as a representative associated with the Coca Cola business caught involving the intrigues of Communists and ex-Nazis.
Nevertheless the movie had been a commercial flop: once it had been completed, the Wall had made crossing the Brandenburg Gate certainly not a laughing matter. As the western side of the Mitte district coincided aided by the area of Friedrich Wilhelm I’s wall, the sectoral boundary observed exactly the same course after 1945, and after 1961, so did an extended stretch regarding the new wall surface. The Brandenburg Gate was thus yet again part of a wall. Right here had been a historical continuity that no one wished to acknowledge. This time around it was not a gate; the crossing things set elsewhere. Erich Honecker, the Politbüro user in charge of nationwide protection and hence the man directing building of this Wall, obviously pushed the gate’s closing because he thought any task around it would attract Western news attention, demonstrations, and provocations.{N25} He had been probably appropriate, but he might have been influenced by their own regime’s frequent evocation for the Napoleon-like specter of West German soldiers marching triumphantly through Brandenburg Gate on their solution to destroy comfort and socialism.
The gate and quadriga had been built to face into the City—that is, into east. Which is not what a visitor would expect, nevertheless the gate’s intended audience had been local residents, perhaps not outsiders. The folk memory of Berlin appears to provide evidence of confusion with this point. Site visitors tend to be told that the quadriga initially encountered others path and had been turned around at some point—something that never ever took place. This really is a classic legend: an 1860 manual asserts your goddess had faced from town before Napoleon, but have been reerected searching inward in 1814.{N26} Late-twentieth-century variations of legend are vaguer about the date for the reversal; Ulbricht along with Napoleon comes under suspicion just as one culprit.
With its uncertain position toward inside and outside, residents and site visitors, the Brandenburg Gate resembled absolutely nothing so much as its more recent next-door neighbor, the Berlin Wall. With all the Wall’s presence, the poignancy associated with gate as expression became stronger than previously. On its Eastern side, Pariser Platz starkly illustrated the desolation brought by the Wall. Once among Berlin’s many elegant squares, a location of palaces, the French and U.S. embassies, the Academy of Arts, therefore the city’s premier hotel, the Adlon, it was now bare with the exception of the gate and Wall. Travelers had been limited to its far end, but distinguished friends and formally welcomed delegations were delivered to the gate and asked to admire the task associated with border protections. Through the Western side, the gate was today entirely inaccessible, and could simply be seen from a dead-end road in the exact middle of the Tiergarten. Nevertheless, traveler buses on a regular basis came by, and state site visitors were brought there too. In 1963, whenever John F. Kennedy stumbled on see it, he unearthed that the East had hung purple ads

