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That Was the Year That Was – 1966
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The swinging sixties were in full flow, but in some corners of the world the peace and love mantra of the flower-power generation could not be heard.

Even as hippies in London and San Francisco were weaving daisies into their hair, in China Mao Tse-Tung launched the Cultural Revolution, a 10-year political campaign aimed at rekindling revolutionary Communist fervour. Brandishing their copies of Mao’s Little Red Book of quotations, students of the Communist Party – the so-called Red Guards – pursued an ideological cleansing campaign in which they renounced and attacked anyone suspected of being an intellectual, or a member of the bourgeoisie. Thousands of Chinese citizens were executed, and millions more were yoked into manual labour in the decade that followed.

Meanwhile, the US government, under president Lyndon B Johnson, was escalating its military presence in Vietnam. By the year’s end, American troop levels had reached 389,000, with more than 5,000 combat deaths and over 30,000 wounded. The war was a brutal and dirty one, with many US casualties caused by sniper fire, booby traps and mines.

The Americans responded by sending B-52 bombers over North Vietnam, and by launching the infamous Search and Destroy policy on the ground.

"To know war," Johnson said in his State of the Union address before Congress, in January 1966, "is to know that there is still madness in this world".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=InRDF_0lfHk

There was bloodshed on the streets of London too, when Ronnie Kray, brother of Reggie, shot George Cornell dead in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel in March.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rhr8Vjzy8E

Two years after his proclamations about the "white heat of technology" Harold Wilson was prime minister of a Labour government that included technology minister Tony Benn. If Benn was pleased to witness the introduction of the first homegrown UK credit card – The Barclaycard – in 1966, he was in the minority. The card was met with "a tidal wave of indifference", according to a Barclays executive.

Perhaps the UK public simply had other things on their minds.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRuVVqn63co

This was, after all, the year in which Bobby Moore’s England beat the Germans 4-2 to lift the World Cup at Wembley.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3T6IY2fz_Mc

Musically, 1966 was a vintage year. Jim Reeves’ Distant Drums knocked the Small Faces’ All or Nothing off the top spot. Other number ones in the year included Frank Sinatra’s Strangers in the Night, Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys, the Walker Brothers’ The Sun Ain’t Gonna Shine Anymore and The Green, Green Grass of Home by Tom Jones.

The Beatles and the Rolling Stones also continued their dominance of the music scene, with Yellow Submarine, Eleanor Rigby, Paperback Writer and Paint it Black all topping the charts.

A Man for all Seasons won Best Picture at the 1966 Oscars, and its star Paul Scofield won Best Actor. Other films released this year included Georgy Girl, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Alfie and the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzQTF–oQ-U

On the small screen, viewers were subjected to the rants of Alf Garnet in Till Death us do Part; while US audiences were introduced to the delights of the Monkees and Star Trek. And the dynamic duo, Batman and Robin, thwarted lute-playing electronics genius the Minstrel as he tried to sabotage the computer systems at the Gotham City Stock Exchange.

"Batman heads off new corporate IT disaster" – now there’s a headline to conjure with.

The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8. The Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 to replace the ferry service crossing from Aust to Beachley. The new bridge provided a direct link for the M4 motorway into Wales.

The Severn Bridge has now carried more than 300,000,000 vehicles since it was opened in 1966. Between 1980 and 1990 traffic flows increased by 63% and there were severe congestion problems in the summer and at peak times each day. Further increases in traffic flows were expected in the years ahead. The problems encountered on the Severn Bridge were made worse by the occasional high winds, accidents and breakdowns. It is for these reasons that the Second Severn Crossing was constructed as without it congestion would become more serious and frequent on the M4, M5 and the local road network.

Bristol’s Mecca Centre opens

1966 – Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!

And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.

The New Entertainments Centre wasn’t just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.

London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNk8yuZ4lbI

Horace Batchelor K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M

1966 – KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.

Self-styled ‘football pools king’ Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.

Customers followed his unique ‘infra draw’ tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.

His ads included genial patter such as: ‘Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.’

Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.

During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.

It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. – By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named ‘Infra -Grange’ after his system.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU7MMdlATZQ

Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966

Pickles, the mongrel dog who found the World Cup in a London street after it had been stolen three months before the 1966 finals, became a bigger story than that year’s general election.

In March 1966, a few months before the start of the World Cup finals in England, a mongrel dog named Pickles found the missing Jules Rimet trophy in a London street.

One week before Pickles came to the rescue, the priceless trophy had been stolen from the Westminster’s Methodist Central Hall where it was being displayed, albeit in a glass cabinet.

And this despite the presence of no less than five security guards. On that fateful Sunday, however, the guard stationed next to the trophy had taken the day off. The thieves stole in through a back door and snatched away the World Cup.

For his winning role in the tale, Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966 and awarded a year’s free supply of dog food. His owner, a Thames lighterman named David Corbett, was a prime suspect in the case and police questioned him for hours before he was cleared.

With a dramatic goal in the final moments of what was a nail-biting match, England finally became soccer World Cup champions, securing a 4-2 win over West Germany at London’s Wembley Stadium. It was just one of the many highlights of 1966 that are etched on my memory from a year that had its fair share of controversy and tragedy as well as producing some outstanding music.

‘more popular than Jesus’

Controversy come in the wake of John Lennon’s quip in a newspaper interview that The Beatles were ‘more popular than Jesus now’. It caused a furor and led to thousands of the group’s records being burned on bonfires in protest in some parts of America. I recall seeing the news coverage on TV showing angry groups of people tossing piles of vinyl in to the flames. It was far cry from the outpourings of adoration and admiration that the Liverpool lads usually enjoyed. And for a while threatened to damage their reputation.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ6NL3iNNMs

The anti-Beatles outcry did however subside following an apology from Lennon and things eventually got back to normal on the Fab Four front. The catchy Paperback Writer topped the charts and their imaginative album Revolver reinstated their popularity.

Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales

One of the most tragic events that year In Britain was the Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales that claimed 144 lives, including 116 children. I was at work on a weekly newspaper on the October morning it happened. My colleagues and I had a radio on and listened to updates on and off throughout the day as rescuers dug through the tons of slurry that had roared down the hillside, desperately trying to find survivors in the mangled remains of the school building. I’ll always remember that it was a very dark period, particularly as so many young lives had been lost in what was later shown to have been an avoidable tragedy.

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On the music front, 1966 threw up several gems, not least some groundbreaking offerings from The Beach Boys. It was, of course, the year that the magical singles Good Vibrations and God Only Knows and the grandiose album Pet Sounds set new standards in rock recording. Indeed, such was the excellence of the band at that time that it spurred The Beatles on to experiment and push their own musical boundaries still further.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOMyS78o5YI

Motown was in its glory too, and The Four Tops epitomized all that was great about the sounds made under the guidance of Berry Gordy in the bustling, vibrant city that was Detroit. Reach Out I’ll Be There.

