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restored quadriga atop Brandenburg Gate ►pale-verdigris portal build-up (“horses’-herma”) in gloomy evening◄
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The quadriga atop the Brandenburg Gate —restored since 1991— is shining in pale-verdigris against a black colored background of a gloomy evening.

In 1793, — whenever so-called ‘French Revolutionary Wars’ throughout Europe had been to start —, Schadow installed in a nervous & defiant motion towards the revolutionary Paris a peace-goddess (PAX) supporting a coronal of olive results in a roman, triumphal carriage. – Under those political conditions that build up had been obviously meant as an apotropaic allegory resistant to the upcoming, second revolution of this Great Revolution that was looming through the other side of the Rhine …

In 1806 that sculpture ended up being needless to say dislodged and travelled into Louvre by the victorious Napoléon Bonaparte but currently eight many years later — in 1814— the booty was tracked down and re-confiscated by the prussian General Blücher. Back Berlin the restituted trophy had been overhauled and revised by Schinkel in 1815: The once pre-reactionary Fräulein PAX (roman peace-goddess) ended up being nevertheless switching its back resistant to the Madame France in the western but now she was classified into a full-blown reactionary NIKE (hellenic victory-goddess). Encouraging that hiding inclination he supplemented as some new fittings the erect shaft between the sets of horses (“Pferdeherme”), the use when it comes to four domesticated animals additionally the coronet of oak leaves for goddess, and then he establish the “perch”, in other words. the banner-like standard using metal cross inside a wreath of oak leaves & acorns where an eagle coronated by a christian cross atop a prussian top holds lookout.

The iron cross regarding the Brandenburg ended up being posted in 1815 and possesses the initials ‘FW’ and figure ‘1813’ in commemoration of the endowment whilst the prussian war decoration by Friedrich Wilhelm III. in the year 1813 which marks the start of initial restoration—the second these types of reanimation had been instigated because of the Hitlerists in 1933 underneath the pompous subject “Third Reich”—of the 1806 passed away cadaver for the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation by ‘freedom wars’ (‘Befreiungskriege’) that were the prussian tribute to ‘the wars of the 6th coalition’ (1812-1814) for breaking Napoleon’s hegemony over Europe. On 18th Oktober 1913, i.e. at the eve of WWI, throughout the triumph goddess regarding the Brandenburg triumphal arch a wilhelmine state act happened because of the german emperor; like everywhere within the suburbs of this Berlin and German Reich it absolutely was celebrated the centenary of the Battle of Leipzig

Initially an emblematic build up into the Restoration epoch (1815-1848) the “horses’—herma” ended up being rededicated in 1991 and refurbished 2000/02 by private businessmen therefore the Berlin Monument Conservation Foundation that have been sponsored to indulge their “faible” for the “imperial prussian flair”.

The Brandenburg Gate in 1945 was mostly of the frameworks nonetheless sitting on the Pariser Platz although relics for the copper quadriga atop it had to be melted down; only the mind of one of the four ponies had been preserved and will be seen when you look at the Märkisches Museum. In 1958 a replica of bronze ended up being developed to change the copper quadriga.
Automobiles and pedestrians could travel freely through thouroughfare until 13th August 1961; then the wall along with its demise strip ran just behind it.

