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Dow Drops 500 Points
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AIG Tumbles 61%, Pushing
Dow to a 500-Point Decline

September 15, 2008 6:13 p.m.

The stock market suffered its worst daily plunge in nearly seven years Monday as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings threw the U.S. financial system into an abyss, uncertain where the bottom of its credit-related problems lies.

Lehman’s demise makes it the biggest casualty yet in the long-running credit crisis, which has so far seen torrents of red ink, restructurings and acquisitions, and shutterings of a few commercial banks. But until Sunday night, no Wall Street firm of such size and stature had suffered an all-out meltdown.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average, which languished with a loss between 200 and 300 points for most of the day, saw its losses accelerate in the last hour of trading to suffer its worst daily point drop since trading resumed after the 9/11 terror attacks. The Dow ended down by 504.48 points on Monday, off 4.4%, at its daily low of 10917.51, down 18% on the year.

All 30 of the Dow’s components fell, save for Coca-Cola, which rose 0.5%.

American International Group plunged 60.8%. The Federal Reserve Monday asked Goldman Sachs Group and J.P. Morgan Chase to help make – billion in loans available to the company, according to people familiar with the situation. The insurer has been racing to restructure its business and raise fresh capital to avoid a downgrade of its credit ratings.

The number of big players on Wall Street is dwindling, but traders said it remains to be seen where and for how much longer the ill effects of soured credit bets will continue to surface. A series of events through the end of the week, including a Fed meeting Tuesday and stock-options expiration Friday, could shed more light on the state of the financial system and send investors on another dizzying ride.

"It’s a dicey situation right now," said Bill King, chief market strategist at M. Ramsey King Securities in Burr Ridge, Ill. "You have a lot of guys right now who don’t know who to trade with because of counter-party issues," especially in the credit markets, where traders said it remained difficult to find buyers for certain securities despite the last 24 hours’ realignment on Wall Street.

Bank of America was another big decliner among Dow stocks, off 21.3%. The company had been a suitor for Lehman but pulled out of talks as it became apparent in recent days that the Fed would not guarantee the financing of an acquisition as it did in J.P. Morgan Chase’s purchase of Bear Stearns in March. Instead, Bank of America quickly moved to buy Merrill Lynch on Monday. Merrill shares ended little changed.

Two remaining big investment banks — Goldman and Morgan Stanley — saw their shares fall. Goldman was off 12.1%, while Morgan Stanley fell 13.5%. Both firms are due to report their fiscal third-quarter results in the next few days and are expected to try to make the case that they’re very different from Lehman and Merrill. Analysts are expecting each to stay in the black but are bracing for write-downs of billion to billion each at Goldman and Morgan Stanley.

Financial stocks in the S&P 500 fell 9% as a group. The sector has shed .27 trillion in market value since October 2007. Financials now comprise 14.4% of the S&P 500, down from 22% at the end of 2006.

"Too much leverage is the alpha and omega of this story," said Doug Kass, president of the hedge fund Seabreeze Partners Management in Palm Beach, Fla., referring to financial firms’ use of borrowed money to make bets on securities tied to risky mortgages. In a note to clients Monday, he criticized some banks’ use of 30 dollars in leverage for each dollar of collateral in recent years – a practice that effectively amplified losses once prices of homes and the credit bets themselves began to fall.

In an interview, Mr. Kass added: "We’re moving into the timeframe in which it makes sense to look for well-valued (financial) stocks. But investors should still take a conservative approach," including relatively small-sized bets on a recovery after more than a year of rocky credit trading and plummeting share prices in the financial sector.

In particular, the last few days’ events have underscored the challenges facing the Fed, the Treasury Department, and other federal regulators, who are trying to strike a delicate balance between establishing a sturdy framework for the financial system while at the same time allowing markets to reward smart decisions and punish bad ones. By taking the rescue option off the table for Lehman, the U.S. government effectively declared that there are limits to its role as backstop-in-chief — a concept that could have implications for other troubled firms in the months ahead.

Just last week, the government seized mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and months prior it brokered the sale of Bear Stearns to J.P. Morgan. But now, Washington appears to want Wall Street to largely fix its own problems.

"We’ve re-established ‘moral hazard,’" a person involved in the Lehman talks told the Journal, referring to the notion that the government should eschew bailouts, since financial firms might take more risks if they’re insulated from the consequences. "Is that a good thing or a bad thing? We’re about to find out."

Other financial bellwethers suffered Monday. Wachovia plummeted 25% as analysts raised questions about the potential need for Wachovia to raise new capital to absorb future losses. Mike Mayo of Deutsche Bank downgraded the stock to "Hold" from "Buy," concerned about Wachovia’s large portfolio of risky bets on adjustable-rate mortgages, which he called a wild card in analyzing the company.

"Our view has been that Wachovia does not need more capital," he said in a research note, since he thinks loan losses over the next few years will be less than expected. However, given increased concerns about economic growth and intense stress in financial markets, "this margin of safety has been reduced."

Troubled Washington Mutual tumbled 26.7% as investors feared it wouldn’t be able to find a buyer to shore up its books.

After the close, S&P Ratings Services lowered its credit ratings on Washington Mutual to junk. "Increasing market turmoil and the related impact from managing its concentrated mortgage franchise in this troubled housing and credit cycle led to the downgrade of WAMU," said S&P credit analyst Victoria Wagner. "The company’s weak equity pricing in the markets is also a concern, and it increasingly appears that market conditions could overtake credit fundamentals and leave the company with greatly diminished financial flexibility."

Other stock yardsticks suffered Monday. The Nasdaq Composite Index was off 4.7% to 2179.91, near a 6-month low and down 18% on the year. The small-stock Russell 2000 fell 4.2% to 689.76, down 19% on the year. The S&P 500 was off 4.7% to 1192.96, down 19% on the year. All the broad measure’s sectors fell.

Among names listed on the New York Stock Exchange, about 8.1 billion shares changed hands, a new record. Decliners outnumbered advancers nearly 19 to one on the exchange.

Credit markets showed few signs of relief. The Fed-funds rate traded as high as 6.5% Monday, well above the central bank’s 2% target as demand for cash far outstripped supply. The shortage forced the Fed to inject a massive billion cash via its daily repurchase-agreement operation, which helped bring down the rate to 3.5%.

Traders said that various Wall Street firms offered a staggering 3 billion in mortgage-backed paper to use as collateral for repo agreements, but the Fed only accepted about billion of it — a sign that much of that debt remains too toxic for the Fed to assume on its books.

In the meantime, the three-month Libor/OIS spread, a gauge of stress in the money markets, widened to around 104.6 basis points from around 84.5 basis points Friday. Monday’s reading was its widest since December when the gap increased to above 110 basis points, a record.

"These markets just continue to be broken," said Don Wilson, head of DRW Trading, a proprietary firm active in Chicago’s interest-rate pits.

Treasury prices surged, pushing interest rates lower as investors sought safe havens. The two-year note was recently up 23/32, yielding 1.844%. The benchmark 10-year note was up 1-18/32, yielding 3.527%. The 30-year bond jumped 2-3/32 to yield 4.193%.

Crude-oil futures settled down .47 at .71 on the New York Mercantile Exchange on Monday on fears that the financial crisis could further slow the wider economy and fuel demand. It was oil’s first finish below 0 since early March.

The dollar dropped against the Japanese currency, changing hands recently at 105.47 yen, down from 107.87 yen late Friday. But the dollar managed to post gains against the euro and British pound.

Write to Peter A. McKay at peter.mckay@wsj.com

Back to School Vaccinations
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"No one will be turned away for an inability to pay."

Prices at River City continue to slip-slide away.
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Image by seeChicagorealestate.com
deepdishrealestate.com/2010/02/prices-at-river-city/
How low can you go?

What if your sole purpose in life were to serve as an example to others…for what NOT to do? This seems to be the karma for poor 800 S. Wells, also known as River City. The building looks like a cross between a space ship outside and a submarine inside. The concrete walls can be depressing and the roof over the lobby has been known to leak. A slew of River City properties are currently short sales or in foreclosure.