Other memorable songs, were Dusty Springfield’s You Don’t Have To Say You Love Me, the Spencer Davis Group’s Somebody Help Me, the Rolling Stones Paint It Black, The Walker Brothers’ operatic The Sun Ain’t `Gonna Shine Anymore, and Chris Farlowe’s cover version of the Stones’ Out Of Time. All of them are classics of rock.

Tom Jones’ Green, Green Grass of Home was the biggest selling single. Way before The Voice!

www.youtube.com/watch?v=hSajFnkUxQY

George Harrison married Patti Boyd.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm8oTkuIJgs

Sergio Leone created the spaghetti western with The Good, The Bad and The Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. Due to the striking height difference between Clint Eastwood and Eli Wallach of over 9 inches, it was sometimes difficult to include them in the same frame.

Because Sergio Leone spoke barely any English and Eli Wallach spoke barely any Italian, the two communicated in French.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PgAKzmWmuk

In the 1960s Michael Caine was a cocky young British movie star with a Cockney accent. He played a caddish womanizer in Alfie (1966) "Not a lot of people know that"

Adam Sandler, Halle Berry, David Schwimmer, David Cameron, Cindy Crawford, Helena Bonham Carter were all born in 1966.

The first episode of Star Trek aired.

Walt Disney died.

The Beatles achieved their 10th number 1!

The Sound of Music won Best Picture at the Oscars.

Twiggy was named the face of ’66 by Daily Express.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncuD39xi-7M

1966 was also the year that the term Swinging London was coined by Time magazine, and as they say the rest is history

www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDIxIqc0Qkw

For a few years in the 1960s, London was the world capital of cool. When Time magazine dedicated its 15 April 1966 issue to London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade.

London’s remarkable metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-War capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style was largely down to two factors: youth and money. The baby boom of the 1950s meant that the urban population was younger than it had been since Roman times.

By the mid-60s, 40% of the population at large was under 25. With the abolition of National Service for men in 1960, these young people had more freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents’ generation. They rebelled against the limitations and restrictions of post-War society. In short, they wanted to shake things up… Added to this, Londoners had more disposable income than ever before – and were looking for ways to spend it. Nationally, weekly earnings in the ‘60s outstripped the cost of living by a staggering 183%: in London, where earnings were generally higher than the national average, the figure was probably even greater.

This heady combination of affluence and youth led to a flourishing of music, fashion, design and anything else that would banish the post-War gloom. Fashion boutiques sprang up willy-nilly.

Men flocked to Carnaby St, near Soho, for the latest ‘Mod’ fashions. While women were lured to the King’s Rd, where Mary Quant’s radical mini skirts flew off the rails of her iconic store, Bazaar.

Even the most shocking or downright barmy fashions were popularised by models who, for the first time, became superstars. Jean Shrimpton was considered the symbol of Swinging London, while Twiggy was named The Face of 1966. Mary Quant herself was the undisputed queen of the group known as The Chelsea Set, a hard-partying, socially eclectic mix of largely idle ‘toffs’ and talented working-class movers and shakers.

Music was also a huge part of London’s swing. While Liverpool had the Beatles, the London sound was a mix of bands who went on to worldwide success, including The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces and The Rolling Stones. Their music was the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Radio Swinging England. Creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, photographers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers.

But not everything in London’s garden was rosy. Immigration was a political hot potato: by 1961, there were over 100,000 West Indians in London, and not everyone welcomed them with open arms. The biggest problem of all was a huge shortage of housing to replace bombed buildings and unfit slums and cope with a booming urban population. The badly-conceived solution – huge estates of tower blocks – and the social problems they created, changed the face of London for ever. By the 1970s, with industry declining and unemployment rising,

Swinging London seemed a very dim and distant memory.

1966 in British music

14 January – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones (later of the Monkees).

19 January – Michael Tippett conducts the performance of his cantata The Vision of St Augustine in London.

6 February – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=D88vc_GWw-g

4 March – The Beatles’ John Lennon is quoted in The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US’s Bible Belt.

5 March – The UK’s Kenneth McKellar, singing "A Man Without Love", finishes 9th in the 11th Eurovision Song Contest, which is won by Udo Jürgens of Austria.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SH8BQmfhUgo

6 March – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool’s Cavern Club.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1SQ99AYudo

16 April – Disc Weekly is incormporated with Music Echo magazine.

1 May – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the New Musical Express’ poll winners’ show in London. The show is televised, but The Beatles’ and The Stones’ segments are omitted because of union conflicts.

13 May – The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar (in this case played by Brian Jones).

17 May – American singer Bob Dylan and the Hawks (later The Band) perform at the Free Trade Hall, Manchester. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an
electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.

2 July – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo. The performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan, a place – until then – designated to the practice of martial arts.

11 August – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I’m sorry I opened my mouth. I’m not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

29 August – The Beatles perform their last official concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

16 September – Eric Burdon records a solo album after leaving The Animals and appears on "Ready, Steady, Go", singing "Help Me Girl", a UK #14 solo hit. Also on the show are Otis Redding and Chris Farlowe.

9 November – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono when he attends a preview of her art exhibition at the Indica Gallery in London.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhJIiEeMeF0

9 December – The Who release their second album A Quick One with a nine-minute "mini-opera" A Quick One While He’s Away.

16 December – The Jimi Hendrix Experience release their first single in the UK, "Hey Joe".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3JsuWz4xWc

1966 in British television

3 January – Camberwick Green is the first BBC television programme to be shot in colour.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWUu-LTFJjE

3 March – The BBC announces plans to begin broadcasting television programmes in colour from next year.

5 April – The Money Programme debuts on BBC2. It continued to air until 2010.

23 May – Julie Goodyear makes her Coronation Street debut as Bet Lynch. She did not become a regular character until 1970.

6 June – BBC1 sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNSbMNl9K7Q

30 July – England beat West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley.

Summer – Patrick McGoohan quits the popular spy series Danger Man after filming only two episodes of the fourth season, in order to produce and star in The Prisoner, which begins filming in September.

2 October – The four-part serial Talking to a Stranger, acclaimed as one of the finest British television dramas of the 1960s, begins transmission in the Theatre 625 strand on BBC2.

29 October – Actor William Hartnell makes his last regular appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial The Tenth Planet. Actor Patrick Troughton briefly appears as the Second Doctor at the conclusion of the serial.

5 November – Actor Patrick Troughton appears in his first full Doctor Who serial The Power of the Daleks as the Second Doctor.