On 26th of June 1963, — couple of years following the put-up associated with the Wall —, U.S. President John F. Kennedy officially went to West-Berlin and the Wall on Brandenburg Gate, where he himself and West-Berlin gran wanted him to provide their prepared message nevertheless the west-german chancellor that was demonstratively all the time associated him concurred with all the western allies that the venue nearby the soviet industry would-have-been much too provocative. So he cannot hold their oratio in sight of the contended cold-war-focus-point but must shift to another area: That was the square at the office-building regarding the then ruling mayor Willy Brandt. Unlike Ronald Reagan whom can potentially overtake the site twenty-four many years later—only safeguarded by clear bullet-proof glass to avoid possible snipers from behind the wall surface and two decades of détente (“Ostpolitik”) accompanied up by glasnost & perestroika.
«Two thousand years back the proudest boast had been “civis romanus sum” {translation lat-engl: “I’m a roman citizen”}. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is „Ich bin ein Berliner“. {translation ger-engl: “I’m a Berliner”, after these four words interpreter Lochner is heard whispering instructions to him on how to pronounce the four german words more correctly, and he’s answering insinuatingly into the open microphone: “I appreciate my interpreter translating my German!”}
{JFK continues:} There are many people in the world who really don’t understand, or say they don’t, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. „Lass’ sie nach Berlin kommen! [Lust z nach Bearlen comen]“ Let them come to Berlin. – KA: „Aber lass ebenso Sie nach Berlin kommen!“ {heckled the standing-by Bundeskanzler Konrad Adenauer who obviously had’nt quite understood the english words of the speech}
{JFK continues:} Freedom has many troubles and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to place a wall surface up to keep our individuals in, to prevent them from leaving united states. … whilst wall surface is one of apparent and vivid demonstration associated with the problems associated with Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction in it, …
… All no-cost men, anywhere they could stay, are people of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free of charge man, I just take pride into the words „Ich container ein Berliner!“
» (speech by President John F. Kennedy on 26 June 1963 at ‘Rathaus Schöneberg’ in West-Berlin
When he attempted to simply take picture of the Brandenburg Gate thereon sultry summerday climbing on tourists’ platform regarding the after that Hindenburg-Platz he had been ‘welcomed’ by huge red curtains that were hung to the five doorways associated with the arch to prevent the VIP from speaking and spying towards East …

Inside 1980s, decrying the existence of two German says, the then western Berlin gran Richard von Weizsäcker stated:
The German concern will remain available as long as the Brandenburg Gate is closed.”

On Summer 12, 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan talked into the western Berlin populace in the Brandenburg Gate:
To those hearing in East Berlin, a special term: Although I cannot be with you, I address my remarks for you in the same way surely concerning those standing here before me personally. For we join you, when I join your other countrymen within the western, within company, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin. … we genuinely believe that freedom and protection go collectively, that advance of man freedom can just only fortify the cause of globe serenity …Perhaps this gets to the root associated with matter, into the most fundamental difference of all of the between East and western. The totalitarian globe produces backwardness because it does such physical violence into the nature, thwarting the personal impulse to produce, to enjoy, to worship. The totalitarian world discovers consistent symbols of love and of worship an affront. Years ago, prior to the East Germans began rebuilding their particular churches, they erected a secular structure: the tv screen tower at Alexander Platz. Virtually since, the authorities have-been attempting to correct what they view while the tower’s one major flaw, managing the glass world at the top with shows and chemical substances of each and every kind. Yet even now once the sunlight hits that sphere — that sphere that towers overall Berlin the light makes the sign of the cross.
Demanding the razing associated with Berlin Wall and handling the after that General Secretary of Communist celebration of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan said:
And we invite Mr. Gorbachev: why don’t we strive to bring the Eastern and Western components of the town closer collectively, making sure that most of the residents of all of the Berlin will enjoy the advantages that come with life in one of the great towns worldwide. To start Berlin still further to all or any Europe, East and western, let us expand the vital air use of this town, finding methods for making commercial air solution to Berlin easier, much more comfortable, plus economical. We look to a single day when West Berlin becomes the primary aviation hubs in every main European countries.
… There is one indication the Soviets make that would be unmistakable, that could advance significantly the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you look for serenity, in the event that you look for prosperity when it comes to Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, in the event that you seek liberalization: Come here for this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall surface! … The wall surface cannot withstand freedom.

On July 12, 1994, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke at Gate about comfort in post-Cold War European countries.
On December 21, 2000, the Brandenburg Gate ended up being privately refurbished at a 6 million $ cost.
Depiction of German euro coinage: regarding the obverse edges regarding the 1 € and 2 € coins, there are stylized prussian eagles; on the 50¢, 20¢ and 10¢ coins you will find the Brandenburg Gates; regarding the 5¢, 2¢ and 1¢ coins you will find twigs with five pine leaves as well as 2 acorns.