Comprised of 448 units sitting on 20 acres of land southwest of Printer’s Row, there are studios, one-, two- and three-bedroom units. Currently the lowest-priced available studio is a recently listed short sale offered at ,000; the lowest-priced one-bedroom is a foreclosure property offered ,000 which is down from the original asking price of 0,000. The lowest-priced available two-bedroom unit is priced at 6,400. It was originally offered at 8,900. This unit is…wait for it, here it comes…in foreclosure. Ditto the lowest-priced three-bedroom which is now offered at 5,500 after sitting on the market for a total of 348 days.

There must be more than one gobsmacked River City homeowner asking himself, “What happened?”

The answer is: a perfect storm of a developer who over-promised and an economy that was bucking for a giant reset.

When River City converted to condos in 2001, American Invsco offered buyers two years of free assessments and taxes plus a guaranteed renter for two years. Back then banks were happy to underwrite pie-in-the-sky loans to applicants whose eyes were bigger than their checkbooks. So why not jump in?!

We know how that story played out.

But they say there’s a lid for every pot. River City makes sense for buyers with specific goals. Some enjoy the unique architecture. Some like being in close proximity to the Chicago River (great for sailing and kayaking). Some cannot resist the unbelievable condo deals to be had – invest now, keep the property for a few years, and watch the equity build.
So if you’re a hardy soul and a bit of a gambler, River City might be a good bet for you. Want more information? Contact Ted Guarnero at Baird & Warner, (312) 810-6693 or search all homes at www.seechicagorealestate.com

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Consumer Credit went up 9% in Jan
consumer credit
Image by eric731
On March 7th, the Federal Reserve released its latest preliminary findings of revolving consumer credit, better known as credit card debt. Credit card debt was down for the month of January 2012 by 4.4 percent. Great job, America!

Unfortunately, non-revolving consumer credit went up by a whopping 14.7 percent in January. That means that the amount of auto loans, student loans, and boat loans went up (again).

Therefore, overall consumer credit was up 8.6 percent in January which continued the 2011 trend and starts 2012 with more consumer debt .

For more info on this chart and to understand how our economy is dependent on Americans accepting more interest payments, go to:

www.faithfulfinances.com/HouseholdDebt/HouseholdDebtClock…

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Dinosaur Act
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We turned off our landline this week.

When we bought our not-really-new-anymore house in summer of 2007 and called to have phone service turned on, we also asked if they could send out a tech to install a new jack for the room that would be my office. The house is 120 years old and lack of phone jacks was but one of its quirks. Turned out, though, that wasn’t even the biggest phone-service-related surprise we’d encounter upon moving in.

It seems that someone in our home’s long past had decided that the house didn’t need a landline, would *never* need a landline, and thus, removed the cabling to the street. This is apparently not supposed to be done without some kind of official decree from the phone company, recorded in triplicate, so our poor Verizon installer, when he discovered this situation, had to call his supervisor to come out so that both of their heads could explode in unison.

Before the afternoon was over, the phone company had stopped traffic on the very busy street outside to run new cabling to our house. For all that effort, we were left with one functioning jack: the new, double-outlet one in my office. All the others in the house had had their wires cut, presumably by the same anti-phone remodeler who took the entire house off the grid at some point.

Having one jack seemed like it would be a bother, but I figured we’d get a multi-phone wireless setup, or a VOIP phone, or something. Meanwhile, the jack in my office let me set up the DSL and a fax machine, and of course we had cell phones, so it was no pressing matter to wire the rest of the house.

Nineteen months later, we still hadn’t wired the rest of the house. We give out our cell numbers if someone needs to know how to reach us. When the land line rings, we generally ignore it, much as the phone company has ignored my emails asking what I can do about the multiple daily spoofed-number calls from scammers who claim to be authorized to help me lower my credit card interest rates. The only other people who call me are NARAL, the ACLU, and the local fraternal order of police, all wanting my money. Which is why I hadn’t bothered to pick up voice mail messages since, oh, last July. I didn’t even know what the number to call to get them was, anymore. I’d used my fax machine about three times in nineteen months—two of them in the first summer we lived here, to finalize the sale of our old house. I don’t even need phone service for Internet, as our particular service is no-phone-line DSL.

I guess it took way too long to realize that there was no longer any reason to write a .47 check to Verizon every month.

I expected the phone company to flail and thrash about a bit when I called to break the news, and was not disappointed. Got the hard sell about how Verizon would be the only ones who could save my life if I needed to dial 911 really fast on a bad sunspots day, or something. I stood firm, if not a bit bitchy. Where was all this concern about my needs the last time I emailed their fraud department?

It doesn’t matter. It’s over. Our house is still wired, but we’re once again off the grid. Someday it will seem adorably quaint that I thought we needed to be on it.

Update on March 7: Today’s mail brought a refund check from Verizon of the credit on our account. The total? Eighty-one cents.

Istanbul (42).jpg
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Image by TijsB
Part 10: Istanbul and Prince Islands

7th of May 2004•17:58 hours

At last I have some time to write again. Now I am on the boat, coming from an island to the mainland, together with Oytun from the hospitalityclub. Since my arival yesterday morning we spent all time together. He picked me up from the station and after I dropped my backpack in his car and we eat someting on a terrass, we went sightseeing. First we visited a large underground cover from the 6th century, the Yerebatan Sarayi (sunk palace), a splendid dark space with water dropping everywhere from the ceiling. Then we went to the Ayasofya Camii Muzesi (Hagia Sofia), the most famous religious colossus from early Christianity, of splendid natural stone. Built in 532 as a church, but turned it into a mosque by sultan Mehmet in 1453 by renaming it and adding some tours. In the same area is the castle complex Topkapi Sarayi, where we spent a couple of hours examining the superb buildings, art treasures and weapons. Especially the harem labyrinth was very particular, although tourists were pushed through the complex in rapid speed. Afterwards we made a walk through the park to the car and visited the art academy, which is directly on the waterfront and has a terrace with a wonderful view. While Oytin and his girlfriend followed a lesson I enjoyed the time dreaming away and enjoying the view on passing ships. After Seray, his girlfriend, was finished with her sculpture, we drove to the central Taximquare on the hillock with a taxi to walk along the busy but car-free mainstreet. Underway they let me taste their favoriete snacks in the passage. Downstairs we ended up in a narrow street full of chairs for terrases. While drinking beer and eating fried potatoes we spoke about Dutch and Turkish singularities. On the way back we passed Seray’s loved clothing fair and found even more delicacies. Underway to the apartment of Oytan’ s parents I felt tired and dirty. I took a delicious shower at Oytan thuis and whereas I had not much more to say, he let see his photocollection on his computer. Once in bed I slept already before my host had turned offt his computer .

The next morning I woke up at half past six again, but fortunately I was able to sleep a little further. Still half sleepily Iexamined a little guide book about Istanbul and I discovered that I had seen already much of its main monuments. On a small square for the corn bazar we had breakfast with tosti’s and tea, whereupon we went to smell the sesonings inside the bazar. We passed the Yeni Camii mosque with so many cupolas and minarets and then strolled towards the water, where decided to take a boat to the Kizil Adalar (prince islands). Several beautiful old steamers were ready for departure and quite regularly a ship arrived and left, leaving behind hundreds of suburbians. On the water I am totally in my element and a considerable wind was blowing, so big waves were splashing against the ship. But Oytan found it pretty cold near the water and went sitting inside. On the first island, Kinaliada, we got off right away, Here he had also never been. It was still cuite calm on the island, we were the only tourists. At many places people were reparing their houses and prepare the streets for the summer. Also in the little restaurant we were the only guests. The traditional Turkish salads with small fishes and köfte (meatballs) tasted delicious and two cats enjoyed head and tails of the fish. After a walk we could obtain still exactly the boat to largest of the islands. On this island beautil villas can be found; surrounded by huge gardens with palm- and pine trees. After a second walk we came on picknick place, where we enjoyed the view, the smashing waves and the spring sun. On the boat Oytan was considerably exhausted and slept almost the complete trip, whereas I had enough time to write again in my diary.