16 November – Cathy Come Home, possibly the best-known play ever to be broadcast on British television, is presented in BBC1’s The Wednesday Play anthology strand.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMR8KYDkRqk

BBC1

3 January – The Trumptonshire Trilogy: Camberwick Green
5 January – Softly, Softly (1966–1969)
10 March – The Frost Report (1966)
7 May – Quick Before They Catch Us (1966)
17 May – All Gas and Gaiters (1966–1971)
24 May – Beggar My Neighbour (1966–1968)
7 August – It’s a Knockout (BBC1 1966–1982
17 November – The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (1966–1967)

BBC2

5 April – The Money Programme (1966–2010)

ITV

22 March – How (1966–1981)

1966 Events

3 January – British Rail begins full electric passenger train services over the West Coast Main Line from Euston to Manchester and Liverpool with 100 mph (160 km/h) operation from London to Rugby. Services officially inaugurated 18 April.

Stop-motion children’s television series Camberwick Green first shown on BBC1.

4 January – More than 4,000 people attend a memorial service at Westminster Abbey for the broadcaster Richard Dimbleby, who died last month aged 52.

12 January – Three British MPs visiting Rhodesia (Christopher Rowland, Jeremy Bray and David Ennals) are assaulted by supporters of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith.

20 January – The Queen commutes the death sentence on a black prisoner in Rhodesia, two months after its abolition in Britain.

Radio Caroline South pirate radio ship MV Mi Amigo runs aground on the beach at Frinton.

21 January – The Smith regime in Rhodesia rejects the Royal Prerogative commuting death sentences on two Africans.

31 January – United Kingdom ceases all trade with Rhodesia.

9 February – A prototype Fast Reactor nuclear reactor opens at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland.

17 February – Britain protests to South Africa over its supplying of petrol to Rhodesia.

19 February – Naval minister Christopher Mayhew resigns.

28 February – Harold Wilson calls a general election for 31 March, in hope of increasing his single-seat majority.

1 March – Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan announces the decision to embrace decimalisation of the pound (which will be effected on 15 February 1971).

4 March – In an interview published in The Evening Standard, John Lennon of The Beatles comments, "We’re more popular than Jesus now".

Britain recognized the new regime in Ghana.

5 March – BOAC Flight 911 crashes in severe clear-air turbulence over Mount Fuji soon after taking off from Tokyo International Airport in Japan, killing all 124 on board.

9 March – Ronnie, one of the Kray twins, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel, east London, a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969.

11 March – Chi-Chi, the London Zoo’s giant panda, is flown to Moscow for a union with An-An of the Moscow Zoo.

20 March – Theft of football’s FIFA World Cup Trophy whilst on exhibition in London.

23 March – Pope Paul VI and Michael Ramsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, meet in Rome.

27 March – Pickles, a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy wrapped in newspaper in a south London garden.

30 March – Opinion polls show that the Labour government is on course to win a comfortable majority in the general election tomorrow.

31 March – The Labour Party under Harold Wilson win the general election with a majority of 96 seats. At the 1964 election they had a majority of five but subsequent by-election defeats had led to that being reduced to just one seat before this election. The Birmingham Edgbaston seat is retained for the Conservatives by Jill Knight in succession to Edith Pitt, the first time two women MPs have followed each other in the same constituency.

6 April – Hoverlloyd inaugurate the first Cross-Channel hovercraft service, from Ramsgate harbour to Calais using passenger-carrying SR.N6 craft.

7 April – The United Kingdom asks the UN Security Council authority to use force to stop oil tankers that violate the oil embargo against Rhodesia. Authority is given on 10 April.

11 April – The Marquess of Bath, in conjunction with Jimmy Chipperfield, opens Longleat Safari Park, with "the lions of Longleat", at his Longleat House, the first such drive-through park outside Africa.

15 April – Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London".

19 April – Ian Brady and Myra Hindley go on trial at Chester Crown Court, charged with three so-called Moors Murders.

30 April – Regular hovercraft service begins over the English Channel (discontinued in 2000 due to competition with the Channel Tunnel.)

Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the second time in three seasons.

3 May – Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio commence broadcasting on AM with a combined potential 100,000 watts from the same ship anchored off the south coast of England in international waters.

6 May – The Moors Murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley are sentenced to life imprisonment for three child murders committed between November 1963 and October 1965. Brady is guilty of all three murders and receives three concurrent terms of life imprisonment, while Hindley is found guilty of two murder charges and an accessory charge which receives two concurrent life sentences alongside a seven-year fixed term.

12 May – African members of the UN Security Council say that the British army should blockade Rhodesia.

14 May – Everton defeat Sheffield Wednesday 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, overturning a 2-0 Sheffield Wednesday lead during the final 16 minutes of the game.

16 May – A strike is called by the National Union of Seamen, ending on 16 July.

18 May – Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announces that the number of police forces in England and Wales will be cut to 68.

26 May – Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

6 June – BBC1 television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

23 June – The Beatles go on top of the British singles charts for the 10th time with Paperback Writer.

29 June – Barclays Bank introduces the Barclaycard, the first British credit card.

3 July – 31 arrests made after a protest against the Vietnam War outside the US embassy turns violent.

12 July – Zambia threatens to leave the Commonwealth because of British peace overtures to Rhodesia.

14 July – Gwynfor Evans becomes member of Parliament for Carmarthen, the first ever Plaid Cymru MP, after his victory at a by-election.

15 July – A ban on black workers at Euston railway station is overturned.

16 July – Prime Minister Harold Wilson flies to Moscow to try to start peace negotiations over the Vietnam War. The Soviet Government rejects his ideas.

20 July – Start of 6-month wage and price freeze.

26 July – Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.

30 July – England beats West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley. Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick and Martin Peters scores the other English goal in a game which attracts an all-time record UK television audience of more than 32,000,000.

1 August – Everton sign Blackpool’s World Cup winning midfield player Alan Ball, Jr. for a national record fee of £110,000.

2 August – Spanish government forbids overflights of British military aircraft.

4 August – The Kray Twins are questioned in connection with a murder in London.

5 August – The Beatles release the album Revolver.

10 August – George Brown succeeds Michael Stewart as Foreign Secretary.

12 August – Three policemen are shot dead in Shepherd’s Bush, West London, while sitting in their patrol car in Braybrook Street.

15 August – John Whitney is arrested and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

17 August – John Duddy is arrested in Glasgow and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

18 August – Tay Road Bridge opens.

24 August – Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is first staged, at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.

29 August – The Beatles play their very last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

3 September – Barely five months after the death of Barry Butler, a second Football League player this year dies in a car crash; 30-year-old John Nicholson, a Doncaster Rovers centre-half who previously played for Port Vale and Liverpool.

