Nice Residence Equity photos

Check out these home equity images:

St. Catharines Masonic Hall 23 Centre Street Ontario Canada (25)
home equity
Image by antefixus21
A multitude of Jacob’s Ladders.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

– Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin
JACOB’S LADDER

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold ………….. Sun …………… Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……….. Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………….. World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……….. Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ……….. Heaven
2. Quicksilver .. Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead …………… Saturn ………. First World

– Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

– Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

– Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America
Museum of Freemasonry – Masonic Library

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . .with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament..

Early Rose Croix. www.flickr.com/photos/colmaralchimique/33540362490/in/pho…

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred inin a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Muskoka Lodge No. 360 Bracebridge, ON
home equity
Image by antefixus21
A Masonic Jacob’s Ladder.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin

JACOB’S LADDER:

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold …………… Sun …………. Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……… Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………… World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……… Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ………. Heaven
2. Quicksilver . Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead ………….. Saturn ………. First World

Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . . with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament.

Early Rose Croix:

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred in a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Nice Mortgage Refinance photos

Take a look at these mortgage re-finance pictures:

Personal Money
mortgage refinance
< img alt="home loan re-finance"src="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/24069210613_519c05bc11.jpg"size="400"/ > Picture by danielfoster437 Personal finance on a laptop computer.

As a reminder, maintain in mind that this image is offered only for non-commercial use which visible attribution is needed. If you would love to utilize this photo outside these terms, please contact me in advance to prepare for a paid permit.

Home loan kitteh fantasizes concerning mortgages
mortgage refinance
< img alt="home loan refinance"src="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/5953706465_259a74c626.jpg"width="400"/ > Image by ghwpix Should we refinance? Allow’s rest on it.

Spinning Wheel – win compact flourescent lightbulbs!
mortgage refinance
< img alt="home loan re-finance"src ="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/1794933987_d53fd616f0.jpg"width ="400"/ > Image by justin There were tons of lotto games and spinning wheels as well as win a cost-free home mortgage refinancing price quote type cubicles with lines appearing of them-right here’s one training individuals concerning power effectiveness.

Nice Credit Bureaus photos

Some cool credit bureaus pictures:

[IDAHO-A-0359] Arrowrock Dam
credit bureaus
< img alt=" credit report bureaus" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/35269230890_0239eb941a.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Photo by< a href= ” http://www.flickr.com/photos/23487245@N08/35269230890″ > waterarchives Picture Title: Arrowrock Dam Day: July 13, 1916 Place: Boise River, 13

miles east of Boise, Idaho Description/Caption: On verso,” Arrowhead Rock Dam Idaho””

. Medium: vernacular black and white photograph.

Photographer/Maker: Unknown.

Point out as: ID-A-0359, WaterArchives.org.

Constraints: There are no known U.S. copyright constraints on this photo. While the electronic image is openly readily available, it is requested that < a href=" http://www.waterarchives.org "rel =" nofollow" > www.waterarchives.org be attributed as its source. For better recreations of the original physical variation contact< a href=" http://www.waterarchives.org "rel=" nofollow" >

www.waterarchives.org, constraints could apply. [IDAHO-A-0361] Arrowrock Dam< img alt=" credit scores bureaus" src=" https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4130/35269229990_d152f8152d.jpg" width=" 400"/ >
Image by
< a href=http://” http://www.flickr.com/photos/23487245@N08/35269229990″ > waterarchives Photo Title: Arrowrock Dam. Day:
c. 1920. Place: Boise River, 13 miles east of Boise, Idaho.
http://Description/Caption:
http://Tool: vernacular black and white negative.
http://Photographer/Maker: Unidentified.
http://Mention as: ID-A-0361, WaterArchives.org.
http://Limitations: There are no recognized U.S. copyright limitations on this picture. While the digital image is easily readily available, it is requested that
< a href=" http://www.waterarchives.org "rel =" nofollow" > www.waterarchives.org be attributed as its resource. For greater high quality recreations of the initial physical variation get in touch with < a href="http://www.waterarchives.org" rel="nofollow" > www.waterarchives.org, constraints may use.