The Brandenburg Gate & The Wall
Berlin, it is really worth recalling, came of age as a garrison city. Though Friedrich Wilhelm I happened to be maybe not enthusiastic about beautifying the city, he did look for to advertise its growth. Needing more area to quarter soldiers plus artisans to produce their demands, he offered away hundreds of lots and compelled the recipients to create houses to them. He extended the town limitations and, inside 1730s, changed the Great Elector’s old fortifications with a new wall surface built across the expanded town. This is not a fortification but a customs buffer to modify trade and avoid soldiers from deserting. (For all the distinctions, in both these reasons we could see a resemblance to Ulbricht’s later wall.) On the list of wall’s eighteen gates, many prominent lay at the south and western sides of this expanded Friedrichstadt, in which large plazas had been outlined inside the gates: a circular plaza inside the southern Halle Gate, an octagon on Potsdam Gate, and a square during the western terminus of Unter den Linden. Friedrich Wilhelm envisioned all three spaces as military parade reasons.
The final of those gates concludes our glance at the eighteenthcentury city. It marks the exterior end associated with grand axis of Unter den Linden, scene of royal processions, armed forces parades, and stylish promenades through the entire eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years. Though it’s not the initial Brandenburg all of that continues to be associated with the eighteenth-century wall, besides a fragment excavated in Stresemannstrasse. The original baroque gate that separated Unter den Linden through the Tiergarten ended up being changed within purchase of King Friedrich Wilhelm II, Frederick the Great’s successor. The payment provided to the architect Carl Gotthard Langhans ushered in an innovative new age in Berlin design. Into the end of his long life (in 1786), Frederick the Great had insisted on building in embellished rococo kinds which had long since fallen from favor in Europe’s more stylish capitals. Langhans’s Brandenburg Gate, finished in 1791, brought the greater amount of extreme lines of neoclassicism to Berlin.
Langhans’s easy design, modeled regarding the Propylaea of Athens, comprises a double row of Doric columns that frame five open positions. The gate’s other popular function is the copper quadriga that has been attached atop it in 1793. This work of the youthful sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow portrays a goddess riding in a chariot drawn by four horses galloping to the city. The Brandenburg Gate, featuring its quadriga, has long been Berlin’s most famous icon, rivaled only because of the even more ephemeral Wall. Its image features adorned commemorative coins, playing cards, historicist and expressionist paintings, posters for many kinds of events, and East and western Berlin postcards and tourist brochures. It could be an admirable work of architecture and sculpture, but that does not describe its symbolic resonance. Nor does its desired purpose. Unlike numerous nineteenth-century structures, it had been not erected as a national monument. Its dimensions and kind caused it to be a lot more than a utilitarian structure, but it ended up being however a practical gate in town wall surface, flanked by guardhouses.
History made the Brandenburg Gate a German memorial. In the beginning its formal name had been the “Gate of Peace”; it was not, most likely, a Roman triumphal arch. But its identification changed in 1806, whenever Napoleon defeated Prussia and triumphantly entered its capital through western gate. He revealed their admiration for quadriga by purchasing so it be taken down and sent to Paris to participate their various other confiscated art treasures. The emperor thus became understood in your area while the “horse thief of Berlin”, together with denuded gate became the sign of Prussian and German opposition. In 1813 Schadow himself proposed to fill the quadriga’s spot atop the gate with a massive cast of the Iron Cross, the brand new army medal designed by Schinkel within behest of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Upon Napoleon’s beat in 1814, however, a triumphant procession returned the quadriga to Berlin, the neighboring square ended up being rebranded Paris Square (Pariser Platz), and also the “Gate of Peace” became a “Gate of Victory”. Schinkel designed new insignia when it comes to goddess’s staff: a Prussian eagle and, within a wreath, the Iron Cross.
After that, the gate became a lot more solidly established as symbolic of Prussia and its own capital. It became the original background for army parades (following Napoleon’s instance) and for the ceremonial reception of condition visitors. Once the entire traditions wall had been tom down in 1860s, the Brandenburg Gate stayed; after that, it had been strictly a monument. After Germany ended up being unified under Prussian leadership in 1871, the victorious troops returning from France had been welcomed on Brandenburg Gate. The Prussian monument had become solidly established as a German nationwide symbol, the website of numerous more ceremonies before troops marched through it to their way back to France in 1914. The Nazis, too, embraced the old symbol of success. The evening Hitler was appointed chancellor, January 30, 1933, huge number of torch-bearing Nazi brownshirts marched through the gate.
