DSC02522 – Commissaire-Ordonnateur’s Property

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DSC02522 – Commissaire-Ordonnateur’s Property
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Image by archer10 (Dennis) 92M Views
PLEASE, NO invitations or self promotions, THEY WILL BE DELETED. My photos are FREE to use, just give me credit and it would be nice if you let me know, thanks.

Close scrutiny of this big building can reveal how an empire was run. To maintain royal sway over far-flung colonies, paperwork was as vital as fortresses and fleets. While the engineer built Louisbourg and the governor symbolized its authority, the man who lived here kept the colony running.

In the offices overlooking the quay, the administrator and his clerks filled up books of correspondence, maintained the colonial accounts, and compiled their statistical reports for the Ministry of Marine. They paid the colony’s bills from the well-guarded treasury here – see the barred windows – and filled the storerooms behind with their supplies. Everything from economic policy to civil justice was managed from here, and the power of the commissaires- ordonnateurs sometimes excited the governors’ jealousy. Built as a private residence, the house became royal property in 1733 and expanded with the power of its occupants.

The administrators were professional servants of the Crown who hoped to win promotion by proving themselves here. François Bigot established his reputation by able and devoted service as Île Royale’s commissaire-ordonnateur from 1739 to 1745, while his sharp investments simultaneously laid the foundation of his wealth. Duly promoted, he went on to both fortune and disgrace as the last Intendant of New France.

The main floor of this house is furnished as Bigot’s working and living space. The top floor houses an exhibit, Vestiges of Louisbourg, which contains artifacts from eighteenth century Louisbourg, and a gallery with paintings and ship models recreating aspects of Louisbourg’s busy port.

The stables behind the residence, at the corner of Rue Royale, are another sign of authority. Boats were needed more than horses in this colony. Few homeowners built large stables like these and a horse and carriage proclaimed wealth and prestige.

Haze over eastern China
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Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Video
The skies over northern China were shrouded with a thick haze in late December, 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite captured this true-color image on December 23.

The dense, gray haze obscures almost all the land and much of the coastal waters from view south and east of the Taihang Mountains. Clearer air covers the region north of the mountains, although fingers of haze roll through most river valleys. The cities of Beijing and Hebei, both west of the Bohai Sea are complete enshrouded.

By December 24 the smog levels in some area exceeded World Health Organization-recommended levels by 30 times, according to Bloomberg News. The concentration of PM2.5, which are fine air particulates, were reported at 421 micrograms per cubic meter at 2 p.m. near Tiananmen Square in Beijing, while levels were 795 in Xi’an and 740 in Zhengzhou. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 24-hour exposure to PM2.5 concentrations no higher than 25 micrograms per cubic meter.

While not the sole cause of haze and pollution, the use of coal as a very cheap energy source adds to the problem, particularly north of the Huai River. Prior to 1980, the government policy provided free coal for fuel boilers for all people living north of the Huai River. The widespread use of coal allows people in the north to stay warm in winter, but they have paid a price in air quality.

According to Michael Greenstone, a Professor of Environmental Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), whose research team published a paper on sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy in the region, air pollution, as measured by total suspended particulates, was about 55% higher north of the Huai River than south of it, for a difference of around 184 micrograms of particulate matter per cubic meter. The research, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in July, 2013, also noted life expectancies were about 5.5 years lower in the north, owing to an increased incidence of cardiorespiratory mortality.

Air pollution is an on-going issue for the government of China, and Beijing’s Five-Year Clean Air Action Plan aims to reduce overall particle density by over 25 percent on the PM2.5 scale by 2017, and also takes aim at shutting down all coal-burning plants.

Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

NASA image use policy.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission.

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DSC02510 – Gaming Table – Commissaire-Ordonnateur’s Property
free credit report gov
Image by archer10 (Dennis) 92M Views
PLEASE, NO invitations or self promotions, THEY WILL BE DELETED. My photos are FREE to use, just give me credit and it would be nice if you let me know, thanks.

Close scrutiny of this big building can reveal how an empire was run. To maintain royal sway over far-flung colonies, paperwork was as vital as fortresses and fleets. While the engineer built Louisbourg and the governor symbolized its authority, the man who lived here kept the colony running.

In the offices overlooking the quay, the administrator and his clerks filled up books of correspondence, maintained the colonial accounts, and compiled their statistical reports for the Ministry of Marine. They paid the colony’s bills from the well-guarded treasury here – see the barred windows – and filled the storerooms behind with their supplies. Everything from economic policy to civil justice was managed from here, and the power of the commissaires- ordonnateurs sometimes excited the governors’ jealousy. Built as a private residence, the house became royal property in 1733 and expanded with the power of its occupants.

The administrators were professional servants of the Crown who hoped to win promotion by proving themselves here. François Bigot established his reputation by able and devoted service as Île Royale’s commissaire-ordonnateur from 1739 to 1745, while his sharp investments simultaneously laid the foundation of his wealth. Duly promoted, he went on to both fortune and disgrace as the last Intendant of New France.

The main floor of this house is furnished as Bigot’s working and living space. The top floor houses an exhibit, Vestiges of Louisbourg, which contains artifacts from eighteenth century Louisbourg, and a gallery with paintings and ship models recreating aspects of Louisbourg’s busy port.

The stables behind the residence, at the corner of Rue Royale, are another sign of authority. Boats were needed more than horses in this colony. Few homeowners built large stables like these and a horse and carriage proclaimed wealth and prestige.