Nice Credit Application photos

Some awesome credit application photos:

05910201
credit application
< img alt="credit history application"src ="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/33026034324_c4100ab7af.jpg"width ="400"/ > Picture by IAEA Imagebank The IAEA contributes unique devices as well as trains
researchers at the University of Bangui, Central African Republic, in the usage of nuclear-derived strategies. The researchers research study isotopes in water to discover things like the resource, quality as well as age of the water people consume alcohol. Main African Republic, 6 March 2017. Picture Debt: Laura Gil Martinez/ IAEA

Nice Good Credit Credit Card photos

A few nice good credit credit card images I found:

Check Credit
good credit credit card
Image by cafecredit
Photo by CafeCredit under CC 2.0

You can use this photo for FREE under Creative Commons license. Make sure to give proper author attribution to www.cafecredit.com.

Thank you for respecting Creative Commons license.

P.S. Need more photos like this? Check out my flickr profile page.

When you attempt to make a large purchase such as an automobile for example, the company will check your credit to ensure that you’re in good standing to make the purchase. Credit is also checked when you apply for credit cards by the credit card company to ensure you can make payments on time.

Web shots08068
good credit credit card
Image by ajschroetlin
The Chalk Bluffs early in the morning.

Taken on a trip to the Miracle Mile in Wyoming on the last weekend in March of 08 with a few of my pals. The fishing was no good because of the weather but it created ideal conditions for me.
So this place is somewhere my family has been taking me forever. My grandparents have a little Airstream trailer that sits up at the river year round. Propane heat, oven and stove. Roughing it, with a little comfort mixed in.
Conditions can be pretty rough, both in summer and winter…..and in March! It’s a long way out on dirt roads that see VERY little activity. If you break down it could be a day before you see anyone. On this trip we were reminded of just how vulnerable we as humans are to nature.

On Sunday, the day we planned to leave, we awoke to a little snow on the ground and pretty cold temperatures. It really wasn’t sticking to the ground though. The boys weren’t afraid and they tried their luck at the fishing again that morning. After a few hours they called it quits and we started to pack up and clean the trailer. My buddy really wanted to try and land a fish in the tough conditions so he went down to the river to try one last time before we headed home.
I joined him, to try and take a few photos of him fishing in the snow. As soon as we got to the river the snow picked up a little. Then a lot. He had barely gotten himself into the freezing cold water before he turned around and looked at me like, "Holy $%@#, we should probably get out of here!"
And we did. We locked up the trailer and hit the road.

Now my buddies were in a 4 wheel drive Jeep and I was in a front wheel drive Altima. No chains. We drove in on dry roads and we were leaving in blizzard conditions. There are a few different roads leading out of the Mile and I had to choose which one to take. One road takes you up and over a pass but once you get over the pass the roads are paved and it’s the shortest route. The other way is pretty flat but it’s out on the plains and many times the road drifts over and it’s hard to see where the road is. Sometimes the drifts are 10 feet tall and then you’re screwed, for lack of a better term. So I thought we’d try our luck at the pass. Yeah, not so much. The first major hill and my car started spinning about three quarters of the way up. Luckily we hadn’t gone down that road long before we realized it was not an option.

We turned around, or rather my car did a donut and turned me around and we headed the other way. I’ve driven in white out conditions before but nothing prepared me for the journey I, and my trusty friends, would take. Just like I suspected the road was full of drifts and with the blizzard conditions visibility was next to nothing. For two and a half hours I followed a few little bushes sticking out of the road hoping that I was on the right path. Honestly it was hard to see if I was on the road or out in the prairie. White as white could be.