Once the bombers emerged, the Nazis generally performed a better job of evacuating art treasures than saving people. But they apparently would not dare risk morale by eliminating the goddess along with her horses. As an alternative, in 1942 that they had plaster casts made of the quadriga. By 1945, when Soviet soldiers planted their red-flag atop the gate, it absolutely was terribly damaged and only fragments of quadriga remained. The East German leaders just who inherited these damages chose to keep the gate and adopt it as their very own. The shattered quadriga’s fate was less specific. Artists and politicians entertained a few proposals for an appropriate brand new sculpture: several employees, children moving around a globe, a mother with son or daughter, Picasso’s dove of comfort. A Western paper, hearing for the last proposition in 1949, declared that when the dove of serenity had been to nest placidly at entrance toward Communist world, the western would-be obliged to increase a banner as you’re watching gate aided by the words Dante had affixed into gates of Hell in the lnferno: “Abandon all hope, ye whom enter right here.” {N23} ultimately, but the East made a decision to restore the quadriga rather.
Sadly, the gate endured inside Soviet industry, the plaster casts were into the West, and throughout the 1950s the 2 regimes were hectic denouncing both as criminals and usurpers. Following the unsuccessful uprising from the eastern German government on June 17, 1953, the western renamed the street that carried on Unter den Linden west of the gate “the Street of 17 June.“ But the two Berlins had one Brandenburg Gate, plus it supplied an uncommon window of opportunity for cooperation. Western Berlin decided to recreate the statues even though the East restored the gate. This joint venture couldn’t, naturally, proceed without incident. In 1958 the reconstructed quadriga ended up being delivered to the sectoral boundary, a few steps from gate, and just kept truth be told there when it comes to East Germans to claim. Before putting it up, the Easterners sawed the Prussian eagle off the top of the goddess’s staff additionally the Iron Cross out of this wreath. When it comes to Western public, it was vandalism and deceit, nonetheless it should not genuinely have already been a surprise. In 1957 West Germany had legalized the show for the Iron Cross, which the GDR had prohibited as a militarist logo. In 1958 the Eastern hit was full of editorials and letters demanding removing these “fascist“ ornaments. The Brandenburg Gate had been yet again is a gate of serenity, declared the East Berlin government. {N24}
With all the goddess’s staff crowned just by a wreath, the quadriga and gate would remain from 1958 until 1990; only their environment would alter entirely. In the beginning the gate nonetheless blocked traffic passing across the industry range between the Tiergarten in addition to shattered damages along Unter den Linden. Since the two halves associated with town expanded apart, the gate acquired a rich brand new symbolic resonance, grabbed, as an example, in moments regarding the 1961 American comedy movie One, Two, Three, directed by Billy Wilder (whose ties to Berlin went back towards the 1920s) and starring James Cagney as a representative associated with the Coca Cola business caught involving the intrigues of Communists and ex-Nazis.
Nevertheless the movie had been a commercial flop: once it had been completed, the Wall had made crossing the Brandenburg Gate certainly not a laughing matter. As the western side of the Mitte district coincided aided by the area of Friedrich Wilhelm I’s wall, the sectoral boundary observed exactly the same course after 1945, and after 1961, so did an extended stretch regarding the new wall surface. The Brandenburg Gate was thus yet again part of a wall. Right here had been a historical continuity that no one wished to acknowledge. This time around it was not a gate; the crossing things set elsewhere. Erich Honecker, the Politbüro user in charge of nationwide protection and hence the man directing building of this Wall, obviously pushed the gate’s closing because he thought any task around it would attract Western news attention, demonstrations, and provocations.{N25} He had been probably appropriate, but he might have been influenced by their own regime’s frequent evocation for the Napoleon-like specter of West German soldiers marching triumphantly through Brandenburg Gate on their solution to destroy comfort and socialism.
The gate and quadriga had been built to face into the City—that is, into east. Which is not what a visitor would expect, nevertheless the gate’s intended audience had been local residents, perhaps not outsiders. The folk memory of Berlin appears to provide evidence of confusion with this point. Site visitors tend to be told that the quadriga initially encountered others path and had been turned around at some point—something that never ever took place. This really is a classic legend: an 1860 manual asserts your goddess had faced from town before Napoleon, but have been reerected searching inward in 1814.{N26} Late-twentieth-century variations of legend are vaguer about the date for the reversal; Ulbricht along with Napoleon comes under suspicion just as one culprit.
With its uncertain position toward inside and outside, residents and site visitors, the Brandenburg Gate resembled absolutely nothing so much as its more recent next-door neighbor, the Berlin Wall. With all the Wall’s presence, the poignancy associated with gate as expression became stronger than previously. On its Eastern side, Pariser Platz starkly illustrated the desolation brought by the Wall. Once among Berlin’s many elegant squares, a location of palaces, the French and U.S. embassies, the Academy of Arts, therefore the city’s premier hotel, the Adlon, it was now bare with the exception of the gate and Wall. Travelers had been limited to its far end, but distinguished friends and formally welcomed delegations were delivered to the gate and asked to admire the task associated with border protections. Through the Western side, the gate was today entirely inaccessible, and could simply be seen from a dead-end road in the exact middle of the Tiergarten. Nevertheless, traveler buses on a regular basis came by, and state site visitors were brought there too. In 1963, whenever John F. Kennedy stumbled on see it, he unearthed that the East had hung purple ads

