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St. Catharines Masonic Hall 23 Centre Street Ontario Canada (25)
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A multitude of Jacob’s Ladders.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

– Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin
JACOB’S LADDER

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold ………….. Sun …………… Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……….. Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………….. World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……….. Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ……….. Heaven
2. Quicksilver .. Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead …………… Saturn ………. First World

– Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

– Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

– Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America
Museum of Freemasonry – Masonic Library

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . .with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament..

Early Rose Croix. www.flickr.com/photos/colmaralchimique/33540362490/in/pho…

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred inin a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Muskoka Lodge No. 360 Bracebridge, ON
home equity
Image by antefixus21
A Masonic Jacob’s Ladder.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin

JACOB’S LADDER:

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold …………… Sun …………. Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……… Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………… World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……… Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ………. Heaven
2. Quicksilver . Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead ………….. Saturn ………. First World

Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . . with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament.

Early Rose Croix:

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred in a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Kind Home Equity pictures

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Bridge Going House (2)
home equity
Image by Lex Photographic
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home equity
Image by Alex E. Proimos
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Dow Drops 500 Points
home equity loans
Image by YoTuT
AIG Tumbles 61%, Pushing
Dow to a 500-Point Decline

September 15, 2008 6:13 p.m.

The stock market suffered its worst daily plunge in nearly seven years Monday as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings threw the U.S. financial system into an abyss, uncertain where the bottom of its credit-related problems lies.

Lehman’s demise makes it the biggest casualty yet in the long-running credit crisis, which has so far seen torrents of red ink, restructurings and acquisitions, and shutterings of a few commercial banks. But until Sunday night, no Wall Street firm of such size and stature had suffered an all-out meltdown.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average, which languished with a loss between 200 and 300 points for most of the day, saw its losses accelerate in the last hour of trading to suffer its worst daily point drop since trading resumed after the 9/11 terror attacks. The Dow ended down by 504.48 points on Monday, off 4.4%, at its daily low of 10917.51, down 18% on the year.

All 30 of the Dow’s components fell, save for Coca-Cola, which rose 0.5%.

American International Group plunged 60.8%. The Federal Reserve Monday asked Goldman Sachs Group and J.P. Morgan Chase to help make – billion in loans available to the company, according to people familiar with the situation. The insurer has been racing to restructure its business and raise fresh capital to avoid a downgrade of its credit ratings.

The number of big players on Wall Street is dwindling, but traders said it remains to be seen where and for how much longer the ill effects of soured credit bets will continue to surface. A series of events through the end of the week, including a Fed meeting Tuesday and stock-options expiration Friday, could shed more light on the state of the financial system and send investors on another dizzying ride.

"It’s a dicey situation right now," said Bill King, chief market strategist at M. Ramsey King Securities in Burr Ridge, Ill. "You have a lot of guys right now who don’t know who to trade with because of counter-party issues," especially in the credit markets, where traders said it remained difficult to find buyers for certain securities despite the last 24 hours’ realignment on Wall Street.

Bank of America was another big decliner among Dow stocks, off 21.3%. The company had been a suitor for Lehman but pulled out of talks as it became apparent in recent days that the Fed would not guarantee the financing of an acquisition as it did in J.P. Morgan Chase’s purchase of Bear Stearns in March. Instead, Bank of America quickly moved to buy Merrill Lynch on Monday. Merrill shares ended little changed.

Two remaining big investment banks — Goldman and Morgan Stanley — saw their shares fall. Goldman was off 12.1%, while Morgan Stanley fell 13.5%. Both firms are due to report their fiscal third-quarter results in the next few days and are expected to try to make the case that they’re very different from Lehman and Merrill. Analysts are expecting each to stay in the black but are bracing for write-downs of billion to billion each at Goldman and Morgan Stanley.

Financial stocks in the S&P 500 fell 9% as a group. The sector has shed .27 trillion in market value since October 2007. Financials now comprise 14.4% of the S&P 500, down from 22% at the end of 2006.