i.e. five perpendicular flags, four of them were red (symbolizing the four-power-status of Berlin), the fifth in the main-gateway was black | red | golden signed with the GDR-coat of arms. klp }
amongst the articles that blocked any view beyond the gate—interpreted as a cool War gesture with increased figurative definition compared to East had meant. In 1987, the gate served while the backdrop for Ronald Reagan’s message, with bulletproof cup erected behind the rostrum. (Bill Clinton, in 1994, was the initial U.S. President privileged to speak on Pariser Platz, under the minds associated with quadriga’s ponies as opposed to their particular posteriors.)
Both East and West Berliners reported the gate since the sign of their city and of their version of German unity. However it might have been the international media from West that made the gate the preeminent image of the less telegenic Berlin Wall. Throughout the times after November 9, 1989, the television networks made the Brandenburg Gate the backdrop for their cameras. It absolutely was a fortunate coincidence your semicircular buffer blocking the gate ended up being the actual only real part of the Wall wide and flat enough to remain (and dance) on. Because the Brandenburg Gate had not been a functioning gate, however, the hordes of East Germans in fact passed through Wall elsewhere for a number of weeks. Finally, on December 22 , 1989. West German chancellor Helmut Kohl led a phalanx of political leaders in a ceremony reopening the Brandenburg Gate. Research later on appeared that Kohl had in reality pressured the East Germans to wait the orifice for five days so he could be current.
A few days later on. New Year’s revelers climbed around the recently accessihle quadriga and left it seriously damaged. Soon later, as the gate was being restored, the quadriga. too, was disassembled for a careful restoration. Thereupon controversy erupted anew. The summer of 1991 saw a reprise of 1958 debate towards quadriga, now without the Cold War to establish opportunities. A Christian Democratic person in the Bundestag, Friedbert Pflüger, called for the Iron Cross and Prussian eagle to be left off the restored quaclriga. (they’d already been preserved since 1958 in an East Berlin museum; the reunification associated with the quadriga coincided thereupon of Germany.) His campaign found supponers across the political range, only a few of whom could possibly be dismissed as leftists antipathetic to your indication of German nationwide pleasure. The Berlin press anti general public was nonetheless hard on Pflüger. He argued that symbols of Prussian patriotism had no-place inside brand-new Germany; but other individuals suspected that his genuine motive was bitterness over the decision to maneuver the governmcnt from Bonn. He was, much more pointedly, accused of attempting to falsify history “à la Ulbricht”. Little attention had been compensated to his claim that he wanted to restore the initial “Gate of Peace” and also the original quadriga whilst had been around to 1806. It had been possible for Pflüger’s supporters to summarize that Berlin ended up being rejecting historic authenticity in support of patriotic nostalgia.
Indeed, no-one ended up being proposing the return associated with goddess’s initial staff, gone since 1814, whenever Schinkel had not merely included the Iron Cross and Prussian eagle but had redesigned the whole staff. The quadriga Napoleon took, like, had a Roman eagle where the Prussian one later on perched. And that had actually been the goddess’s 3rd staff: Schadow’s first two designs had proved so unpopular that he was obligated to replace all of them within months. This basically means, the discussion in 1991 was between restoring the 1814 quadriga plus the 1958 variation. Since the latter’s repudiation of Prussian militarism was the job of Ulbricht’s regime, it discovered few defenders. Amid good terms for Prussian symbols—the Iron Cross, it had been described, arrived of this conflicts of liberation against Napoleon, perhaps not World War I or II—Berlin’s frontrunners ceremonially rededicated the restored quadriga, utilizing the staff of 1814-1945 and an artificial patina, on August 6, 1991, the two hundredth anniversary associated with gate.
The gate it self could hence claim its standard spot since the symbolization of Berlin along with its newer condition since the preeminent expression of unity. Yet it endured in the middle of the town’s main east-west thoroughfare; the logo of unity literally separated the 2 Berlins. The relationship between your gate additionally the all-important blood circulation of traffic sparked another discussion. The accessory many Germans have to their particular automobiles has constantly ended lacking the American rehearse of ripping down towns which will make means for vehicles, although enthusiasm of Gennan vehicle fans generally seems to arouse in Green-thinking Germans the exact same types of suspicion that enthusiastic patriotism does. Cheerfully the question of operating through the Brandenburg Gate failed to create obvious battle lines. Some car haters wanted to reserve the gate for pedestrians and bicyclists, but others believed that the gate could offer to limit and slow automobile traffic. Car lovers’ favourited solutions had been a tunnel under the gate or a scheme to prevent it. The second, indeed, had first suggested at the tum associated with century, and Nazi planners besides had desired to eliminate the structures for each region of the gate to make technique traffic. When you look at the 1990s, those structures had been over, but plans to direct traffic out of the gate were nevertheless opposed by some just who believed it will serve as a gate, emblematic or German unity, perhaps not a traffic island, and also by other individuals who desired to reconstruct Pariser Platz while the enclosed area it as soon as have been. A short compromise permitted only buses and taxis through gate, plus they had been limited to the broader main passageway, when reserved for emperor’s carriage.
Once the monarchy finished in 1918, that central passage wasn’t really the only location that lost its identification. For the turbulence of Berlin’s record beneath the Hohenzollerns, they perhaps presided over a diploma of security that has not already been approached within the remaining portion of the twentieth century. Many Berliners tend to be understandably hesitant to frame their particular identity in terms of the troubled eras that accompanied: the weak Weimar Republic, the next Reich, and split city. Hence the want to achieve back again to the relatively placid period of monarchs. Just how can that nostalgia possibly be happy? Since barely anyone in fact wishes a king, it is hard to understand exactly what to salvage from the royal last. The much-restored but never ever removed Brandenburg Gate, featuring its twice-removed and thrice-reconstructed quadriga, can be as genuine emblematic as Berlin can offer. Other buildings, noticeable or remembered, embody too wealthy a variety of definitions to permit any opinion in regards to the history of old Berlin, or around simple tips to restore it.