5 September – Selective Employment Tax imposed.

15 September – Britain’s first Polaris submarine, HMS Resolution, launched at Barrow-in-Furness.

17 September – Oberon-class submarine HMCS Okanagan launched at Chatham Dockyard, the last warship to be built there.

19 September – Scotland Yard arrests Ronald "Buster" Edwards, suspected of being involved in the Great Train Robbery (1963).

27 September – BMC makes 7,000 workers redundant.

30 September – The Bechuanaland Protectorate in Africa achieves independence from the U.K. as Botswana.

4 October – Basutoland becomes independent and takes the name Lesotho.

18 October – The Ford Cortina MK2 is launched.

20 October – In economic news, 437,229 people are reported to be unemployed in Britain – a rise of some 100,000 on last month’s figures.

21 October – Aberfan disaster in South Wales, 144 (including 116 children) killed by collapsing coal spoil tip.

22 October – British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow.

Spain demands that United Kingdom stop military flights to Gibraltar – Britain says "no" the next day.

25 October – Spain closes its Gibraltar border against vehicular traffic.

5 November – Thirty-eight African states demand that the United Kingdom use force against Rhodesian government.

9 November – The Rootes Group launches the Hillman Hunter, a four-door family saloon to compete with the Austin 1800, Ford Cortina and Vauxhall Victor.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6aTt-zFlo4

15 November – Harry Roberts is arrested near London and charged with the murder of three policemen in August.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXp36IUpDkU

16 November – The BBC television drama Cathy Come Home, filmed in a docudrama style, is broadcast on BBC1. Viewed by a quarter of the British population, it is considered influential on public attitudes to homelessness and the related social issues it deals with.

24 November – Unemployment sees another short rise, now standing at 531,585.

30 November – Barbados achieves independence.

1 December – Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith negotiate on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean.

12 December – Harry Roberts, John Whitney and John Duddy are sentenced to life imprisonment (each with a recommended minimum of thirty years) for the murder of three West London policemen in August.

20 December – Harold Wilson withdraws all his previous offers to Rhodesian government and announces that he agrees to independence only after the founding of black majority government.

22 December – Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith declares that he considers that Rhodesia is already a republic.

31 December – Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich Art Gallery in London.

Undated

Centre Point, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus in London, designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams, is completed. It remains empty for around a decade.

London School of Contemporary Dance founded.

Mathematician Michael Atiyah wins a Fields Medal.

The motorway network continues to grow as the existing M1, M4 (including the Severn Bridge on the border of England and Wales) and M6 motorways are expanded and new motorways emerge in the shape of the M32 linking the M4 with Bristol, and the M74 near Hamilton in Scotland.

Japanese manufacturer Nissan begins importing its range of Datsun branded cars to the United Kingdom.

The 1966 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1966. It was the fourth round of the 1966 World Championship. It was the 21st British Grand Prix and the second to be held at Brands Hatch. It was held over 80 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 341 kilometres.

The race, the first of the new three-litre engine regulation era where starters reached 20 cars,

was won for the third time by Australian driver Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19, his second win in succession after winning the French Grand Prix two weeks earlier. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme finished second in his Brabham BT20, a first 1–2 win for the Brabham team. The pair finished a lap ahead of third placed British driver Graham Hill in his BRM P261. Brabham’s win ended a streak of 4 consecutive wins by Jim Clark at the British Grand Prix. Brabham’s win put him ten points clear in the championship chase over Austrian Cooper racer Jochen Rindt with Hulme and Ferrari’s Lorenzo Bandini a point further back.

1965–66 in English football

7 October 1965: An experiment to broadcast a live game to another ground takes place. Cardiff City play Coventry City and the match is broadcast to a crowd of 10,000 at Coventry’s ground Highfield Road.

20 March 1966: The World Cup is stolen from an exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster, where it was on show in the run-up to this summer’s World Cup in England.

27 March 1966: The World Cup is recovered by Pickles, a mongrel dog, in South London.

16 April 1966: Liverpool seal the First Division title for the seventh time in their history with a 2–0 home win over Stoke City.

14 May 1966: Everton win the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday in the final at Wembley Stadium, despite going 2–0 down in the 57th minute.

11 July 1966: England, as the host nation, begin their World Cup campaign with a goalless draw against Uruguay at Wembley Stadium.

16 July 1966: England’s World Cup campaign continues with a 2–0 win over Mexico (goals coming from Bobby Charlton and Roger Hunt) that moves them closes to qualifying for the next
stage of the competition.

20 July 1966: England qualify for the next stage of the World Cup with a 2–0 win over France in their final group game. Roger Hunt scores both of England’s goals.

23 July 1966: England beat Argentina 1–0 in the World Cup quarter-final thanks to a goal by Geoff Hurst.

26 July 1966: England reach the World Cup final by beating Portugal 2–1 in the semi-final.

Bobby Charlton scores both of England’s goals.

30 July 1966: England win the World Cup with a 4–2 win over West Germany in extra time.

Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick, with Martin Peters scoring the other goal.

Honours

Competition Winners
First Division Liverpool
Second Division Manchester City
Third Division Hull City
Fourth Division Doncaster Rovers
FA Cup Everton
League Cup West Bromwich Albion
Charity Shield Manchester United and Liverpool (shared)
Home Championship England

►Atlas, {Typhoëus}, Prometheus Bound◄ being savagely con-tortured insurgents put asunder by the tyrant Jupiter & the centrifugal force [_550 BC_]
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Image by quapan
The three titans are shown upon a laconic bowl (~550 BC) while they are being punished for their insurgency against the tyrant Jupiter:
Prometheus is tied to a column representing the Caucasus.
Atlas acts as the column at the opposite side of the hellenic world.
The forced apart couple of erotic acrobats are oppressed into face-to-face-opposition to each other.
Typhoëus is represented by the column propping up the rotating disc-shaped pottery-wheel upon which the titans – put asunder by the centrifugal forces – are trying to delicately (equi)poise each other while being contorted into a precarious ‘kneeling’ posture which is part of their penalty and handicap …

Pythagorean Triangle
Three points form a Right Angle for a pythagorean triangle:
eye of Prometheus [looking into the direction of the] – eye of Atlas [looking into the direction of the] – left side of the column representing the invisualized Typhoëus under his left big toe.