i.e. five perpendicular flags, four of them were red (symbolizing the four-power-status of Berlin), the fifth in the main-gateway was black | red | golden signed with the GDR-coat of arms. klp }
amongst the articles that blocked any view beyond the gate—interpreted as a cool War gesture with increased figurative definition compared to East had meant. In 1987, the gate served while the backdrop for Ronald Reagan’s message, with bulletproof cup erected behind the rostrum. (Bill Clinton, in 1994, was the initial U.S. President privileged to speak on Pariser Platz, under the minds associated with quadriga’s ponies as opposed to their particular posteriors.)
Both East and West Berliners reported the gate since the sign of their city and of their version of German unity. However it might have been the international media from West that made the gate the preeminent image of the less telegenic Berlin Wall. Throughout the times after November 9, 1989, the television networks made the Brandenburg Gate the backdrop for their cameras. It absolutely was a fortunate coincidence your semicircular buffer blocking the gate ended up being the actual only real part of the Wall wide and flat enough to remain (and dance) on. Because the Brandenburg Gate had not been a functioning gate, however, the hordes of East Germans in fact passed through Wall elsewhere for a number of weeks. Finally, on December 22 , 1989. West German chancellor Helmut Kohl led a phalanx of political leaders in a ceremony reopening the Brandenburg Gate. Research later on appeared that Kohl had in reality pressured the East Germans to wait the orifice for five days so he could be current.
A few days later on. New Year’s revelers climbed around the recently accessihle quadriga and left it seriously damaged. Soon later, as the gate was being restored, the quadriga. too, was disassembled for a careful restoration. Thereupon controversy erupted anew. The summer of 1991 saw a reprise of 1958 debate towards quadriga, now without the Cold War to establish opportunities. A Christian Democratic person in the Bundestag, Friedbert Pflüger, called for the Iron Cross and Prussian eagle to be left off the restored quaclriga. (they’d already been preserved since 1958 in an East Berlin museum; the reunification associated with the quadriga coincided thereupon of Germany.) His campaign found supponers across the political range, only a few of whom could possibly be dismissed as leftists antipathetic to your indication of German nationwide pleasure. The Berlin press anti general public was nonetheless hard on Pflüger. He argued that symbols of Prussian patriotism had no-place inside brand-new Germany; but other individuals suspected that his genuine motive was bitterness over the decision to maneuver the governmcnt from Bonn. He was, much more pointedly, accused of attempting to falsify history “à la Ulbricht”. Little attention had been compensated to his claim that he wanted to restore the initial “Gate of Peace” and also the original quadriga whilst had been around to 1806. It had been possible for Pflüger’s supporters to summarize that Berlin ended up being rejecting historic authenticity in support of patriotic nostalgia.
Indeed, no-one ended up being proposing the return associated with goddess’s initial staff, gone since 1814, whenever Schinkel had not merely included the Iron Cross and Prussian eagle but had redesigned the whole staff. The quadriga Napoleon took, like, had a Roman eagle where the Prussian one later on perched. And that had actually been the goddess’s 3rd staff: Schadow’s first two designs had proved so unpopular that he was obligated to replace all of them within months. This basically means, the discussion in 1991 was between restoring the 1814 quadriga plus the 1958 variation. Since the latter’s repudiation of Prussian militarism was the job of Ulbricht’s regime, it discovered few defenders. Amid good terms for Prussian symbols—the Iron Cross, it had been described, arrived of this conflicts of liberation against Napoleon, perhaps not World War I or II—Berlin’s frontrunners ceremonially rededicated the restored quadriga, utilizing the staff of 1814-1945 and an artificial patina, on August 6, 1991, the two hundredth anniversary associated with gate.
The gate it self could hence claim its standard spot since the symbolization of Berlin along with its newer condition since the preeminent expression of unity. Yet it endured in the middle of the town’s main east-west thoroughfare; the logo of unity literally separated the 2 Berlins. The relationship between your gate additionally the all-important blood circulation of traffic sparked another discussion. The accessory many Germans have to their particular automobiles has constantly ended lacking the American rehearse of ripping down towns which will make means for vehicles, although enthusiasm of Gennan vehicle fans generally seems to arouse in Green-thinking Germans the exact same types of suspicion that enthusiastic patriotism does. Cheerfully the question of operating through the Brandenburg Gate failed to create obvious battle lines. Some car haters wanted to reserve the gate for pedestrians and bicyclists, but others believed that the gate could offer to limit and slow automobile traffic. Car lovers’ favourited solutions had been a tunnel under the gate or a scheme to prevent it. The second, indeed, had first suggested at the tum associated with century, and Nazi planners besides had desired to eliminate the structures for each region of the gate to make technique traffic. When you look at the 1990s, those structures had been over, but plans to direct traffic out of the gate were nevertheless opposed by some just who believed it will serve as a gate, emblematic or German unity, perhaps not a traffic island, and also by other individuals who desired to reconstruct Pariser Platz while the enclosed area it as soon as have been. A short compromise permitted only buses and taxis through gate, plus they had been limited to the broader main passageway, when reserved for emperor’s carriage.
Once the monarchy finished in 1918, that central passage wasn’t really the only location that lost its identification. For the turbulence of Berlin’s record beneath the Hohenzollerns, they perhaps presided over a diploma of security that has not already been approached within the remaining portion of the twentieth century. Many Berliners tend to be understandably hesitant to frame their particular identity in terms of the troubled eras that accompanied: the weak Weimar Republic, the next Reich, and split city. Hence the want to achieve back again to the relatively placid period of monarchs. Just how can that nostalgia possibly be happy? Since barely anyone in fact wishes a king, it is hard to understand exactly what to salvage from the royal last. The much-restored but never ever removed Brandenburg Gate, featuring its twice-removed and thrice-reconstructed quadriga, can be as genuine emblematic as Berlin can offer. Other buildings, noticeable or remembered, embody too wealthy a variety of definitions to permit any opinion in regards to the history of old Berlin, or around simple tips to restore it.