9th of May 2004•10:52 hours

I had not seen that not only the times and the airport changed but also the day of my cheap flight from Corendon. I had therefore gone for nothing to the airport and had to endure a strict terrorist control. No matter if I wanted or not, I had to remain one day longer in Istanbul. It was not possible to stay again at Oytun’s place for an extra night because he got family visit, and I also did not want to bother him as well. But still he wanted to pick me up by car and bring me to a place to sleep. We decided to try it at the youth hostel but ended up in the traffic-jam. Hours later, with a side-trip through the Russian market district, where we first could not get out anymore, we succeeded nevertheless to come at the youth hostel. Moreover, there was enough place, so I could select a bed select and afterwards I went roaming round in the district Sultanachmed. I had the time to examine all large mosks from in- and of outside. A certain Moustafa addressed me and walked up with me for a while. He wanted to help me by accompanying me as a guide, but rapidly I thanked him for that and said goodbye. I finally wanted to be on my own again. Afterwards with sunset I nicely paraded on the bridge over the Golden Horn and twisted up through narrow streets and stairways in the direction of Taksimsquare. Underway I came along a beautiful old hammam, which seemed interesting to me. Unfortunately it was quite dissapointing. Dirty and onhygienic, expensive tourist tariff, the sauna was not really warm and quite soon it was closing-time. While I dressed again I talked with a half-turkish german man. He had funny jokes and proved ‘bi’ as well. Although he was totally not my type, we are nevertheless went to eat together in a place frequented by many gays, as he told me.

After dinner we walked a little firther, when two young guys said ‘ hi’ to us. They wanted to show us the nearby park but this was not safe, the german indicated. But drinks something in a cafe could do no harm. One of them seemed to me a nice guy. The german man wanted to get back to his hotel because he would have an eye operation on the next day . I went alone with the two of them to a dance club, but as soon as we entered the place I did not trust it. Too chique service and too little public, who stayed drinking along the tables. A couple of girls from Belarus came sitting next tu us and although it was quite amusing, I had no good feeling about it. I said that I rather wanted to leave but the pretty guy asked me nevertheless to stay a little longer and we went dancing. The girls drank champagne all the time and I thought: this is getting wrong. So I said that I wanted the bill. On the bill there was written an amount of 6 billion lira, which is about € 4000,-! So in trouble, I think , let’s clear off here. I make a lot of noise, put € 50,- on the table and leave. The boss seizes me at my collar and I start to shout loudly against him that I do not let swindle itself. He gets some more big guys and tries soothe me. I show my (second) purse and say that I do not have more cash money and also no credit cards. He does not get to mee my real purse. I explain him that I am just a poor student and stay in the youth hostel, therefore that there can not be taken any more from me. Then he obtains the other boys and says that I must solve it with them. I run out of the door to a taxi while the two boys come running after me. The taxi driver closes the door and I close the window. Fortunately, he drives away and they canot do anything anymore. This never again, I thinks while the taxi crosses the bridge.

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Ex Convento de Regina Coelli,Natividad de María Santisima,Cuauhtémoc,Ciudad de México.
debt management
Image by Catedrales e Iglesias
Fotos Nuevas Mayo 2013

© Álbum 0158
By Catedrales e Iglesias
By Cathedrals and Churches
Arquidiócesis Primada de México
www.catedraleseiglesias.com

Ex Convento Regina Coeli (Natividad de María Santísima)
Párroco Señor Presbítero José Cenobio Ramírez Chávez
Calle de Bolivar No 92
Colonia Centro
C.P. 6080
Delegación Cuauhtémoc
Tel. 5709-2640
Tel.
Fax. 5709-6272

En 1573 la administración virreinal cedió amplios terrenos a las religiosas concepcionistas en el viejo calpulli prehispánico de Moyotlán (más tarde barrio de San Juan) para que establecieran un convento.

La fundación, dedicada a la Reina del Cielo traducción de la expresión latina Regina Coeli y a la Natividad de la Virgen María, fue aprobada por el Papa Gregorio XIII en 1578.

El templo del monasterio se edificó en el ángulo que forman las actuales calles de Bolívar y Regina, frente a un espacio libre que ya en el siglo XVII se conocía con el nombre de Plaza Chiquita de Regina. Su forma irregular se origino en el trazo de una de las acequias que atravesaban ese baldío. El convento y el templo primitivos fueron muy pobres, con cimentación deficiente.

La reestructuración de estos edificios se realizó en 1656 a expensas de Melchor de Terreros. El templo se reformo después y se abrió el 13 de septiembre de 1731. La obra la proyectó el arquitecto Miguel Custodio Durán y la financió el arzobispo José Lanciego y Eguilaz.

Como todas las plazas y calles de la ciudad colonial anteriores a la gestión del virrey Revillagigedo, la Plaza de Regina no escapó a la suciedad y abandono en que se encontraban los espacios exteriores de la metrópoli: falta de drenaje conveniente, encharcamientos constantes, ausencia de empedrados y banquetas y carencia de iluminación nocturna, que la convertían en un lugar peligroso durante las noches. Además, en ella frecuentemente se asentaban tianguis y tablados de toda índole, habiendo sido utilizada, incluso, para matanza de animales, mezclándose a todas esas incomodidades el espectáculo de mendigos y menesterosos que se aposentaban en ella durante las funciones religiosas.

Transformación radical sufrió la plaza al ser exclaustradas las monjas concepcionistas, conjuntamente con las de otras órdenes religiosas, el 8 de marzo de 1863, y aunque estas volvieron al convento durante el imperio de Maximiliano de Habsburgo, el 14 de noviembre de 1867 se entregó el convento a la Secretaría de Guerra, sirviendo de cuartel hasta el 15 de junio de 1871, cuando el gobierno de la República lo dió, en pago de adeudos, al acaudalado Ramón Obregón.

El templo, por su parte, permaneció abierto al culto. Un informe rendido por el regidor del ramo en 1868, hace mención de las obras realizadas para que desaparecieran la insalubridad y los muladares acumulados en la plaza, donde ya existía una fuente pública que cuidaban las autoridades de la ciudad, insistiendo en que debía barrerse y regarse todos los días "por los aguadores que concurren a la fuente de Regina a sacar agua", así como para que los areneros, carboneros, zacateros o cualquier otro tratante de este género, asearan el lugar que ocupasen con sus mercaderías. Además, en febrero de ese mismo año, se instalaron faroles de hojalata con aparatos de gas líquido, de trementina, de veinte luces, sustituyendo al alumbrado de aceite instalado por la administración colonial.

Gracias a la generosidad y filantropía de la señorita María Concepción Máxima Béistegui y García, quien a su muerte, ocurrida en 1873, cedió sus bienes para la fundación de un hospital en lo que fuera el Convento de Regina, se pudieron salvar de la destrucción, que se había iniciado poco antes, el claustro principal y las crujías adyacentes al mismo. Así, el denominado Hospital Concepción Béistegui, después de laboriosa adaptación, fue inaugurado por el Gral. Porfirio Díaz el 21 de marzo de 1886.

El resto del convento fue dividido en lotes, construyéndose en su lugar varias casas y locales sin ningún valor arquitectónico. En 1967, las autoridades del Departamento del Distrito Federal, ante la necesidad de contar con amplios espacios abiertos en esta zona de la ciudad, eligieron la Plaza de Regina como una de las primeras en la restauración de los centros cívicos capitalinos.

Entonces la plaza fue cerrada al tránsito vehicular en el tramo de la calle de Regina que corría frente al templo, dejándolo fluir únicamente por la calle lateral ubicada al norte de la plaza, y llevando el pavimento pétreo, en adoquín de San Luis Potosí, hasta la fachada misma del templo. Los árboles existentes fueron reubicados al norte de la plaza para permitir mayor visibilidad al edificio.
Informacion tomada de
www.ciudadanosenred.org.mx/node/16488

Ex Convent Regina Coeli (Nativity of Mary)
Mr. Priest Pastor Jose Ramirez Chavez Cenobio
Bolivar Street No 92
Cologne Center
C.P. 6080
Cuauhtemoc
Mexico City
Phone 5709-2640
Phone
Fax. 5709-6272

In 1573 the colonial administration gave the spacious grounds of the old religious Conceptionists calpulli prehispanic Moyotlan (later district of San Juan) to establish a convent.