Atlas & Typhoëus & Prometheus:
Atlas one of the titans who was punished for his part in their revolt against Zeus by being made to support the heavens. He became identified with the Atlas Mountains. [NODE]
Typhoëus (‘Typho’. Not to confound with the word ‘typhoon’ from the chinese ‘tai fung’= ‘big wind’ !): In aeschylean tragedies he was the titan buried under the vulcano Aetna [A.Pr.372, A.Th.517, A.Supp 560] . The proudest of the titans was punished for his hubris with invisibility. – Pindar gives his birthplace as Cilicia, but places him under Cyme and Sicily, and so accounts for the eruptions of Aetna.[LSJ]
Prometheus a demigod, one of the Titans, who was worshipped by craftsmen. When Zeus stole fire away from man Prometheus hid it by trickery and returned it to earth. As punishment Zeus chained him to a rock where an eagle fed each day on his liver, which grew again each night; he was rescued by Hercules. [NODE]
titan any of the older gods who preceded the Olympians and were the children of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). Led by Cronus, they overthrew Uranus; Cronus’ son, Zeus, then rebelled against his father and eventually defeated the titans. [NODE]
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Winnetou (Pierre Brice) und Old Shatterhand (Lex Barker) am Marterpfahl 1968
Ein Totempfahl, seltener auch Wappenpfahl genannt, ist eine monumentale Skulptur, die aus einem großen Baumstamm geschnitzt und anschließend bemalt wird. Totempfähle waren vor allem bei den Indianern der amerikanischen Nordwestküste verbreitet. Die Errichtung eines Totempfahles war mit der Ausrichtung eines Potlatches verbunden, bei dem die Stellung der Familie in der sozialen Hierarchie ihres jeweiligen Stammes bestätigt wurde. Anders als von den ersten Missionaren in British Columbia vermutet, haben Totempfähle keine religiöse Bedeutung. Sie waren weder heilig noch wurden sie angebetet, sondern hatten eine soziale und politische Funktion. Sie sind nicht mit dem Marterpfahl zu verwechseln, der von indigenen Völkern anderer Regionen Nordamerikas zur Folterung von Gefangenen verwendet wurde.
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"This is a cropping …, so PD-Art can’t apply"
wikimedia commons hat am 26. April 2009 mein PNG-Image wegen möglicher ©-Klagen gelöscht, weil ich es einige Tage als Crop von {{PD-Art}}
beschrieben hatte. Diese Unternehmer haben aber weiterhin meine am 24.Januar 2008 hochgeladene commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atlas_Typhoeus_Prometheus… in ihrer Bibliothek, welche allerdings von keiner wikipedia-Datei verwendet wird und von mir nicht als Crop gekennzeichnet worden ist. ©-Klagen meinerseits scheinen sie also momentan nicht zu befürchten.
26. April 2009 KB Der gefesselte Prometheus (Aischylos)‎; 11:04 . . (-169) . . CommonsDelinker (Diskussion | Beiträge) (AtlasTyphoeusPrometheus.png entfernt, wurde auf Commons von Polarlys gelöscht. Grund: This is a cropping of a kylix (drinking cup), a 3D object, so PD-Art can’t apply.) –Quapan 06:47, 29. Apr. 2009 (CEST)
CommonsDelinker Der von Orgullomoore, Siebrand und Bryan geschriebene und von Siebrand gewartete CommonsDelinker ist ein Dienst für die einzelnen Sprachwikis der Commons:Administratoren zur Verbesserung der Transwiki-Kooperation. Dafür werden Bilder, die auf den Wikimedia Commons gelöscht wurden, durch diesen Dienst entlinkt, damit keine roten Links, wie hier rechts, erscheinen. Der CommonsDelinker ist verwandt mit dem CommonsTicker und hat auch dasselbe Ziel. Er ist aber dennoch nicht als Ersatz für den CommonsTicker gedacht, da das manuelle Entfernen der Bilder und besser noch der Ersatz mit einem anderen freiem Bild leider verständlicher Weise nicht automatisch funktioniert. Ebenso kann es Situationen geben, wo der CommonsDelinker ein Bild nicht entfernen kann. Trotzdem können die Commons nicht länger als die übliche Löschdiskussionsdauer warten, dass die Communities auf die CommonsTicker-Meldungen reagieren und einen Ersatz für die Bilder finden. Der CommonsDelinker kommt erst nach der Löschung eines Bildes zum Einsatz.

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Die Hesperiden sind die Töchter, und Hesperos gilt als Sohn oder Bruder des Atlas, der den Himmel abstützt. Dieser befindet sich seit alters in der Nähe der Hesperiden (46). Er wird allerdings nicht mit dem heutigen Atlas-Gebirge identifiziert, sondern mit dem Teide auf Teneriffa (47). Hesiod lokalisiert ihn an jenem ‚Haus‘, wo sich „Nacht und Tag nahekommen und sich begegnen und auf der großen ehernen Schwelle ablösen“ (48). Daß diese Atlas-Vorstellung ebenfalls in den Westen gehört, beweist die Übereinstimmung mit der Figur des Upelluri der Hethiter (49). Die vielen Diskussionen über das hesiodische Bild hätte man sich ersparen können, wenn berücksichtigt worden wäre, daß nicht erst im Juden- und Christentum, sondern auch schon in der griechischen Antike – im Gegensatz zu unserem heutigen Lebensgefühl – die Tagesgrenze häufig beim Sonnenuntergang angenommen wurde, mit dem der alte Tag gleichsam stirbt, damit aber gleichzeitig der neue geboren wird (50).
Bei Hesiod ist schließlich auch schon die Polarität der beiden Iapetossöhne angedeutet (52), nach der der älteste, Prometheus, im Osten an den Kaukasus geschmiedet ist und der jüngste, Atlas, im Westen bei den Hesperiden den Himmel abstützt; beide werden sie von Herakles besucht.
Hesiod kennt außer den Bergen und Gewässern noch weitere geophysikalische Phänomene: Die Winde sind Söhne des Unholds Typhoeus (53). Diesen hat Zeus in den Tartaros geschleudert, so daß die Erde von seinem Feuer geschmolzen ist. Dabei gestaltet der Dichter ein Gleichnis nach homerischer Art, das man verschieden gedeutet hat: Als tertium comparationis gilt entweder das „Stöhnen“ der Erde, das von manchen als Erdboden (54), richtiger jedoch als vulkanische Erscheinung gedeutet wird (55). Auf jeden Fall befindet sich Typhoeus bei Hesiod noch nicht unter einem feuerspeienden Berg wie später bei Pindar und Aischylos (56). Ob der homerische Polyphem mit seinem ‚Kreisauge‘ und seinem Steinwurf auf Odysseus wirklich eine vulkanische Grundlage hat (57) oder vielleicht auch Aiolie, die Insel des Windgottes (58), ist nicht so sicher wie der vulkanische Ursprung des Hephaistos-Kultes auf der ehemals vulkanischen Insel Lemnos, auf die Zeus seinen unglücklichen Sohn geschleudert haben soll (59). Wir haben hier einen typischen Fall von „Geomythologie“ vor uns (60).
Der häufig mit Typhoeus gleichgesetzte Typhon aus Kilikien, der Unhold eines vorgriechischen orientalischen Mythos, wurde in Ägypten für die Nilschwellen am Neujahrsanfang verantwortlich gemacht und diente der spätantiken politischen Rhetorik dazu, den Apostaten Julianos zu verteufeln. Julians heidnische Reaktion wurde dabei entweder mit Erd-, Seebeben oder Stürmen verglichen, oder man behauptete, sie sei ex eventu durch diese Zeichen einer allgemeinen kosmischen Unordnung angekündigt worden. Nach dem Tode Julians wurde diese Assoziation auf den Usurpator Prokopios übertragen (61).
Der heidnische Redner Libanios bemüht in diesem Zusammenhang auch den Gott Poseidon (62). Noch in der modernen Forschung wird der „Erderschütterer“ Poseidon für Erdbeben verantwortlich gemacht. E. Bickel (63) und F. Schachermeyr (64) haben die kühne Hypothese vertreten, daß das dem Gott Poseidon geweihte hölzerne Pferd von Troja nichts anderes sei als der mythische Ausdruck für die Tatsache, daß Troja VIb durch ein Erdbeben zerstört wurde, eine These, die in den zahlreichen Rezensionen des Buches von Schachermeyr nahezu unwidersprochen geblieben ist (65).
Auch andere Mythen, die zwar nicht in den homerischen Epen belegt sind, aber durchaus alt sein können, haben erdgeschichtliche Dimensionen. Die Flut des Deukalion zeugt – zeugt wie die im Alten Testament – von einer früheren allgemeinen Sintflut (66).