   {N23. Michael S. Cullen and Uwe Kieling, Das Brandenburger Tor: Geschichte
eines deutschen Symbols
(Berlin: Argon, 1990), 108.
   {N24. Jürgen Reiche, “Symbolgehalt und Bedeutungswandel eines politischen
Monuments,” in Das Brandenburger Tor: Eine Monographie, ed. Willmuth
Arenhovel and Rolf Bothe (Berlin: Arenhövel, 1991), 304.
   {N25. Peter Möbius and Helmut Trotnow, “Das Mauer-Komplott”, Die
(offshore ed.), Aug. 16, 1991.
   {N26. Friedrich Morin, Berlin und Potsdam im Jahre 1860 (reprint, Braunschweig:
Archiv-Verlag, 1980), 16.
   {N27. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 18, 1991.
   {N28. Ulrike Krenzlin, “Eisemes Kreuz und Preussen-Adler: Ja oder
Nein?” in Hauptstadt Berlin-wohin mit der Mitte? ed. Helmut Engel and
Wolfgang Ribbe (Berlin: Akademie, 1993), 104-7.
SOURCE: The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German record within the Urban Landscape. Brian Ladd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp70-81, UCSB: HT169.G32B4127 1997}

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The Hope Diamond
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Image by dbking
The Hope Diamond…

The history of the stone which was eventually named the Hope diamond began when the French merchant traveller, Jean Baptiste Tavernier, purchased a 112 3/16-carat diamond. This diamond, which was most likely from the Kollur mine in Golconda, India, was somewhat triangular in shape and crudely cut. Its color was described by Tavernier as a "beautiful violet."

Tavernier sold the diamond to King Louis XIV of France in 1668 with 14 other large diamonds and several smaller ones. In 1673 the stone was recut by Sieur Pitau, the court jeweler, resulting in a 67 1/8-carat stone. In the royal inventories, its color was described as an intense steely-blue and the stone became known as the "Blue Diamond of the Crown," or the "French Blue." It was set in gold and suspended on a neck ribbon which the king wore on ceremonial occasions.

King Louis XV, in 1749, had the stone reset by court jeweler Andre Jacquemin, in a piece of ceremonial jewelry for the Order of the Golden Fleece (Toison D’Or). In 1791, after an attempt by Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to flee France, the jewels of the French Royal Treasury were turned over to the government. During a week-long looting of the crown jewels in September of 1792, the French Blue diamond was stolen.

In 1812 a deep blue diamond described by John Francillion as weighing 177 grains (4 grains = 1 carat) was documented as being in the possession of London diamond merchant, Daniel Eliason. Strong evidence indicates that the stone was the recut French Blue and the same stone known today as the Hope Diamond. Several references suggest that it was acquired by King George IV of England. At his death, in 1830, the king’s debts were so enormous that the blue diamond was likely sold through private channels.

The first reference to the diamond’s next owner is found in the 1839 entry of the gem collection catalog of the well-known Henry Philip Hope, the man from whom the diamond takes its name. Unfortunately, the catalog does not reveal where or from whom Hope acquired the diamond or how much he paid for it.