The foundation, dedicated to the Queen of Heaven translation of the Latin Regina Coeli and the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, was approved by Pope Gregory XIII in 1578.

The temple of the monastery was built in the angle formed by the present streets of Bolívar and Regina, compared to free space in the seventeenth century and was known by the name of Piazza Regina Chiquita. Its irregular shape originated in the stroke of one of the canals running through this wasteland. The convent and the primitive church were very poor, poor foundation.

The restructuring of these buildings was performed in 1656 at the expense of Melchor de Terreros. The temple was later reformed and opened on September 13, 1731. The work was designed by the architect Miguel Custodio Durán and funded the Archbishop Jose Lanciego and Eguilaz.

Like all the squares and streets of the colonial city prior to the management of Viceroy Revillagigedo, Plaza Regina did not escape the dirt and neglect that were outside spaces of the metropolis: lack of appropriate drainage, ponding constant, no paving and sidewalks and lack of night lighting, which became a dangerous place at night. Moreover, she often settled swap meets and tablados of all kinds, having been used, even to killing animals, mixing all these discomforts the spectacle of beggars and needy that aposentaban there for religious functions.

Square underwent radical transformation when exclaustradas the Franciscan nuns, together with those of other religious orders, the March 8, 1863, and although these returned to the monastery during the reign of Maximilian of Hapsburg, 14 November 1867 gave the convent to the Secretary of War, serving as headquarters until June 15, 1871, when the government of the Republic gave it in payment of debts, the wealthy Ramón Obregón.

The church, meanwhile, remained open for worship. A report issued by the ruler of the sector in 1868, makes mention of the work undertaken to disappear unhealthiness and middens accumulated in the square, where there was already a public source guarded the city authorities, insisting he swept and watered every day "by the watermen who attend Regina source to draw water" as well as for litter boxes, coal, or any other dealer zacateros of this kind, asearan occupy the place with their merchandise. Moreover, in February of that year, tin lanterns were installed with liquid gas appliances, turpentine, twenty lights, replacing oil lamps installed by the colonial administration.

Thanks to the generosity and philanthropy of Miss Maria Conception High Beistegui and Garcia, who at his death in 1873, transferred its assets to the foundation of a hospital in what was once the Convent of Regina, were saved from destruction, that had begun shortly before, the main cloister and the bays adjacent to it. So-called Beistegui Conception Hospital, after laborious adaptation, was inaugurated by General Porfirio Diaz on March 21, 1886.

The rest of the convent was divided into lots, built several houses in place and local architectural worthless. In 1967, the authorities of the Federal District, to the need for open spaces in this area of ​​the city, chose Regina Square as one of the first in the restoration of civic centers in the capital.

Then the square was closed to traffic on the stretch of Regina Street that ran opposite the temple, just letting it flow down the side street just north of the square, carrying the stone pavement in San Luis Potosi cobble up the facade of the temple itself. Existing trees were relocated to the north of the square to allow greater visibility to the building.

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Some amazing visa photos:

CHINESE VISA
visa
< img alt="visa"src="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/533596231_70286a0d7e.jpg"width="400"/ > Photo by
upton They put so much infiltrate this point I had to share it. This is an “”industrial sticker label” “that uses up the whole web page of your key.

I wonder how much a phony Chinese visa would run a person?

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Mt Gambier Club opened in 1904 as offices for lease. Club there since 1913
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Methodist Hall and Sunday School in Mt Gambier. Built in 1903 with a Victorian classical facade. Now professional offices.
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Image by denisbin
Unusual style for a Methodist Sunday School Hall. White quoins and window surrounds. Balustrade across roof line. Rounded windows not Gothic pointed windows.

Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Cool Totally Free Credit Rating National images

Browse these free credit rating federal government images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: main hall panorama (SR-71, aircraft, et al)
free credit history federal government
Picture by Chris Devers
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Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance plane in history has run globally much more hostile airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71, society’s fastest jet-propelled plane. The Blackbird’s performance and operational accomplishments put it in the pinnacle of aviation technology improvements during Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 several years of energetic service using the U.S. Air energy. On its last trip, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida put a speed record by flying from la to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 moments, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At trip’s summary, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the plane up to the Smithsonian.

Transmitted from the Usa Air Energy.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Fashion Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Measurements:
General: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Products:
Titanium

Real Information:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical end fins tend to be made of a composite (laminated plastic-type product) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines function large inlet surprise cones.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, additionally the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Maker:
Rockwell International Corporation

Nation of Origin:
Usa

Measurements:
Total: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. very long x 78 ft. wing period, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Materials:
Aluminum airframe and body with fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) excluding test examples of real tiles and thermal blankets.

1st Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test automobile used for routes when you look at the environment and examinations on a lawn; it is really not prepared for spaceflight. Even though the airframe and journey control elements are just like those of this Shuttles flown in area, this car does not have any propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these functions are not needed for atmospheric and floor examinations. "Enterprise" was rolled on at Rockwell Overseas’s system facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it joined service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test trip system. Thereafter it had been utilized for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, looked after starred in the 1983 Paris Air Show therefore the 1984 planet’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" towards Smithsonian organization’s nationwide Air and area Museum.

Transmitted from Nationwide Aeronautics and Space Management

Sousse 26/3/2015: “WHY THEY ACTUALLY DO THAT?… I REALLY LIKE THE PEOPLE” or the ignorance of visitor love
free credit score federal government
Image by Imaginary Museum Works: Development Tableaus
"WHY ARE THEY PERFORMING THAT?.. I LOVE THE PEOPLE!"
or the lack of knowledge of visitor love
with fallen terrorists
failing continually to respond to
any question
any longer.

Video supply at: www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/27/tunisia-attack-he-l…

To put a conclusion to these types of horrendous violence tourists need certainly to concern themselves. Why, in which and How they go on vacations. They should notify on their own beyond the vacation company flyers…. isn’t the nation they believe they love, more of a fantasy than real?

What exactly are then the social and cost-effective realities of this country they imagine to love?

This can be a starting place for further private study:

"Tourism is an important industry in the Tunisian economy and contains a considerable role in deciding economic and governmental alternatives. While it is correct that, over the years, tourism has been a substantial earnings generator, it’s also required to give consideration to that these types of revenues were created by an aggressive exploitation of the ‘Tunisian design’ and therefore of the territory, regardless of the effects for this exploitation. Inspite of the tentative promotion of new kinds of tourism, continuity has actually prevailed over the years within the upkeep of a deficient touristic model plus in the role assigned to tourism as pivot of a continuing, much more rhetorical than actual, means of change. Thus, the ‘thaw!abit’ of Tunisian tourism be seemingly very resistant no matter if, after the transformation, they’ve be more porous than in the past because of an authentic debate about the future regarding the sector. Nonetheless, before and after the change likewise, the tourist sector appears to be led by logic of exploitation and securitisation. Just the claim for a more available and democratic decision making process might provide a chance to reverse this challenging trend."

[Di Peri, Rosita. An Enduring ‘Touristic Miracle’ in Tunisia? Coping with Old Challenges after the Revolution. In ‘British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 2014 (10/12/2014). ; p. 15.]

This article led me to a vital 2013 book that helps answering the question raised because of the German traveler lady. At this moment i really do not need time for you to summarise the guide and translate the French components into English… I am going to try to do that later in the coming week. Here is my very first big selection of quotations out of this important study. My news-tableaus in many cases are attempts to connect a news-topic which widely talked about on social media marketing with academic research that usually just isn’t seen by many people… We attempt to offer a bridge between these two worlds.