   {N23. Michael S. Cullen and Uwe Kieling, Das Brandenburger Tor: Geschichte
eines deutschen Symbols
(Berlin: Argon, 1990), 108.
   {N24. Jürgen Reiche, “Symbolgehalt und Bedeutungswandel eines politischen
Monuments,” in Das Brandenburger Tor: Eine Monographie, ed. Willmuth
Arenhovel and Rolf Bothe (Berlin: Arenhövel, 1991), 304.
   {N25. Peter Möbius and Helmut Trotnow, “Das Mauer-Komplott”, Die
(offshore ed.), Aug. 16, 1991.
   {N26. Friedrich Morin, Berlin und Potsdam im Jahre 1860 (reprint, Braunschweig:
Archiv-Verlag, 1980), 16.
   {N27. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 18, 1991.
   {N28. Ulrike Krenzlin, “Eisemes Kreuz und Preussen-Adler: Ja oder
Nein?” in Hauptstadt Berlin-wohin mit der Mitte? ed. Helmut Engel and
Wolfgang Ribbe (Berlin: Akademie, 1993), 104-7.
SOURCE: The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German record within the Urban Landscape. Brian Ladd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp70-81, UCSB: HT169.G32B4127 1997}

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< img alt=" individual finance" src ="" size =" 400"/ > Photo by< a href ="" > Ton of money Conferences 053 WEDNESDAY, JULY 19, 2017 Lot of money
Brainstorm Tech 2017 Aspen, Carbon Monoxide, U.S.A 9:50 AM WHY SOFI MATTERS A fast and also furious conversation with the owner of the online personal money business. Mike Cagney, Chief Executive Officer, SoFi Picture by Jordan Curet/Fortune Brainstorm Tech