Following the death of Henry Philip Hope in 1839, and after much litigation, the diamond passed to his nephew Henry Thomas Hope and ultimately to the nephew’s grandson Lord Francis Hope. In 1901 Lord Francis Hope obtained permission from the Court of Chancery and his sisters to sell the stone to help pay off his debts. It was sold to a London dealer who quickly sold it to Joseph Frankels and Sons of New York City, who retained the stone in New York until they, in turn, needed cash. The diamond was next sold to Selim Habib who put it up for auction in Paris in 1909. It did not sell at the auction but was sold soon after to C.H. Rosenau and then resold to Pierre Cartier that same year.

In 1910 the Hope diamond was shown to Mrs. Evalyn Walsh McLean, of Washington D.C., at Cartier’s in Paris, but she did not like the setting. Cartier had the diamond reset and took it to the U.S. where he left it with Mrs. McLean for a weekend. This strategy was successful. The sale was made in 1911 with the diamond mounted as a headpiece on a three-tiered circlet of large white diamonds. Sometime later it became the pendant on a diamond necklace as we know it today. Mrs. McLean’s flamboyant ownership of the stone lasted until her death in 1947.

Harry Winston Inc. of New York City purchased Mrs. McLean’s entire jewelry collection, including the Hope diamond, from her estate in 1949. This collection also included the 94.8-carat Star of the East diamond, the 15-carat Star of the South diamond, a 9-carat green diamond, and a 31-carat diamond which is now called the McLean diamond.

For the next 10 years the Hope diamond was shown at many exhibits and charitable events world wide by Harry Winston Inc., including as the central attraction of their Court of Jewels exhibition. On November 10, 1958, they donated the Hope diamond to the Smithsonian Institution, and almost immediately the great blue stone became its premier attraction.

The Hope diamond has left the Smithsonian only four times since it was donated. In 1962 it was exhibited for a month at the Louvre in Paris, France, as part of an exhibit entitled Ten Centuries of French Jewelry. In 1965 the Hope diamond traveled to South Africa where it was exhibited at the Rand Easter Show in Johannesburg. In 1984 the diamond was lent to Harry Winston Inc., in New York, as part of the firm’s 50th anniversary celebration. In 1996 the Hope diamond was again sent to Harry Winston Inc., in New York, this time for cleaning and some minor restoration work.

The weight of the Hope diamond for many years was reported to be 44.5 carats. In 1974 it was removed from its setting and found actually to weigh 45.52 carats. It is classified as a type IIb diamond, which are semiconductive and usually phosphoresce. The Hope diamond phosphoresces a strong red color, which will last for several seconds after exposure to short wave ultra-violet light. The diamond’s blue coloration is attributed to trace amounts of boron in the stone.

In the pendant surrounding the Hope diamond are 16 white diamonds, both pear-shapes and cushion cuts. A bail is soldered to the pendant where Mrs. McLean would often attach other diamonds including the McLean diamond and the Star of the East. The necklace chain contains 45 white diamonds.

In December of 1988, a team from the Gemological Institute of America visited the Smithsonian to grade the great blue stone using present day techniques. They observed that the gem shows evidence of wear, has a remarkably strong phosphorescence, and that its clarity is slightly affected by a whitish graining which is common to blue diamonds. They described the color as a fancy dark grayish-blue. An examination on the same day by another gemologist using a very sensitive colorimeter revealed that there is a very slight violet component to the deep blue color which is imperceptible to the naked eye. Still, one can only wonder that the original 112 3/16-carat stone bought by Tavernier was described as "un beau violet" (a beautiful violet).

The Legend Behind The Hope Diamond

This great blue diamond is perhaps the most notorious gem in history. It has left behind it a trail of so many unlucky owners that it has been popularly supposed to be cursed. The Hope was mined in India, and the 112-carat gem was brought to France in 1668. It was said that a curse rested on it, for a thief was reputed to have stolen the diamond from the eye of a statue of the Hindu goddess Sita, wife of Rama.