Di Peri, Rosita (ed.). Giordana, Raffaella(ed.). Revolution without Revolutions. The challenges of tourism sector in Tunisia. 2013. Casa editrice Emil di Odoya. Bologna. Accesible via: www.academia.edu/5814021/Revolution_without_Revolutions._… (NB cannot can be found in worldcat.org).

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Di Peri, Rosita (ed.). Giordana, Raffaella(ed.). Revolution without Revolutions. The difficulties of tourism industry in Tunisia. 2013. Casa editrice Emil di Odoya. Bologna. Accesible via: www.academia.edu/5814021/Revolution_without_Revolutions._… (NB cannot appear in worldcat.org). ; p. 7. ]

"CHAPTER "International Tourism, a ‘political concern’ " Rosita di Perri; p.9-26" [Ibid.; p. 9.]

"Aloui reveals that these days tourism, an integral industry for the Tunisian economic climate which uses large number of individuals, is item of re-launch and promotion guidelines that look at the industry’s talents and weaknesses. !e political context and level, this his primary assumption, is not neglected, considering the nature regarding the relationship between your general public sector, the private sector additionally the regional population plus the improvements of extremist Islamic moves in the united kingdom. !e hypotheses put forward because of the writer, although considering tourism a priority and a potentially good development consider the long term, question the fact, today, Tunisia is able to develop an ‘enabling environment’ the development of the industry from an economic, governmental and personal standpoint. Tunisian tourism needs to be diversified, not merely geographically, but additionally when it comes to offer, as it is it mostly considering big self-sufficient resorts polarised in tourist well-known locations: Tunis, Hammamet – Nabeul, Sousse, Djerba et Tabarka. !e views for 2016-2020 show a tendency to consistently purchase these locations – that may only aggravate an already unequal circulation of assets on a regional scale. Despite the advantages with regards to income, work and balance of payments, tourism in Tunisia had over time three primary side effects in governmental terms (in addition to those associated with the surroundings as well as its long-lasting sustainability): the broadening for the economic gap among Tunisians (bourgeois businessmen and also the remaining portion of the population), the dependence for the tourism industry by worldwide money, the inflationary outcomes of intercontinental tourism on regional usage." [Ibid.; p. 20.]

"CHAPTER: "Political and social assessment of Tunisia pre and post ‘Arab Spring’ " Francesco Cavatorta and Fabio Merone; p.27-68" [Ibid.; p. 27.]

"At an occasion in which Islam and Islamist stars had been becoming more prominent across the region, Tunisia appeared not only as a haven for secularism but the one that must be supported at that. !e democratization paradigm saw these reforms as globally good and prodemocracy since they had been based on the expansion of liberal liberties, while authoritarian resilience noted all of them as tactical reforms to ally specific sectors of society into the regime, often in an anti-Islamist personal coalition. But both paradigms accepted the credibility of notion that Tunisia ended up being a secular nation which for that reason political and social actors worth examination and interest had been only the ones that appeared to fit inside this mythology. This mythology prevented observing the tremendous transformations happening in society and increasing disconnect amongst the values for the ruling elites with an urban-based, French-speaking milieu and a sizable area of the populace which both existed and wished for culture to-be more attuned to Arab-Muslim values. !is implied that inside longer-term the values and settings of behavior of the ruling elites and tiny areas associated with metropolitan population deviated from ones that most the population had and both paradigms missed this essential aspect. !us, in place of merely vanishing, Islamism and its own manifestations had a profound transformation, particularly because any attempt for Islamist functions to be active from the governmental scene had been prevented. An escalating exposition to cultural and personal designs brought in from the outdoors globe through globalisation and brand-new technologies like satellite television additionally the persistence with that the regime continued to push for laïcité had the end result of reawakening needs when it comes to Arab-Muslim identity to be a great deal more recognised. !is had been mainly expressed because of the desire to myself reaffirm Muslim identification and behavior. !us, wearing the veil became probably the most visible outlet of the new found individual choice of piety (Kerrou, 2010) together with charitable work and behaving as a Muslim in everyday activity. This contrasted with people in ruling elites that flaunted its power and cash and was mired with what numerous saw as decadence and honest corruption. Overall, the regime’s forced secularisation and repression of Islamism, neglected the prominent referent of values regarding the greater part of the population, namely Islam which starred in all its clarity in aftermath regarding the uprising with Islamist political and personal stars gaining importance." [Ibid.; p. 40.]

"On October 23, 2011, the very first time since liberty in 1956, Tunisians were known as to the polls in no-cost and transparent elections. !ey were to select 217 members of a Constitutional Assembly that for a year would play a double role: drafting a brand new constitution and governing the nation. Above 100 political functions had been subscribed to take part into the elections with conventional functions contending along new people very often times failed to truly portray any personal bloc, but were cars for personal breakthroughs. !e outcomes of the elections had been astonishing for several reasons. Very first, the turnout ended up being below expected at 53 per cent, despite really serious efforts by the Electoral Commission to get the vote out. !is is a worrisome sign that political pluralism and democratic processes is probably not seen by a substantial the main population while the components whereby their needs is satisfied. In turn this attitude has serious ramifications the transition to democracy and also for the actors involved in it. 2nd, the success regarding the Islamist party al-Nahda had been a great deal more than pre-electoral polls predicted. Al-Nahda obtained 41.7 percent of this vote and won 89 chairs into the Constitutional Assembly, definitely the largest bloc. Interestingly the party won half of the seating reserved for associates associated with Tunisian residing abroad. !ird, secular and leftist functions done really if a person adds up the scores they obtained independently, but their divisions split the secular electorate." [Ibid.; p. 51.]

"This return to religiosity is partially for this development of a globally linked middle-class that the policies of Ben Ali during 1990s could actually produce if perhaps to then marginalise it in the 2000s. To be able to counter the increasing corruption associated with the regime and its own decreasing advantages from the liberal financial policies associated with the state, these types of a class found in Islamic activism a partial response to its issues. !e unethical behavior for the ruling elites was compared aided by the extremely honest and moral behaviour that faith inspired, specifically through charity work and personal shows of piety. !e second element is because of the rediscovery of scholars and political activists just who before had argued for a form of moderate Islamism to be incorporated into the identification and, crucially, in to the policies of Tunisia. Referring back once again to the dispute between Bourguiba and Saleh or discussing the spiritual scholars of Zitouna, many ordinary Tunisians started to think of their identity as inextricably associated with an Arab-Muslim identification and its values, that could and may be incorporated into a vision of municipal condition with democratic features, but infused because of the spirituality and values of religion. Therefore, al-Nahda benefited from activism and intellectual revival of Tunisian reformism and when its cadres and frontrunners came back towards country discovered an ideal landscapes due to their message, giving them the capacity to reprise the governmental role they’d when you look at the late 1980s." [Ibid.; p. 53.]

"in a lot of areas, the social course that had been excluded from participating to the building for the condition and its particular development in favour of an urban based francophone middle-class has these days the chance to attain a consensus along with it by accepting a civil state, but demanding a role for religion. In the long run the party abandoned the rigidity of its religion-inspired eyesight to-arrive at a place where it supports the creation of a ‘civil’ condition (dawla madaniyya), honestly subscribing toward indisputable fact that recommendations to religion tend to be solely identitybased rather than sources for public policy-making. !is is actually a situation that al-Nahda’s adversaries do not believe become genuine. 2nd, al-Nahda, emphasising a stronger Arab-Muslim identification that deviates from the Frenchinspired project of modernization, could perform a foreign plan which no further determined by Western countries. Although this is certainly not likely in the future because focus in resolving domestic issues, you can find indications that foreign plan stances of Tunisia could be more antagonistic up against the West. !e extremely cozy reception afforded toward frontrunners regarding the Palestinian Hamas if they visited Tunis might be an indication of items to come." [Ibid.; p. 54.]

"al-Nahda’s arrival in energy has actually vindicated a generation of Islamist activists in their fifties and sixties, leading them to roles of energy and status. While this is legitimate, the protagonist of the Tunisian uprising had been the youth, which can be today no place to be seen when you look at the institutional arena. !is is particularly difficult in a country where teenagers represent most residents. If such a cohort seems omitted from the advantages, especially socio-economic, of this uprising, it may perhaps not agree with the change to democracy, revitalising types of mobilisation which are quasi-revolutionary and anti-systemic." [Ibid.; p. 55.]