ANMERKUNGEN (46-66)
—► 46 Nebeneinander erscheinen Hesperiden und Atlas bei Hesiod, Theogonie 517f.: Ἄτλας δ᾽ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἔχει κρατερῆς ὑπ᾽ ἀνάγκης πείρασιν ἐν γαίης, πρόπαρ Εσπερίδων λιγυφώνων, vgl. Euripides, Hippolytos 742-747.
—► 47 Seit Ludwig Ideler: Hennig, Geographie, 53-56.
—► 48 Hesiod, Theogonie 748-750: ἀστεμφέως, ὅθι Νύξ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἆσσον ἰοῦσαι ἀλλήλας προσέειπον, ἀμειβόμεναι μέγαν οὐδὸν 750χάλκεον: ἣ μὲν ἔσω καταβήσεται, ἣ δὲ θύραζε.
—► 49 Arrighetti, Cosmologia mitica, 52-60 (=204-212).
—► 50 Hierzu Coillandre, La droite et la gauche. 316-323. Neugebauer. On the date, 565-569. Hübner, Kritische Bemerkungen 253-259. Über eine symbolische Ausdeutung dieser Reihenfolge ders.; der Ordo der Realien, 36.
—► 51 Hesiod, Theogonie 124: Bruder der Tages ist der Aither = Νυκτὸς δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντο). vgl. die Reihenfolge bei Homer, Odyssee 10.80 νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ, 10,86 νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός. Parmenides. 28 B 1,11 Diels-Kranz ἔνθα πύλαι νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός εἰσι κελεύθων u.ö.
—► 52 Hesiod, Theogonie 517-525 (Hesiod nennt an dieser Stelle wohl die Hesperiden, aber nicht den Kaukasus). Vgl. dann Aischylos, Prometheus 348f., Cicero, Tusculanae disputationes 5,8. Nach Aischylos, Prometheus lyomennos frg. 199 Radt (=326a Mette) bei Strabon. Geographika 4,1,7 zeigt Prometheus dem Herakles den Weg zu den Hesperiden.
—► 53 Hesiod, Theogonie 869-880, hierzu Said, Les Combats de Zeus 205f.
—► 54 Kopp, Weltbild, 48f. West. Hesiod Theogony.392 zu Vers 858 στονάχιζε [Triclinius, στενάχιζε codd.] δὲ γαῖα πελώρη: „this is the tertium comparationis in the Homeric simile. The lashing of Typhoeus was apparently a mythical of earthquakes.“
—► 55 Hesiod, Theogonie 860 οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃσιν Αἴτνης ist Konjektur des Textes, überliefert ist an letzter Stelle † ἀιδνῇς, was West als locus conclamatus im Text beläßt, vgl. seine lange Note auf S.393. Dennoch wird die Deutung als Vulkanausbruch allgemein angenommen. Blaise, L’ épisode de Typhée, 362 beschränkt die Macht des „Anti-Zeus“ allzusehr auf das Feuer, um es dem Feuer (Blitz) des Zeus entgegenzusetzen.
—► 56 Pindar, Pythien I, 13-60: ὅσσα δὲ μὴ πεφίληκε Ζεύς, ἀτύζονται βοὰν Πιερίδων ἀΐοντα, γᾶν τε καὶ πόντον κατ᾽ ἀμαιμάκετον, [30] ὅς τ᾽ ἐν αἰνᾷ Ταρτάρῳ κεῖται, θεῶν πολέμιος, Τυφὼς ἑκατοντακάρανος: τόν ποτε Κιλίκιον θρέψεν πολυώνυμον ἄντρον: νῦν γε μὰν ταί θ᾽ ὑπὲρ Κύμας ἁλιερκέες ὄχθαι Σικελία τ᾽ αὐτοῦ πιέζει στέρνα λαχνάεντα: κίων δ᾽ οὐρανία συνέχει, νιφόεσσ᾽ Αἴτνα, πάνετες χιόνος ὀξείας τιθήνα: [40] τᾶς ἐρεύγονται μὲν ἀπλάτου πυρὸς ἁγνόταται ἐκ μυχῶν παγαί: ποταμοὶ δ᾽ ἁμέραισιν μὲν προχέοντι ῥόον καπνοῦ αἴθων᾽: ἀλλ᾽ ἐν ὄρφναισιν πέτρας φοίνισσα κυλινδομένα φλὸξ ἐς βαθεῖαν φέρει πόντου πλάκα σὺν πατάγῳ. κεῖνο δ᾽ Ἁφαίστοιο κρουνοὺς ἑρπετὸν [50] δεινοτάτους ἀναπέμπει: τέρας μὲν θαυμάσιον προσιδέσθαι, θαῦμα δὲ καὶ παρεόντων ἀκοῦσαι, οἷον Αἴτνας ἐν μελαμφύλλοις δέδεται κορυφαῖς καὶ πέδῳ, στρωμνὰ δὲ χαράσσοισ᾽ ἅπαν νῶτον ποτικεκλιμένον κεντεῖ. εἴη, Ζεῦ, τὶν εἴη ἁνδάνειν, ὃς τοῦτ᾽ ἐφέπεις ὄρος, εὐκάρποιο γαίας μέτωπον, τοῦ μὲν ἐπωνυμίαν κλεινὸς οἰκιστὴρ ἐκύδανεν πόλιν [60] γείτονα, Πυθιάδος δ᾽ ἐν δρόμῳ κάρυξ ἀνέειπέ νιν ἀγγέλλων Ἱέρωνος ὑπὲρ καλλινίκου ἅρμασι.
But those whom Zeus does not love are stunned with terror when they hear the cry of the Pierian Muses, on earth or on the irresistible sea; [15] among them is he who lies in dread Tartarus, that enemy of the gods, Typhon with his hundred heads. Once the famous Cilician cave nurtured him, but now the sea-girt cliffs above Cumae, and Sicily too, lie heavy on his shaggy chest. And the pillar of the sky holds him down, [20] snow-covered Aetna, year-round nurse of bitter frost, from whose inmost caves belch forth the purest streams of unapproachable fire. In the daytime her rivers roll out a fiery flood of smoke, while in the darkness of night the crimson flame hurls rocks down to the deep plain of the sea with a crashing roar. [25] That monster shoots up the most terrible jets of fire; it is a marvellous wonder to see, and a marvel even to hear about when men are present. Such a creature is bound beneath the dark and leafy heights of Aetna and beneath the plain, and his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it. Grant that we may be pleasing to you, Zeus, [30] you who frequent this mountain, this brow of the fruitful earth, whose namesake city near at hand was glorified by its renowned founder, when the herald at the Pythian racecourse proclaimed the name of Aetna, announcing Hieron’s triumph with the chariot.
Aischylos, Prometheus 363-365,
ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐκ, εἰ δυστυχῶ, τοῦδ᾽ εἵνεκα θέλοιμ᾽ ἂν ὡς πλείστοισι πημονὰς τυχεῖν. οὐ δῆτ᾽ ἐπεί με καὶ κασιγνήτου τύχαι τείρουσ᾽ Ἄτλαντος, ὃς πρὸς ἑσπέρους τόπους ἕστηκε κίον᾽ οὐρανοῦ τε καὶ χθονὸς ὤμοις ἐρείδων, ἄχθος οὐκ εὐάγκαλον. τὸν γηγενῆ τε Κιλικίων οἰκήτορα ἄντρων ἰδὼν ᾤκτιρα, δάιον τέρας ἑκατογκάρανον πρὸς βίαν χειρούμενον Τυφῶνα θοῦρον: πᾶσιν [ὅς] ἀντέστη θεοῖς, σμερδναῖσι γαμφηλαῖσι συρίζων φόβον: ἐξ ὀμμάτων δ᾽ ἤστραπτε γοργωπὸν σέλας, ὡς τὴν Διὸς τυραννίδ᾽ ἐκπέρσων βίᾳ: ἀλλ᾽ ἦλθεν αὐτῷ Ζηνὸς ἄγρυπνον βέλος, καταιβάτης κεραυνὸς ἐκπνέων φλόγα, ὃς αὐτὸν ἐξέπληξε τῶν ὑψηγόρων κομπασμάτων. φρένας γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς τυπεὶς ἐφεψαλώθη κἀξεβροντήθη σθένος. καὶ νῦν ἀχρεῖον καὶ παράορον δέμας κεῖται στενωποῦ πλησίον θαλασσίου ἰπούμενος ῥίζαισιν Αἰτναίαις ὕπο: κορυφαῖς δ᾽ ἐν ἄκραις ἥμενος μυδροκτυπεῖ Ἥφαιστος: ἔνθεν ἐκραγήσονταί ποτε ποταμοὶ πυρὸς δάπτοντες ἀγρίαις γνάθοις τῆς καλλικάρπου Σικελίας λευροὺς γύας: τοιόνδε Τυφὼς ἐξαναζέσει χόλον θερμοῖς ἀπλάτου βέλεσι πυρπνόου ζάλης, καίπερ κεραυνῷ Ζηνὸς ἠνθρακωμένος.