Tavernier, who brought the gem from India to France, sold it to Louis XIV, who had it cut into a 67-carat heart-shaped stone and named it the Blue Diamond of the Crown. Tavernier is said to have been killed by wild dogs on his next trip to India.

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette inherited the French Blue, as it was popularly known. In 1792, about the time of their executions, the French Blue was stolen from the Garde-Meuble together with all of the French crown jewels. Some of the gems taken in this robbery were recovered, but not the Blue Diamond of the Crown.

It is intriguing to note that a gem resembling the Hope is worn by Queen Maria Louisa of Spain in a portrait painted by Goya in 1800. There are reports that the stolen French Blue was recut to its present size by Wilhelm Fals, a Dutch diamond cutter. Fals is said to have died of grief after his son, Hendrick stole the gem from him. Hendrick, in turn, committed suicide.

In 1830, there appeared in London a 44.5-carat deep blue oval-cut diamond the gem experts agree was the French Blue recut to conceal its identity. Henry Hope bought i, and since then it has been known as the Hope diamond.

The Hope moved on. An Eastern European prince gave it to an actress of the Folies Bergere and later shot her. A Greek owner and his family plunged to their death over a precipice in an automobile accident. The Turkish sultan Abdul-Hamid II had owned the gem only a few months when an army revolt toppled him from his throne in 1909.

Evalyn Walsh McLean, a wealthy and eccentric American social figure, bought the Hope diamond in 1911. Her son was killed in an automobile accident, her husband died in a mental hospital, and her daughter died in 1946 of an overdose of sleeping pills.

After Mrs. McLean’s death in 1947, New York jeweler Harry Winston purchased her jewels, including the Hope. He gave the gem to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., in 1958, no doubt with a certain sense of relief.

***When Harry Winston "gave" the Hope Diamond to the Smithsonian, he mailed it via registered mail which was delivered by the US Postal Service. The package arrived at Union Station in Washington DC via train from an overnight trip from New York City.
The package was insured for 2.00 and had postage in the amount of .90 on it.

James Todd was the USPS mail carrier who delivered the package to the Smithsonian Museum. As with so many others, the curses of anyone who handled the Hope Diamond also impacted James Todd. Shortly after delivering the package, he was injured by a truck which ran over and crushed his leg. Soon after that, Todd experienced three additional incidents: his wife had a heart attack, his dog died after getting strangled by his own leash, and lastly Todd’s house was destroyed in a fire.

Coincidence or not, the diamond seems to have brought enormous troubles in its train.

Identity Thief – Stolen Credit Card Information
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Tity Thief
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< img alt="identity burglars"src=""width="400"/ > Picture by Pentadact That’s, like, diamond bordering
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Just What Identity Thieves Do Together With Your Identity?

Once identification thieves have developed your own personal information there are numerous things they are able to do in order to commit fraud. Lots of people think about identification theft as only economic. There are actually a number of other forms of identity theft that may ruin your great title, costing you time and money. Here’s what identification thieves are performing together with your identification:
Obtaining a Driver’s License or national Identification
Using these deceptive identifications identity thieves can buy or lease automobiles. They may be able hire a property or a condo. They are able to open a fresh phone-in your name and run-up the fees. They may be able even get utility solutions particularly electricity, home heating and cable tv inside name.
Obtain work and national Benefits
Using your personal protection number identification thieves can gain employment, stating earnings under your title. They could get Social protection income, disability, Medicare, Medicaid alongside federal government assisted programs.
Obtain healthy benefits or Extortion
Identity thieves may use your health information for health insurance, prescription drugs or Medicare. And your personal information contained in your health documents enables you to extort you or openly embarrass you, aided by the threat of disclosing private information.
Commit a Crime Using Your Name
Identity thieves agree crimes inside title. If they have a ticket and use your own personal information, you get offered a warrant as soon as the solution actually paid. Should they make use of your identification whenever arrested then try not to arrive for court you obtain served a warrant as well.
Obtain Cash or Credit
Identity thieves open up brand-new credit cards within title and maximum them out. They may be able acquire inspections or make counterfeit checks making use of your personal information. They are able to take out loan inside name and also up new lender records and compose bad inspections.
These are among the typical kinds of crimes identification thieves agree with your personal information. Identification thieves these days can quickly destroy you credit and good name, making your entire day to day life a nightmare wanting to fix all of the damage done.