"While al-Nahda believed that it absolutely was likely to represent the spiritual sector of culture alone, it’s unearthed that in fact a lot of the Tunisian youth interested and energetic according to religious principles is disappointed with the transition and prefers to function in banner of Salafism, whether jihadi or scientific." [Ibid.; p. 55.]

"Salafism features acquired a very general public existence in urban centers, with Salafists from multiple various movements involved in numerous visible situations: keeping demonstrations against blasphemy, concentrating on films or art displays, or challenging dress-code regulations in universities. Even though the actual quantity of Salafist activists is reasonably small, their particular highly mediatized activities have actually placed Salafism at the centre of both governmental and scholarly attention. !e francophone hit (Dahmani, 2011) both in Tunisia and France has been covering what they call the “Salafist danger” or the “Salafist disease,” just as if the phenomenon were an aberration in Tunisian society and this is superficially real in feeling your occurrence had been practically completely invisible through the Ben Ali period because of the harsh repression it absolutely was afflicted by, however the the reality is that Salafism in Tunisia, as in other places in the region, had been always a presence, albeit minoritarian. It uses that Tunisian Salafist moves, are neither an externally-generated governmental event nor the product of Saudi interference in Tunisian politics since they have powerful domestic origins. !ese roots stretch to early 1980’s whenever elements with al-Nahda (at that time called Mouvement Tendence Islmique) left the party in disagreement using leadership with respect to membership to democracy and pluralism. A tiny splinter team had been consequently created during the time although never legalised or allowed to work in the great outdoors, its history, specifically in the theoretical and intellectual amount, continues to this very day. Also these types of intellectual history featuring its main message of ‘unity’ that does not enable the development of a civil condition in which religious precepts may find no application since they most of citizens features therefore determined has-been reinforced because of the war connection with Tunisian jihadis. A number of teenagers trickled from Tunisia and had been associated with foreign conflicts where they obtained spiritual teachings and organization abilities, that they are utilizing today in Tunisia to hire and mobilise teenagers in disenfranchised regions of the country." [Ibid.; p. 56.]

"inside respect, those analysts that has predicted your war in Iraq would create a Jihadi front throughout the Middle East and North Africa have been proven proper. It will be the war in Iraq that becomes central for several youthful Tunisians. Connecting up with Tunisians that has fought in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Chechnya, there is a concerted attempt considering that the mid-2000s from Jihadists outside Tunisia to generate a presence in Tunisia itself to be able to fight the illegitimate regime of Ben Ali because of its kafir secular nature. !e designer of the effort is Lassaad Sessi, who’d resided in Italy for a long period. In April 2006, Sessi and a small selection of armed Jihadists crossed the edge from Algeria into Tunisia and took part in a gunfight using the Tunisian security causes. Having escaped the security causes, Sessi were able to recruit some young militants in Sousse, Tunis, and Sidi Bouzid. Something surprising is the general convenience with which such a recruiting promotion occurred, because of the expected insularity of Tunisia from extremism therefore the omnipresence regarding the security equipment." [Ibid.; p. 58.]

"In 2006, Tunisia had been a rather fertile surface for Salafist propaganda and hiring, since the additional image of Tunisia would not completely correspond to the fact. In place of being a country where democracy had been increasingly set up, man rights progressively respected while the promarket economy delivering high requirements of lifestyle, Tunisia was, actually, a deeply authoritarian condition with a predatory economic climate favouring politically attached elites even though the larger population, particularly, in working-class areas and disadvantaged rural areas, endured rapidly decreasing lifestyle requirements. A small cohort of teenagers, whoever presence would turned out to be known to public opinion only after the fall of this regime, had been interested in the Salafist political project. The Jihadist team Jund Assad ibn el-Furat had been setup in 2006, although seriously repressed after. !is team could be the predecessor of the currently operating Jihadi group Ansar Ash-Sharia, that was developed after the change in the April 2011 and it is the most important Salafist team in the united states these days. One of many effects associated with repressive promotion associated with the 1990s and 2000s with the digital annihilation of every form of spiritual socialisation not sanctioned because of the regime is the solitude of several young adults within their quest for spirituality. !e marginalization of general public religious shows and an ever-increasing tradition of soulless materialism had profoundly impacted many teenagers through the 2000s, giving rise from what may be called “spiritual requirements.” The worsening fiscal conditions during predatory period of the regime compounded the feeling of alienation and disempowerment of this younger years. !is sense of alienation and solitude in their own personal country was not a generational novelty, into the feeling the very early pioneers of Tunisian Islamism inside 1970s experienced exactly the same feelings as well as turned to spiritual moral behavior as a source of governmental wedding. !e intercontinental situation contributed to advance radicalization. To some extent, this describes the reason why this Jihadi Salafism oscillated between physical violence and peaceful means, particularly preaching. !e younger militants were separated from each other literally, and united just through a shared spirituality located on the Internet and connected by the great Arab reasons for the decade: Palestine and Iraq. !e autumn regarding the regime changed everything for Tunisian Salafism." [Ibid.; p. 58.]

"Very little has materialised because the uprising therefore the arriving at energy of a brand new federal government. !e deteriorating economy is due to many factors, including the incompetence of some ministers, the global recession, regional governmental uncertainty, lack of important intercontinental assistance and earlier mismanagement. Whatever the reason, it is clear that worsening lifestyle requirements have actually a poor effect on the political system and political functions, that are progressively losing credibility and they are obligated to ‘fight’ identification battles that further divide Tunisians versus coping with an economic situation they have small control of. Al-Nahda, as all catch-all functions, tries to square the circle between its nominal care for the disenfranchised using the need to be an authentic pro-market economic actor that suits the requirements of the conservative middle-class that put it in energy. !e left-wing events suggest guidelines that seem old and inadequate, although the Salafists stand-on the side-lines shouting the whole system must be taken down hence Islam is the solution." [Ibid.; p. 62.]

"CHAPTER: "Révolution et tourisme en Tunisie, le secteur touristique en Tunisie avant et après le "printemps Arabe" Amma Aloui; p.103-168" [Ibid.; p. 103.]

"Il découle de cette grande interrogation d’autres questions : — l’environnement économique, personal, politique et géopolitique est-il favorable au développement du tourisme dans l’espace circumméditerranéen, par relationship à un printemps arabe (et tunisien) caractérisé par une prédominance de l’islamisme politique, par le conflit israélopalestinien et par les menaces du déclenchement d’une guerre entre Israël et l’Iran ? — Quelles formes de tourisme capable de favoriser le développement de changement démocratique en Tunisie dans le cas où les islamistes resteraient au pouvoir ? — Comment faire de la Tunisie une destination attrayante avec des produits de haute qualité et de haute gamme et en garantissant la sécurité des touristes favorisant les échanges de bonnes pratiques, principalement, démocratiques et leurs impacts sur la société d’accueil ? — Le tourisme de masse qui a fait la renommée de la Tunisie peut-il contribuer au développement durable du will pay ou opinion le repenser en vue de transformer ses effets négatifs sur l’environnement et sur la société en effets positifs à mettre au crédit des comptes de la nation ?" [Ibid.; p. 105.]

"Quoi qu’il en soit, le tourisme est un produit, fragile, périssable, diversifié et hypersensible. Il résulte de la combinaison d’une «chaîne de la qualité» constituée de nombreux maillons (opérateurs) : voyagistes (Tour-opérateurs), representatives de voyages émetteurs et récepteurs, transporteurs, hôtels, restaurants, populace autochtone et autres prestataires de solutions. En outre, le visiteur sera confronté à un ensemble de stimuli présents au sein de la destination qui ne sont pas spécifiquement conçus pour lui mais auxquels il sera confronté : sécurité, état diverses routes, air pollution de toute forme, solutions locaux (poste, téléphone), climat personal, hygiène etc. Pour le visiteur, le service produit par la location est alors une expérience globale avec une organization fondée sur des communications multiples, fréquentes et variées parmi tous les éléments du système. C’est l’ensemble du système «tourisme» de la destination qui est à considérer depuis le minute où le visiteur prépare son départ et son séjour jusqu’au minute où il rentrera chez lui. Une nuitée touristique non passée dans le pays constitue un manque à gagner et une perte pour la destination d’accueil. Elle est similaire à une opération d’exportations de produits périssables ratés." [Ibid.; p. 108.]