www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Aesch.+PB+343&f…:
For even if I am in sore plight, I would not wish affliction on everyone else. No, certainly, no! since, besides, I am distressed by the fate of my brother Atlas, who, towards the west, stands bearing on his shoulders the pillar of heaven and earth, a burden not easy for his arms to grasp. Pity moved me, too, at the sight of the earth-born dweller of the Cilician caves curbed by violence, that destructive monster of a hundred heads, impetuous Typhon. He withstood all the gods, hissing out terror with horrid jaws, while from his eyes lightened a hideous glare, as though he would storm by force the sovereignty of Zeus. But the unsleeping bolt of Zeus came upon him, the swooping lightning brand with breath of flame, which struck him, frightened, from his loud-mouthed boasts; then, stricken to the very heart, he was burnt to ashes and his strength blasted from him by the lightning bolt. And now, a helpless and a sprawling bulk, he lies hard by the narrows of the sea, pressed down beneath the roots of Aetna; while on the topmost summit Hephaestus sits and hammers the molten ore. There, one day, shall burst forth rivers of fire, with savage jaws devouring the level fields of Sicily, land of fair fruit—such boiling rage shall Typho, although charred by the blazing lightning of Zeus, send spouting forth with hot jets of appalling, fire-breathing surge.
vgl. Vergil, Aeneis 3, 578ff von Enceladus:
Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus et ingens ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis; interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem, turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit; 575interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. Fama est Enceladi semustum fulmine corpus urgueri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam 580impositam ruptis flammam exspirare caminis; et fessum quotiens mutet latus, intremere omnem murmure Trinacriam, et caelum subtexere fumo. Noctem illam tecti silvis immania monstra perferimus, nec quae sonitum det causa videmus. 585Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus aethra siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila caelo, et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat.
Translation (John Dryden) of Verg. A. 3.578 ffThe port capacious, and secure from wind, Is to the foot of thund’ring Aetna join’d. By turns a pitchy cloud she rolls on high; By turns hot embers from her entrails fly, And flakes of mounting flames, that lick the sky. Oft from her bowels massy rocks are thrown, And, shiver’d by the force, come piecemeal down. Oft liquid lakes of burning sulphur flow, Fed from the fiery springs that boil below. Enceladus, they say, transfix’d by Jove, With blasted limbs came tumbling from above; And, where he fell, th’ avenging father drew This flaming hill, and on his body threw. As often as he turns his weary sides, He shakes the solid isle, and smoke the heavens hides. In shady woods we pass the tedious night, Where bellowing sounds and groans our souls affright, Of which no cause is offer’d to the sight; For not one star was kindled in the sky, Nor could the moon her borrow’d light supply; For misty clouds involv’d the firmament, The stars were muffled, and the moon was pent.
adnotation for Verg A. 578 by John Conington :
The name of the giant who was supposed to be placed under Aetna was variously given in the legends. Pindar l. c. and Aesch. Prom. 354 make it Typhocus or Typhon, Callim. in Del. 143 Briareus. In A. 9. 716, following (though misinterpreting) Hom., Virgil places Typhoeus under Inarime or Pithecusa. ‘Semustum’ is found here in most of the MSS., including Med., which has the same form in 11. 200. See on v. 244.
John Conington. P. Vergili Maronis opera. P. Vergili Maronis Opera. The works of Virgil, with a Commentary by John Conington, M.A. Late Corpus Professor of Latin in the University of Oxford. London. Whittaker and Co., Ave Maria Lane. 1876.
—► 57 Scarth, Volcanic Origins, 89-95.
—► 58 Von Hennig, Geographie. 14-18 ohne letzte Gewißheit mit der Insel Volcano identifiziert.
—► 59 Homer, Ilias I, 590-594 und Odyssee 8,283f.: Literatur bei Henig. ibid., 19 Anm. 6.
—► 60 D. B. Vitaliano, Geomythology 5 definiert den von ihr geprägten Terminus so: „the geomythologic application of euhemerism. The geomythologist seeks to find the real geologic event underlying myth or legend to which it has given rise; thus he helps convert mythologoy back into history.“
—► 61 Baudy, Die Wiederkehr des Typhon, 59: Dieses Mythologem wurde in der Geschichtsschreibung nachträglich historisiert.
—► 62 Libanios, Epitaphios auf Julian, Orationes 18,293 (p. 364 Foerster): παρά τῆς Γῆς ἢ εἰ βούλει γε, τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος.
—► 63 Bickel, Das Verbrechen des Laokoon, 19-27
—► 64 Schachermeyr, Poseidon, 189-203: „Poseidon und das troianische Pferd“
—► 65 Nur zögernd gebilligt von Nilsson in seiner Rezension 167: „very hypothetical, as the author admits, but it is ingenious and appeals more to me than other less probable interpretations of the marvellous horse.“
—► 66 Hierzu Usener, Sintflutsagen, mit Ergänzungen: Ders., Zu den Sintflutsagen, 382-396.