"Too much leverage is the alpha and omega of this story," said Doug Kass, president of the hedge fund Seabreeze Partners Management in Palm Beach, Fla., referring to financial firms’ use of borrowed money to make bets on securities tied to risky mortgages. In a note to clients Monday, he criticized some banks’ use of 30 dollars in leverage for each dollar of collateral in recent years – a practice that effectively amplified losses once prices of homes and the credit bets themselves began to fall.

In an interview, Mr. Kass added: "We’re moving into the timeframe in which it makes sense to look for well-valued (financial) stocks. But investors should still take a conservative approach," including relatively small-sized bets on a recovery after more than a year of rocky credit trading and plummeting share prices in the financial sector.

In particular, the last few days’ events have underscored the challenges facing the Fed, the Treasury Department, and other federal regulators, who are trying to strike a delicate balance between establishing a sturdy framework for the financial system while at the same time allowing markets to reward smart decisions and punish bad ones. By taking the rescue option off the table for Lehman, the U.S. government effectively declared that there are limits to its role as backstop-in-chief — a concept that could have implications for other troubled firms in the months ahead.

Just last week, the government seized mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and months prior it brokered the sale of Bear Stearns to J.P. Morgan. But now, Washington appears to want Wall Street to largely fix its own problems.

"We’ve re-established ‘moral hazard,’" a person involved in the Lehman talks told the Journal, referring to the notion that the government should eschew bailouts, since financial firms might take more risks if they’re insulated from the consequences. "Is that a good thing or a bad thing? We’re about to find out."

Other financial bellwethers suffered Monday. Wachovia plummeted 25% as analysts raised questions about the potential need for Wachovia to raise new capital to absorb future losses. Mike Mayo of Deutsche Bank downgraded the stock to "Hold" from "Buy," concerned about Wachovia’s large portfolio of risky bets on adjustable-rate mortgages, which he called a wild card in analyzing the company.

"Our view has been that Wachovia does not need more capital," he said in a research note, since he thinks loan losses over the next few years will be less than expected. However, given increased concerns about economic growth and intense stress in financial markets, "this margin of safety has been reduced."

Troubled Washington Mutual tumbled 26.7% as investors feared it wouldn’t be able to find a buyer to shore up its books.

After the close, S&P Ratings Services lowered its credit ratings on Washington Mutual to junk. "Increasing market turmoil and the related impact from managing its concentrated mortgage franchise in this troubled housing and credit cycle led to the downgrade of WAMU," said S&P credit analyst Victoria Wagner. "The company’s weak equity pricing in the markets is also a concern, and it increasingly appears that market conditions could overtake credit fundamentals and leave the company with greatly diminished financial flexibility."

Other stock yardsticks suffered Monday. The Nasdaq Composite Index was off 4.7% to 2179.91, near a 6-month low and down 18% on the year. The small-stock Russell 2000 fell 4.2% to 689.76, down 19% on the year. The S&P 500 was off 4.7% to 1192.96, down 19% on the year. All the broad measure’s sectors fell.

Among names listed on the New York Stock Exchange, about 8.1 billion shares changed hands, a new record. Decliners outnumbered advancers nearly 19 to one on the exchange.

Credit markets showed few signs of relief. The Fed-funds rate traded as high as 6.5% Monday, well above the central bank’s 2% target as demand for cash far outstripped supply. The shortage forced the Fed to inject a massive billion cash via its daily repurchase-agreement operation, which helped bring down the rate to 3.5%.

Traders said that various Wall Street firms offered a staggering 3 billion in mortgage-backed paper to use as collateral for repo agreements, but the Fed only accepted about billion of it — a sign that much of that debt remains too toxic for the Fed to assume on its books.

In the meantime, the three-month Libor/OIS spread, a gauge of stress in the money markets, widened to around 104.6 basis points from around 84.5 basis points Friday. Monday’s reading was its widest since December when the gap increased to above 110 basis points, a record.

"These markets just continue to be broken," said Don Wilson, head of DRW Trading, a proprietary firm active in Chicago’s interest-rate pits.