"Et en matière de création d’emplois et d’apport de devises ? Il est indiscutable que l’accueil de touristes étrangers génère de nombreux emplois. Mais il faut analyser plus précisément la nature de ces emplois pour en mesurer les effets économiques et sociaux. Il s’agit pour l’essentiel d’emplois de services non qualifiés ou très peu qualifiés, instables, saisonniers et évidemment sous-payés. Dans des areas connaissant un chômage structurel massif et où la misère est le lot du plus grand nombre venu de l’intérieur du pays, surtout, les régions du Nord, Centre et Sud-Ouest (Béja, Jendouba, le Kef, Siliana, Kasserine, Sidi Bouzid, Gafsa avec boy bassin minier). La mobilité interrégionale ou migration forcée de l’Ouest vers l’Est est perçue comme une concern good pour les migrants. Mais trop souvent les emplois occupés n’assurent pas la sortie de la misère et l’accession à la dignité." [Ibid.; p. 135.]

"Quant au tourisme resource de devises, il est là encore nécessaire d’aller au-delà des mirages, des idées reçues. Une importante activité touristique a évidemment un effet positif sur la balance des paiements du pays concerné. Mais cet effet est généralement surestimé. Les rapatriements systématiques de bénéfices des investisseurs étrangers sont rarement mesurés et les dépenses des biens de consommation ou de biens d’équipement importés, les marges des tours opérateurs et agences de voyages, les frais de transport des compagnies étrangères, les sociétés d’intermédiation afin de la réservation, les dépenses de publicité, de interaction, de marketing and advertising et les dépenses de touristes tunisiens à l’étranger sont des dépenses énormes qui grèvent les recettes touristiques. L’évaluation du solde semble être difficile. Le compte extérieur de l’industrie touristique tunisienne n’apparaît nullement dans les rapports officiels du tourisme tunisien." [Ibid.; p. 135.]

"Le secteur touristique a joué un rôle crucial dans le développement du pays mais, en contrepartie, il a généré des coûts dont trois sont considérés majeurs : la unit des tunisiens en 2 classes, la bourgeoisie affairiste et les autres tunisiens ; la dépendance financière du money worldwide et l’inflation par la demande. (…) L’essor du tourisme serait en quelque sorte la contrepartie de l’endettement extérieur». Ce dérapage ne semble pas être le résultat d’une bonne objective, de la société politique mais plutôt d’une mauvaise objective, décidée pour ne pas compromettre d’une part ses relations organiques avec la bourgeoisie (ou petite bourgeoisie) nationale qui est le milieu de sa naissance et la base qui lui confère le fondement de sa légitimité pseudo-wébérienne, et pour ne pas créer, d’autre component, une rupture avec le monde occidental, l’un des grands pourvoyeurs de capitaux, utiles pour financer des plans de développement économique et personal." [Ibid.; p. 143.]

"Cependant, la focus dans le temps et dans l’espace des consommateurs de biens et de services, peut provoquer des tensions inflationnistes si l’offre est incapable de satisfaire la demande. Le phénomène inflationniste est alimenté par la fixation anticipée des prix dans la mesure où les vendeurs de biens et de services savent, pertinemment, que pendant la haute saison touristique il va y avoir une demande additionnelle. Il en résulte que la demande excédentaire bute contre une offre inélastique à court terme, par relationship aux prix. Los angeles hausse diverses prix affecte surtout les denrées alimentaires de bonne qualité. Les producteurs, les grossistes et les détaillants préfèrent livrer leurs produits aux hôteliers à des prix qui dépassent, souvent, les possibilités financières de la plupart des habitants." [Ibid.; p. 147.]

"Le tourisme adopté en Tunisie est le tourisme de masse qui a non seulement entrainé la dégradation du milieu humain, il a aussi déstructuré, abimé pour ne pas serious mutilé le paysage naturel de la area côtière. Le littoral est colonisé. Cette colonisation est légitimée par postulat juridique : expropriation afin de cause d’utilité publique. Ce postulat a favorisé la privatisation de la bande côtière et la destruction du milieu écologique. (…) En utilisant un arsenal juridique20 ouvrant la porte à l’expropriation par arrêté, des milliers de paysans se sont trouvés dépossédés de leur terre et étaient forcés à dire adieu à leurs activités grandes (essentiellement l’agriculture) pour aller se greffer quelque component sur la périphérie des villes et accroître le «lumpen prolétariat» qui allait trouver dans le tourisme des activités parasitaires : vol, racolage, imitation guide, colportage insalubre, sexualité perturbée, mendicité, etc." [Ibid.; p. 148.]

"Les schémas d’aménagement touristique adoptés en Tunisie, répètent dans leurs caractéristiques essentielles le même stéréotype de développement touristique appliqué sur les côtes méditerranéennes dans les années 1960 : modèles espagnols, italiens, grecs etc. Ainsi l’espace récréatif créé sur la bande côtière s’individualisait de plus en plus par connection au reste du territoire. Le modèle d’aménagement et la nature dish du surface font que los angeles mer et le rivage sont pratiquement invisibles afin de celui qui emprunte la route située au dos des hôtels. Les couloirs de contact direct entre le réseau routier et los angeles côte se raréfient d’année en année. Los angeles localisation et los angeles centralisation des hôtels le very long de la côte tendent à privatiser les plages et à limiter l’unique accès à la plage aux touristes. La capacité de cost dans les grandes areas touristiques côtières devient insupportable à cause de la concentration croissante des hôtels." [Ibid.; p. 149.]

"L’activité touristique a non seulement accaparé l’espace des vergers d’agrume au Cap Bon, ou des plantations d’arbres fruitiers ou d’olivier au Sahel (région de Sousse) et à Djerba Zarzis. Le réseau routier et les blocs de béton qui poussent comme des champignons stérilisent chaque jour de nouveaux espaces agricoles. Par ailleurs, le tourisme, dans le cas de la Tunisie, n’est pas seulement un dévoreur d’espace il est aussi un fort consommateur d’eau. Los angeles concentration touristique dans le temps et dans l’espace constitue une véritable usine à air pollution en raison des rejets des eaux usées, heureusement raccordées au réseau de l’Office National d’Assainissement (ONAS). Chaque touriste laisse environ 5 kg de mélange polluant par nuitée. En une année, l’industrie touristique tunisienne produit en moyenne 150.000 tonnes (5kg x 30 hundreds of thousands de nuitées) de déchets. En terme de comptabilité verte, le coût est très élevé à supporter pour la communauté nationale." [Ibid.; p. 149.]

"Les autorités politiques considéraient que l’industrie touristique constitue une vitrine de la modernité du pays aux yeux des étrangers. Elles ont tout fait afin de développer les régions côtières. Ces dernières ont bénéficié de tous les attempts de l’État en matière d’infrastructure. Or, ces attempts n’ont pas attiré, seulement, les promoteurs touristiques mais toutes les catégories de promoteurs entraînant, ainsi, un drainage des compétences les plus qualifiées. Il en a résulté que la populace rurale de l’intérieur du will pay soumis au sous-développement et à la marginalisation économique et sociale quitte sa région natale vers les zones côtières urbanisées et industrialisées. Le déséquilibre régional est devenu un fait majeur. Il est une des causes de la révolution du 14 janvier 2011." [Ibid.; p. 149.]