SOURCE
Wolfgang Hübner, Mythische Geographie, S.24-26. in: Wolfgang Hübner (Hg.), Geschichte der Mathematik und der Naturwissenschaften in der Antike, Band 2, Geographie und verwandte Wissenschaften, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 2000
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Translations
—► 1833 At Hugh Stuart Boyd’s, a blind scholar of the Greek language, suggestion, Elizabeth Barrett Browning translated Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound (published in 1833; retranslated in 1850)… Browning imitated his hero Shelley by spiriting his beloved off to Italy in August 1846 …
—► 1868: Edward Hayes Plumptre, – verse: full text.
—► 1906: John Stuart Blackie, – verse: full text.
—► 1908: E. D. A. Morshead, – verse: full text.
—► 1924: G.M.Cookson, – verse: full text.
—► 1926: Herbert Weir Smyth, – prose: full text

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REFERENCES
—► Prometheus Bound and the Others (philanthropist, ruler, writer, voyager) Essays on the problems of inter-literary relations in general and the possibilities of association links between certain classical texts in particular. Under tentative consideration are certain impressive Greek and Roman literary documents and preserved artefacts – and the possibility of associations towards partial moments of the Early Christian literature. Areas deserving our interest are so abundant and fertile that merely essay discourses cannot be sufficient for a significant research. Therefore, we would appreciate it if the submitted pages were understood as an outline of certain fields of issues, which are based on the results of researchers’ work from various periods.
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Hyaden & Plejaden
Gemeinsam mit den Hyaden bilden die Plejaden (M45) das "Goldene Tor der Ekliptik". Dieser Namen rührt zum einen daher, dass sie in ihrer Mitte von der scheinbare Sonnenbahn durchzogen werden und zum anderen vom Umstand eines sich verschiebenden Frühlingspunktes: noch bis etwa 2000 vor Christus lag dieser Punkt, den man seit jeher mit Wachstum und Fruchtbarkeit gleichsetzte, im Stier.

NEWS
The alleged torture, which Mohammed al-Qahtani (the "20th hijacker" in the 9/11 attacks) detailed in a written statement, included being beaten, restrained for long periods in uncomfortable positions, threatened with dogs, exposed to loud music and freezing temperatures and stripped nude in front of female personnel. [_news.yahoo.com, 14th January 2009_]
Detainee claims to have lied under CIA torture "Where is he? I don’t know. Then he torture me," said Mohammed, the self-confessed mastermind of the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington.
"Then I said: ‘Yes, he is in this area or this is Al-Qaeda…’ I said no, they torture me."
[_news.yahoo.com, 16 June 2009_]
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google search results (Jul 2009 // Apr 2010)
The Situation of Punishment (and Forgiveness) Posted by The Situationist Staff on October 11, 2008
«Aetna» @ technorati
Prometheus @ 123people.de
Debunking the Torture Apologists’ “Half the Intelligence” Claim By: emptywheel Saturday April 18, 2009
«titans» @ flickr-hivemind
image posted @ schaumalrein – 26 April 2010
Prometheus Books … publishing company founded in 1969 by Paul Kurtz (Council for Secular Humanism)
‘Prolegomena to Prononymity: What’s the Worst that Can Happen?’ @ healthreformwatch …my creation is posted with credit for ‘quapan’ but with altered image & subtitle and without backlink to this flickr-page since January 25, 2009 …
Myth Monday – Family Constellations of Atlas by N.S.Gill’s Ancient History Blog, August 9, 2010.
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 192: "Astronomer Atlas by Pleione or an Oceanide had twelve daughters, and a son, Hyas. The son was killed by a wild boar or a lion, and the sisters, grieving for him, died of this grief. The five of them first put among the stars have their place between the horns of the bull — Phaesyla, Ambrosia, Coronis, Eudora, Polyxo — and are called, from their brother’s name, Hyades . . . The rest of the sisters (Asterope – Taygete – Celaino – Elektra – Maia – Merope – Alkyone) were called Pleiades."

google search result (27th March 2015)
► Postmodern, esoteric interpretation of Prometheus as an crucified, ‘indo-european sun god’: ‘Origin of the Crucifixion of the Gods’ © Dr M D Magee, May 07, 2001
► The ‘Punishment of the Titan brothers Atlas and Prometheus’ (The black-figured, laconian kylix (Ø = 20cm) from 555 BC, probably produced by the Arkesilas painter, exhibited now in the Vatican’s Gregorian Etruscan Museum) is replicated on a hellenic postage stamp (edited in 1973, then buyable for 4.50 Drachmes)

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