Treasury prices surged, pushing interest rates lower as investors sought safe havens. The two-year note was recently up 23/32, yielding 1.844%. The benchmark 10-year note was up 1-18/32, yielding 3.527%. The 30-year bond jumped 2-3/32 to yield 4.193%.

Crude-oil futures settled down .47 at .71 on the New York Mercantile Exchange on Monday on fears that the financial crisis could further slow the wider economy and fuel demand. It was oil’s first finish below 0 since early March.

The dollar dropped against the Japanese currency, changing hands recently at 105.47 yen, down from 107.87 yen late Friday. But the dollar managed to post gains against the euro and British pound.

Write to Peter A. McKay at peter.mckay@wsj.com

Back to School Vaccinations
home equity loans
Image by 666isMONEY ☮ ♥ & ☠
"No one will be turned away for an inability to pay."

Prices at River City continue to slip-slide away.
home equity loans
Image by seeChicagorealestate.com
deepdishrealestate.com/2010/02/prices-at-river-city/
How low can you go?

What if your sole purpose in life were to serve as an example to others…for what NOT to do? This seems to be the karma for poor 800 S. Wells, also known as River City. The building looks like a cross between a space ship outside and a submarine inside. The concrete walls can be depressing and the roof over the lobby has been known to leak. A slew of River City properties are currently short sales or in foreclosure.

Comprised of 448 units sitting on 20 acres of land southwest of Printer’s Row, there are studios, one-, two- and three-bedroom units. Currently the lowest-priced available studio is a recently listed short sale offered at ,000; the lowest-priced one-bedroom is a foreclosure property offered ,000 which is down from the original asking price of 0,000. The lowest-priced available two-bedroom unit is priced at 6,400. It was originally offered at 8,900. This unit is…wait for it, here it comes…in foreclosure. Ditto the lowest-priced three-bedroom which is now offered at 5,500 after sitting on the market for a total of 348 days.

There must be more than one gobsmacked River City homeowner asking himself, “What happened?”

The answer is: a perfect storm of a developer who over-promised and an economy that was bucking for a giant reset.

When River City converted to condos in 2001, American Invsco offered buyers two years of free assessments and taxes plus a guaranteed renter for two years. Back then banks were happy to underwrite pie-in-the-sky loans to applicants whose eyes were bigger than their checkbooks. So why not jump in?!

We know how that story played out.

But they say there’s a lid for every pot. River City makes sense for buyers with specific goals. Some enjoy the unique architecture. Some like being in close proximity to the Chicago River (great for sailing and kayaking). Some cannot resist the unbelievable condo deals to be had – invest now, keep the property for a few years, and watch the equity build.
So if you’re a hardy soul and a bit of a gambler, River City might be a good bet for you. Want more information? Contact Ted Guarnero at Baird & Warner, (312) 810-6693 or search all homes at www.seechicagorealestate.com

The Home Equity Advantage – Chase

The Home Equity Advantage - Chase

Subscribe to Chase here: http://full.sc/15KaG9f

The benefits of a home equity loan are showcased through two customer experience stories as they partner with their Chase home equity processors.

Watch the ADA version of Home Equity Advantage here: https://youtu.be/MUKgdTnZqQ0

Chase is the U.S. consumer and commercial banking business of JPMorgan Chase & Co. (NYSE: JPM), a leading global financial services firm with assets of .3 trillion and operations in more than 60 countries. We are the neighborhood bank for thousands of communities across the country. We serve approximately one of out of every six Americans through more than 5,500 bank branches; 19,500 ATMs; mortgage offices; online and mobile banking; as well as relationships with auto dealerships, schools and universities.

Terms of Service: https://www.chase.com/resources/social-media-terms-conditions

Connect with Chase Online:
Follow @Chase on Twitter: http://twitter.com/Chase
Chase Official Website: https://www.chase.com
Chase Mobile: https://www.chase.com/mobile
Chase En Español: http://full.sc/15KeCa0
Find a Branch or ATM near you: https://locator.chase.com

Check out Other Chase YouTube Channels:
My New Home from Chase: http://www.youtube.com/user/mynewhomefromchase
Ink From Chase: http://www.youtube.com/user/InkfromChase

The Home Equity Advantage – Chase

Video Rating: / 5

Real Estate Expert Tony Joe and Mortgage Broker Specialist Sharon Mitchell demonstrate how you can take equity from your home to purchase investment property, using a real-life example based on a property Tony sold to a client in 2003. www.tonyjoe.ca

Should You make use of Home Equity or Savings to Pay for a Remodeling Project?