"Durant les décennies 1960, 1970 et 1980 le tourisme a frappé de plein fouet les terres agricoles des régions côtières, a défiguré le paysage du littoral et chassé les paysans de leurs terres par l’expropriation. Le mal ne s’est pas arrêté à ce stade. Il a généré une mutation sociale au niveau identitaire en opérant une dévalorisation de la culture location. Les enfants des paysans déracinés de leurs origines et déplacés par le fait d’expropriation ont été recrutés «au compte- gouttes» comme leurs parents par le nouveau domaine après avoir été soumis au système des relations clientélistes. Los angeles reconversion aux nouveaux métiers fut fort difficile et l’adaptation fut forcée et contre nature. Le passageway du statut de paysans indépendants au statut de salariés saisonniers dépendant comme serveurs, plongeurs, concierges, valets, agents de sécurité ou de nettoyage liés par des horaires de travail fixes avec une soumission d’esclave à un supérieur hiérarchique." [Ibid.; p. 150.]

"Le littoral aux yeux d’une jeunesse de plus en plus nombreuse, est devenu un paradis anti-tabou. Fêtes sans rendez-vous, alcool à volonté du porte-monnaie, sexe à volonté du désir, communication à volonté selon le «look» et les langues parlées. C’est la modernité occidentale déplacée en bloc sur le littoral tunisien. Telle était los angeles croyance d’une jeunesse déracinée, désorientée et qui, souvent, taxait de rétrograde la validité des règles et des valeurs régissant leur société mère. À leurs yeux est moderne celui ou celle qui s’identifie aux comportements des touristes en les imitant. Le touriste valorise boy modèle culturel sans manifester d’intérêt au modèle d’autrui dans le pays d’accueil. Quant à l’hôte, il est réceptif et captif parce qu’il sait, pertinemment, que le modèle culturel étranger lui permettra de communiquer avec d’autres touristes. C’est aussi, une source de revenu et de valorisation de soi par relationship à ses concitoyens. Rosenberg (1981, 33) considère que «les visiteurs sont parés du status de la vie citadine et des settings européennes. Les jeunes gens, attirés par la liberté des moeurs étrangères, ressentent comme un handicap leurs manières empruntées, leur méconnaissance des langues étrangères, leur niveau d’instruction souvent inférieur et s’efforcent d’acquérir le style insouciant qu’ils observent dans les discothèques». Peu à peu, le modèle occidental gagnait la population jeune et s’infiltrait dans certains foyers en déclenchant des conflit intergénérationnels entre les moms and dads majoritairement traditionnalistes et conservateurs et les enfants fascinés par ce modèle. Los angeles culture locale est devenue un objet commercial. Elle est forcée et intégrée dans le menu des hôteliers. Elle est donnée aux touristes en spectacle d’animation. Elle était ainsi dépossédée de son essence et de son sens. À l’extérieur de l’hôtel, il y a eu une dégradation des moeurs et des coutumes. Les responsables sont marginaux des deux côtés." [Ibid.; p. 150.]

"Depuis los angeles fin des années 1980 et durant les années 1990, une réaction défensive est née afin de faire face à la dévalorisation de la culture locale et à sa menace de dissolution dans un amalgame de cultures importées ainsi que le commencement du développement d’un phénomène de pathologies sociales : prostitution, alcoolisme, délinquance juvénile, désintégration de la famille soit par le separation soit par la fuite des enfants vers les villes et les areas touristiques en abandonnant l’école, en échappant ainsi à l’autorité des moms and dads. Les réactions défensives émanaient de courants se réclamant de l’arabité et de l’islamité de la Tunisie. Les sympathisants étaient de plus en plus nombreux. Ils avaient une hostilité affichée contre le tourisme qu’ils considéraient comme créateur de scories sociales et destructrices des valeurs nationales." [Ibid.; p. 151.]

"La Tunisie possède un money considérable de richesses naturelles, environnementales, culturelles et des milieux naturels préservés (les parcs nationaux). Malgré boy exigüité territoriale, elle dispose de montagnes de plateaux (la table de Jugurtha), de plaines do not les countries diffèrent du Nord au Sud, du Sahara parsemé d’oasis, d’un littoral pittoresque, de bassins miniers captivants, d’un patrimoine archéologique légué par de grandes civilisations : Moustériens, Capsiens, Berbères, Phéniciens (les futurs Carthaginois fondateurs de la civilisation punique), Romains, Vandales, Byzantins et Arabes. La Tunisie est proche du plus grand marché émetteur de tourisme worldwide (Europe). Elle a tous les atouts nécessaires pour développer un tourisme diversifié, en period avec les mutations de la demande internationale. Elle possède, aussi, le potentiel afin de promouvoir le tourisme de santé et renforcer l’exportation des solutions médicaux particulièrement sur les marchés de proximité (pays du Maghreb, d’Europe et du Moyen-Orient)." [Ibid.; p. 153.]

"Le secteur touristique en Tunisie est aussi handicapé en raison de sa focalisation sur un produit balnéaire de masse saisonnier devenu banal. Il est caractérisé par sa très forte concentration géographique via le littoral Est du will pay et sa dépendance face à la demande touristique européenne. Los angeles Tunisie possède des potentialités énormes concernant le tourisme culturel, mais les décideurs et les opérateurs du tourisme ne sont pas parvenus à monter de nouveaux produits associant un rapprochement entre le culturel et le balnéaire. Il serait adéquat de construire un produit culturel indépendant ou complémentaire au tourisme balnéaire prominent. Le projet «des villages oubliés» en Syrie est une bonne pratique à mettre en destination en Tunisie et à valoriser (Berriane, 1999)." [Ibid.; p. 154.]

"En outre, le tourisme tunisien bien qu’il ait plus de 46 ans d’âge n’a pas encore une identité qui le distingue par relationship aux destinations concurrentes. À l’extérieur des structures d’hébergement, il y a une carence de l’animation attractive des touristes. À l’intérieur, les hôteliers présentent à leurs clients les mêmes spectacles avec les mêmes animateurs durant toute la semaine. Les touristes s’ennuient et réduisent leurs séjours et par conséquent, leurs dépenses dans le pays." [Ibid.; p. 154.]

"Le produit destination Tunisie en tant que produit de masse qui often tend à se transformer en produit haute gamme timidement sans s’affirmer en tant que tel. Los angeles révolution du 14 janvier 2011 est une grande ouverture pour la transition démocratique mais une brèche concernant le développement de l’islamisme politique radical et de ses tentatives pour dominer la vie politique, législative et sociétale. Le risque serait que les salafistes optent concernant le recours à la physical violence terroriste tout comme les sit-in, ce qui bloqueraient los angeles device de manufacturing. Chaque groupe voudrait bien s’imposer et avoir sa destination sur l’échiquier politique du will pay en déclenchant des activities extrémistes portant atteinte à la sécurité des personnes et des biens. Ces activities pourraient affaiblir l’autorité de l’État en tant que puissance publique." [Ibid.; p. 155.]

"Il est probable que les islamistes exploitent l’impact personal de la révolution : chômage, privation, mutilations, insécurité, grèves et violence diverse pour s’attaquer au tourisme. Ils pourront convaincre dans une première étape mais ils seront rejetés par la package, vehicle le peuple tunisien comme tous les peuples méditerranéens aime la vie et rejette la assault. (…) Si les pays méditerranéens seront victimes de déstabilisation politique extérieure ou intérieur qu’elle que soit child origine, les flux touristiques bouderont les spots méditerranéennes en général, et la Tunisie en particulier. Sécurité oblige !" [Ibid.; p. 158.]

"Le tourisme est un produit périssable. Il est très practical aux aléas de la conjoncture tels que les crises économiques, les perturbations sociales (grèves, les manifestations politiques), le terrorisme et la physical violence organisées, les épidémies contagieuses et toute forme de hazards potentiel pouvant porter atteinte à l’intégrité body ou morale du touriste. Sur une période de 46 ans, ces craintes ont été bien vérifiées pour le cas du tourisme tunisien." [Ibid.; p. 161.]

Cool Experian images

A couple of good experian pictures I found:

Experian-Halloween-2015-7
experian
< img alt="experian"src="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/22432023200_062df2d731.jpg"width="400"/ > Picture by

kanateu Experian-Halloween-2015-33 Image by kanateu