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Backdoor Survival Identity Thief, Incognito
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< img alt="identification burglars"src =""width ="400"/ > Image by CarbonNYC [in SF!] Obviously I really did not take this image( and the next couple
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How Identity Theft Scams Work

< iframe size=" 425" elevation=" 355" src="" frameborder=" 0" allowfullscreen > Robert Siciliano, identity theft professional, shares how different identification burglary scams work, exactly how burglars get customer information, just what they can do with that said information as well as how you could secure on your own.

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Credit Card Identity Thieves: Here's a Way to Foil Them

< iframe width =" 425" elevation =" 355 "src =" "frameborder =" 0" allowfullscreen >< img alt =" Charge card Identity Thieves: Right here's a Means to Aluminum foil Them "src =""/ > July 23– Oberthur Technologies The United States and Canada Head of state Martin Ferenczi talks about identity theft as well as charge card solutions. He speaks on “Market Makers.”.

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University student: Exactly how to Secure Yourself from Identification Burglars

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by Ars Electronica

It must truly be no surprise that because 2005, greater than a third of the victims of identity burglary in the USA are university trainees. That’s because pupils seldom take precautions to secure themselves agains identification burglary, since great deals of individuals have potential accessibility to their personal info, and due to the fact that they are the receivers of a lots of credit card as well as various other commercial junk mailings.Todd Davis, the

CEO of LifeLock, the country’s initial identification theft avoidance service for customers, supplied us these tips for moms and dads and also college-bound trainees to assist secure them from ending up being victims of identification thieves.1. Before going off to school, pupils must buy a shredder and also utilize it to destroy anything they might throw away which contains individual info about tem; transcript, financial assistance types, housing info, course timetables, etc. A great rule for students: if you aren’t going to maintain it in a secure file, shred it! 2. Residence hall rooms as well as trainee houses typically have lots of people in them, consisting of some family member strangers. That’s why it makes sense to password shield computer documents and safe and secure papers which include your individual information. Remember, it takes just one undependable individual to swipe your identification and also create you years of trouble.3. Parents, have your child order a complimentary credit score report, and check it for issues.

You can obtain one totally free record a year, and fix any type of troubles you determine.4. In the most current 3 years, more than 2 hundred universities, colleges, college areas and student financing companies have actually shed personal info on virtually 9 million trainees, professors, and team. Despite rises in institutional security, social safety numbers and other critical identifiers are shed or swiped at a consistent rate. Therefore, it makes good sense to take actions to make certain you have actually secured your identification in the occasion your details ends up being susceptible to identity burglars.5. Decide out of all spam, as soon as feasible. Identification burglars can swipe credit history card uses from your mailbox or rubbish(if you fall short to shred), fill in the applications with your name and their address, and cost hundreds of bucks of products as well as solutions to you. It occurs every day.6. You can get in touch with the significant credit reporting services to start fraudulence informs which means you will, a minimum of in concept, be called before anybody is able to open up a new account in your name. You have to restore these alerts every 90 days, or you can work with a credit score security service to look after it for you. Some such firms will really compensate you if any individual successfully steals your identification. One firm supplies an assurance of as much as$1 million.Taking a little bit of time and working out some care to stop identity burglary is well worth the effort. Safeguard on your own by being cautious, mindful, and also alert. Daniel Z. Kane is an university dean that recommends pupils on < a rel="nofollow "href=""> on-line college degree programs as well as on the internet level programs.

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