Whenever you’re creating a remodeling task or residence remodelling, it’s best if you start with identifying just how you’ll shell out the dough. Often which comes right down to taking out fully a loan or making use of your savings.

Some individuals may have enough cash conserved to think about purchasing their remodeling task or residence renovation out of pocket. But just because you have sufficient savings to pay for your property remodeling project doesn’t indicate you really need to eliminate often a home equity loan or a home equity credit line (HELOC). Experiencing residence equity can be a smart move, under specific circumstances. Your own individual financial situation will determine exactly what repayment program you should choose. So browse this bout of Big Money Real Estate for my great tips on when you should make use of home equity and whether to pick a home equity loan or HELOC to cover a home renovating project.

Make sure you subscribe my YouTube station when it comes to newest real-estate recommendations and news: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=expertrealestatetips

And collect my Intentional Investor Series on thinkglinkstore.com to learn all you need to understand in order to become a fruitful buyer in real-estate: http://thinkglinkstore.com/collections/frontpage/products/the-intentional-investor-complete-series

Looking a lot more of my real-estate and private finance recommendations?
Review my blog: http://thinkglink.com
See my tweets: http://www.twitter.com/glink
Follow me personally on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ilyceglink

Kind Residence Equity Loans photos

Check out these home equity financial loans photos:

Demolition
home equity loans
Image by A.Davey
When a building’s interior is exposed similar to this, the structure loses its feeling of permanence, while the living rooms look like phase units.

This building, which sticks during my mind principally given that residence regarding the long-shuttered Jazz Quarry and something of Portland’s final "adult" cinemas, it becoming demolished to create method for the Sky 3 Apartments.

New condo construction in Portland died with all the worldwide financial crisis of 2007-2008 and has yet becoming resurrected. So, while household prices rise, no new condos are arriving online, just apartments. The cost of a perch in one of our hip "Portlandia" communities can now exceed 0K. One explanation financial institutions aren’t financing new condominiums could be the extremely high threat of construction-defect litigation, which can be practically inevitable nowadays. At the very least townhouses are still being built, nonetheless they’re away from sight and if they’re in the core.

It was reported that the "Las Vegas based Molasky number of companies . . .and Portland-based E&F qualities are intending to develop a 15-story mixed-use building with 196 units, at Southwest Jefferson Street and 11th Avenue."

The delopers sent applications for a 10-year property tax exemption of almost 0,000 in exchange for maintaining a number of the products at below-market rents to market the availability of moderate-income housing.

"While most associated with units of Sky3 Put would hire at market rate – as high as ,250 30 days for a two-bedroom apartment – 20 per cent would hire at a reasonable price for folks making 80 percent of this area’s median family members earnings – ,850 for an individual or ,500 for a household of four. Those flats would range in rent from 1 four weeks for a studio to ,118 for a two-bedroom product."

oregonon.org/blog/2014/portland-housing-bureau-dangles-ta…

Truthfully, i cannot imagine investing ,250 in after-tax bucks on rent, whenever residence ownership and a home loan would offer tax-deductible interest and home fees, the alternative of equity in the future and, depending on the amount of the loan, reduced monthly payments.

Opportunity Needs to be Knocking
home equity loans
Image by Viewminder
Once the government assured all of these mortgages and basically residence equity loans…

few people like going individuals were bitching in regards to the financial institutions.

Cash had been simple…

debt was being given away like candy on Halloween.

Today the money’s kinda dried out.

Plus the individuals gotta make great on those loans their particular government guaranteed.

Four years ago I didn’t have to view the news headlines to see how the economy ended up being performing.