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France Regains Its Chamber of Deputies
France – US and French soldiers deploy cautiously, using exactly what cover they can find behind armored automobiles, to attack a German garrison of some 400 men barricaded within the famous Chamber of Deputies in Paris. The Chamber reaches the base with this street.
Credit: ACME
Date: 8-30-44
Diverses soldats de la 2e DB du général Leclerc, rue de Bourgogne, dans le VIIe arrondissement de Paris. Précisons que nous nous trouvons à l’arrière de la chambre des Députés. Les jardins de cette dernière se trouvent au-delà des arcades qui se trouvent en arrière-plan de la photo.
Diverses soldats armés do not certains derrière un blindé, un autre blindé au bout de la rue. Via le trottoir à gauche avec les soldats : un gendarme et 2 civils.
Automitrailleuse M8 du 1er peloton, 5e escadron du 1er régiment de marche de spahis marocains (RMSM) commandé par le Lt Matousek, activity vers 18h00-18h30 le 25 août 1944.égiment_de_spahis
Au moins deux civils participeront à cette activity M. Achille Peretti, futur maire de Neuilly-sur-Seine et le photographe Robert Capa.
" il rentre à Paris le 25 août 1944 avec le général de Gaulle dont il guarantee la security. Il prend part au combat de los angeles rue de Bourgogne et de la Chambre des Députés avec des éléments de la Division Leclerc placés sous ses ordres. "…
Voir ici, sur ce website :…
la première picture en déroulant. Le même endroit, via le trottoir d’en face, une photo prise sans doute quelques secondes plus tard. D’après ce site, l’homme qui lève le bras droit est l’aspirant Paul happy.
Photo en format plus grand :…
Photo de Robert Capa :…
De nos jours :
NB la date du 30 août ne correspond pas à la time de la prise de vue qui est le 25.
Pour aller plus loin :ération_de_Paris

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FORT WAINWRIGHT, Alaska – United States Army Alaska held the Non-Commissioned Officer and Soldier of the Quarter Luncheon at Fort Wainwright’s Northern Lights Chapel, Oct. 22, 2014.

The guest speaker, USARAK Command Sgt. Maj. Terry D. Gardner, honored those selected as the top NCO and Soldier of the USARAK forces at Fort Wainwright for both the 3rd and 4th quarters. With the Stryker brigade’s high training op-tempo, an upcoming National Training Center rotation, and a myriad of other post and unit activities, the recognition for two quarters was combined into one ceremony.

“To be honest, I wasn’t sure we would get this thing going,” Gardner said. “But when they told me that it was happening today, I had to make this trip.”