I possibly could inform on garbage time.

I would see a few of these vacant boxes for plasma display televisions along with other big customer things made in China.

Today garbage time seems different.

At the least within my area there’s a whole lot less consumin’ goin’ on.

I have heard some amazing some ideas on Occupy Chicago demonstration.

I’ve heard some actually nutty a few ideas.

The one thing that could make every person delighted… at the very least the folks with all the power to be delighted… is if the playing industry were levelled…

if there clearly was window of opportunity for everybody.

Twelve years ago I began a company… I strolled in to the bank and with just my motorists lisense and quarter-hour I wandered completely with two bank reports and two checkbooks.

Just last year I went to start two new business lender reports.

I really couldn’t believe the paperwork I required.

It took me two weeks to get it completely.

I decided to go to Six Flags this weekend for FrightNight.

I experienced to walk-through metal detectors and become put through search.

I experienced to quit my small pocket-knife after walking through the material detectors.

I assume I could have walked the mile back again to my automobile and stashed it truth be told there in interest of public safety nevertheless kids were jonesin’ to jump on a rollercoaster.

I am all for layin’ along the legislation to kick some terrorist ass…

but it is stuff like that that makes me groan.

If it was our freedom the terrorists were wanting to destroy…

they made their particular point and additionally they scored.

We do not need even more laws.

We don’t need certainly to give up any longer legal rights.

We want even more freedom.

Less legislation.

Among the ironies we see using the Occupy action… and there are many…

is wanting to make use of federal government to repair the issue.

I love just how Ronald Reagan place it…

‘Government is the issue.’

Redemption Track

What is a home equity loan?

A home equity loan allows you to borrow secured on your home’s equity and certainly will help you attain goals like remodeling kitchen area or consolidating your expenses. To learn more, visit https://www.discover.com/home-equity-loans/.
Video Rating: / 5

Suzy Orman gives her accept exactly how a property Equity Line of Credit (HELOC) and a house Equity debts (HELOAN) fundamentally work.

More details at:
sccrealestateuncensored.com/2006/heloc-home-equity-line-of-credit/

micasamidinero.com/2006/heloc-linea-de-credito/

Nice Residence Equity pictures

Examine out these home equity pictures:

Strolling along the Cambridge side of the Charles River (upright)
home equity
< img alt=" residence equity" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2725468638_3a0610e5de.jpg" size=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/9161595@N03/2725468638" >
Chris Devers This photo has been gone into in the
< a href=" http://metrofuture.org/content/enter-2010-metrofuture-photo-contest-1" rel=" nofollow "> MAPC MetroFuture photo competition, in the< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/node/42/goals" rel=" nofollow "> Transport Options category, and also showed up on the MAPC MetroFuture web page, under” Equity”:–RRB- The Transport Choices web page is< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/node/42/goals" rel=" nofollow" > defined as complies with: – – – – – –< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/44" rel=" nofollow ” > 44. An increased transit system will supply far better service to both metropolitan and suburbs, connecting more homes and also tasks. MetroFuture would make transit a more eye-catching choice by improving solution on existing lines as well as by extending the reach of solution to new areas that can support it with transit-friendly land uses( new, old, or a mix of both). –< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/45 "rel =" nofollow" >45. Even more people will certainly use transit for job and also individual trips.
MetroFuture would greater than double the variety of journeys made on transit, with expansion and also renovations to the existing system; creation of even more rural transit services; land usage plans as well as website designs that promote transportation usage; as well as a steady boost in gas prices.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/46" rel= "nofollow "> 46. Commuters will certainly have much more choices to prevent congestion
. A boosting share of workers would stay clear of blockage with transportation, flextime, telecommuting, car pool, and also various other nontraditional job and also travelling arrangements.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/47 "rel=" nofollow" > 47. Many people will select to stroll or bike for brief journeys.
MetroFuture would certainly increase the share of trips made by walking or biking.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/48 "rel=" nofollow" > 48. The typical individual will certainly drive less miles on a daily basis.
MetroFuture’s emphasis on alternative settings would certainly permit the region’s residents to depend less on their autos, with an objective of decreasing the regionwide vehicle setting share from 77% in 2000 to 61% by 2030.

< a href =" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/49" rel=" nofollow" > 49. Far-flung locations will see little boost in website traffic blockage.
MetroFuture focuses growth in metropolitan areas and also developed suv areas with the framework to sustain it.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/50" rel=" nofollow" > 50. Individuals with specials needs will find it less complicated to obtain around the area. MetroFuture’s focus on small development, different transportation, and social solutions would make it less complicated for individuals with disabilities to obtain around in City Boston.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/51" rel=" nofollow" > 51. Regional transportation planning will certainly be related to lasting land use planning.
The MetroFuture area would certainly utilize minimal transport sources wisely.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/52" rel= "nofollow" > 52. The transportation system will be dependably moneyed and also transport firms will certainly show responsibility to the general public.
MetroFuture would certainly supplement standard transportationrevenue sources with tolling, congestion pricing, influence charges, worth capture tools, and various other innovative methods to leverage private resources.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/53" rel= "nofollow "> 53. Transport tasks will be designed and constructed swiftly and also cost-effectively.
Transport projects will certainly be selected in an efficient, transparent fashion, and also those choices will be based on reasonable price quotes of prices as well as revenues.

< a href =" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/54" rel=" nofollow" > 54. Roadways, bridges, and railways will be risk-free and well maintained. With a renewed concentrate on growth in developed areas where infrastructure is available, more funding would be assigned to upkeep or enhancements (including security improvements as well as multimodal adjustment) of existing transportation possessions.

< a href= "http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/55" rel=" nofollow" > 55. The region’s services will certainly access the global industry via an effective freight transport network.
City Boston’s services will contend in the global market many thanks to efficient activity of items as well as individuals on a well-maintained system of railways, streets, ports, as well as flight terminals.

Palestine_Jaffa_Jaffa_NK23048
home equity
< img alt=" home equity" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/3333235854_32936436fa.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/34409164@N06/3333235854" > gnuckx As specified by United Nations
General Setting up Resolution 194 (III) 11 December 1948 Having actually considered further the situation in Palestine, … 11. Settles that the evacuees wanting to
return to their residences and live tranquil with their neighbors need to be permitted to do so at the earliest possible date, and also that settlement must be paid for the building of those choosing not to return and also for loss of or damage to residential or commercial property which, under principles of global regulation or in equity, must be made great by the Federal governments or authorities liable; Advises the Conciliation Commission to facilitate the repatriation, resettlement and financial and also social recovery of the refugees and also the settlement of payment, and also to keep close relationships with the Supervisor of the United Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees and, with him, with the proper organs and also firms of the United Nations; Free Palestine! Copyright note: This photo has actually
been launched to

the general public Domain, or it is certified under Creative Commons or cc0, or it falls under the doctrine of Fair Use since United States copyright legislation, or I have actually obtained written consent by the author, rights proprietor, certified resource, or otherwise accredited by source to republish images with no limitations. Consequently, anyone can republish this image anywhere else in the Internet or other publication in conformity to the legal copyright standing of the photo. Please call me with flickrmail ought to you feel you retain legal copyright legal rights to this photo. This picture has actually been published specifically for didactical and/or historical purposes, and also disemination is not only enabled, however also motivated. At the minimum, you are cost-free to copy/link this picture as long as you identify the resource. Please do not create me to ask more approval or educate regarding further use. Resource: www.palestineremembered.com TAGS palestine palestinian al-aqsa al-quds al-quods jerusalem nakba plight uniformity evacuee acre west-bank gaza safad ramallah tiberias jaffa tulkarem haifa hebron beersheba al-ramla baysan zionist zionism u.s.a aipac america war 1948 1956 1973 olp fatah arafat hamas peace united-nations middle-east syria siria lebanon iran olive castielli youngsters kid land israel israeli occupation pilgrims amnesty human-rights arab muslim islam islamic protest cost-free flexibility justice hijra exodus CC0 cc public_domain www.palestineremembered.com