After thanking everyone for taking time from their busy schedules to attend, he recognized distinguished guests and sponsors from the local community. Representatives of Alaska delegates from local Fairbanks Offices included Tom Moyer, Regional Director for Senator Mark Begich, Althea St. Martin, Special Assistant for Senator Liza Murkowski, and Sydney McIntosh Intern- Governor’s Office representing Governor Parnell.

Gardner also took a moment to mention his gratitude to the United States Army Association, the 9th Army Band and the local “Jackie Of All Trades” full-service catering.

Addressing the Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers of the 3rd and 4th Quarter, his theme was on what it means to be a hero. “In my eyes,” Gardner said, “to be a United States service member, and to be counted among the best in that group, makes you a hero in the truest sense of that word.”

Asking young leaders to consider what their legacy would be, as “Soldiers in the greatest army in the history of the world,” Gardner added: “We inherited a rich history, and we are obligated to carry that forward.”

Designated as the best of the best, he gave them a call to action.

“Each of you is part of an elite group of heroes who have put service to our nation over self or family. You have dedicated yourself to making this world a better, safer and more peaceful place, now and for future generations,” Gardner said. “We need you to instill that pride in our soldiers.”

Congratulating them again for winning such a tough competition, he awarded each of the four Soldiers an Army Commendation Medal.

The Non-Commissioned Officer of 3rd and 4th Quarter were Sgt. Daniel P. Powell, C Company, 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment, 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, and Sgt. Rhea J. Pettaway, the 539th Transportation Company, the 25th Brigade Support Battalion, 1-25th SBCT.

Sgt. Powell, originally from Santa Cruz, California, joined the army in 2009. He has been on active duty for five years, and he reenlisted to come to Fort Wainwright. In addition to being a Squad Leader, his duties include being a Unit Movement Officer, Scout and Senior Sniper Section Leader. He is currently pursuing a degree in Wildlife Management from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, where he holds a 4.0 GPA. His goals include getting promoted to Staff Sergeant and attending Ranger School, and he plans to stay on active duty until he can retire from the military.

Sgt. Pettaway, originally from San Fernando, California, joined the military in 2007. Her job specialty is Motor Transport Operator, and her first assignment was to Camp Casey, South Korea. She next served at Fort Hood, Texas, and was deployed to Kirkuk Iraq as a Security Platform Driver as part of the Quick Reaction Force there. After redeploying, she requested to come to Fort Wainwright, Alaska. She is currently working on an online degree in Healthcare Administration through the University of Management and Technology in Arlington, Virginia.

The Soldiers of the 3rd and 4th Quarter were Pfc. Tyee C. Yucupisio, C Company, 1-24th Infantry Regiment, and recently promoted, Sgt. Jonathan Hunt, C Company 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment.

Pfc. Yucupisio was born in Coolidge, Arizona. He graduated from high school in 2011 and joined the army in May 2013. This is his first assignment. He holds a position as rifleman and grenadier, and he recently received the top scores in his platoon on the Army Physical Fitness Test. His plans include getting a degree in Computer Science and aspiring to someday become a Sergeant Major

Sgt. Jonathan Hunt became an NCO October 1, 2014. Originally from Denver Colorado, he joined the Army in 2012 as an Infantryman. Fort Wainwright is his first duty assignment, where he serves as a Team Leader. His goals include staying in the military and going to Airborne and Ranger School. He plans on working towards a degree in Criminal Justice and is shooting for the rank of Sergeant First Class.

Along with the Association of the United States Army, other community leaders were present to give small tokens of their gratitude in recognition of the outstanding efforts and a job well done. Among those attending was Timothy Jones, representing Doyon Utilities in Fairbanks, who presented each Soldier with a gift card and an emergency vehicle kit.

Free AUSA memberships, Certificates of Achievement, ball caps, Leatherman tools, a book of Photographs of Alaska, and monetary gifts were given as well. These were given by Bill Brophy from the Usibellli Foundation, Command Sgt. Maj. Travis D. Votaw, representing the Arctic Sgt. Maj. Association, along with other guests from the Community Spouses Club, MAC Federal Credit Union and Design Alaska.