We made it off of the dirt roads and to a little town called Hanna. Now if you’ve ever been to Wyoming you know that outside of a few of the "major" cities, EVERYTHING closes down at 6pm on a Sunday. We rolled into town about 5:55. Just enough time for me to get a pack of smokes at the grocery store and trust me I needed them. The folks at the store told us EVERY road out of Hanna was closed. Hanna has NO motels. None. I was pretty sure I was sleeping in my car that night cuddled up to my furry dog.

At this point we needed gas too. I always fill my tank before I head out on the dirt roads because I know what can happen. No real gas stations in Hanna but they do have a few pumps that take a credit card. That works, if only the pumps worked. No luck.

So we decided to drive a few more miles to Interstate 80 because we figured that was our best option. Luckily the highway ramp wasn’t closed and we decided to press our luck and try and get to Laramie which was about 70 miles away. Laramie was the only gas or lodging available. I had less than a quarter tank.

Actually I-80 was the best driving conditions we saw but that really isn’t saying much. Visibility was a little better though. We made it to Laramie, and gas, and we were again told that all roads out of Laramie were closed. Hundred of semis, cars and trucks sat at on ramps around Laramie. We decided to call Wyoming Dep’t of Transportation to see if Highway 287 was open. They said yes but probably not for long. We made it out of Laramie and got past the gates before they closed them. I’m not sure if that was a good thing or not, looking back.

By now it was dark, very cold, and the wind was blowing like crazy. My buddy took the lead because he had the 4 wheel drive and better headlights. The snow was whipping around and making it really hard to see. We had to drive a little ways, find a road marker, drive a little more till we spotted the next. Most cars in the other lane were stopped with their hazard lights on. We kept on trucking. Up and over the pass we went. We drove through piles of drifted snow. The wind howled like I’ve never seen it before. At one point it literally moved my car about 4 feet. Slid it right along the frozen ground. All of a sudden I was in the oncoming lane, or what I thing was the oncoming lane. Scary stuff.

So we finally made it back to Fort Collins. The wicked conditions didn’t let up until we reached the city limits. A trip that usually takes three and half hours took almost seven!
Seven hours of hunching over the steering wheel to see out of the windshield. Seven hours of gripping that steering wheel like it was a piece of rope and I was dangling over the edge. 🙂

I’m glad I had a few friends that didn’t panic and knew what they were doing. I’ve never been so glad to be home from a trip.

Thanks for reading my story.

Nice Secured Credit Card pictures

Some cool secured credit card photos:

Legally Blonde The Musical
secured charge card
Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Songs Photographer
Legally Blonde The music to open up on celebrity, Sydney this evening

Press Update…

Theatre production ‘Legally Blonde’ liked a news telephone call this morning at Sydney Lyric Theatre at Pyrmont in Sydney.

The play includes much fanfare so that it will undoubtedly be interesting to see in the event that program life around its reputation and buzz once it plays to live viewers in the Sydney Lyric Theatre, which can be part of The celebrity (officially called celebrity City Casino).

The Star and its company partners took a calculated gamble on working with ‘Legally Blonde’, and you may bet that they will be dreaming about comparable outstanding results that they obtained with musicals such as for example ‘Annie’ (that has been significant assisted alongside a very good performance many wonderful promotion from Sydney radio icon Alan Jones).

Sydney consistently secure top notch activity as a result of our buddies in the celebrity and Lyric, and now we encourage that check out just what most of the hassle is all about.

Enhance…

Press was notified that short segments of four musical figures from the show will be performed, and a short while later producers Howard Panter and John Frost and lead cast users Lucy Durack (Elle Woods), Rob Mills (Warner), David Harris (Emmett), Helen Dallimore (Paulette), Erika Heynatz (Brooke Wyndham) and Cameron Daddo (teacher Callahan) are designed for interview and photographs.

The music figures will be:
Severe
Much Better
Whipped Towards Shape
Legally Blonde Remix

On the basis of the hit film of the same name starring Reese Witherspoon, LEGALLY BLONDE is the award-winning London and Broadway sensation developed by a top-of-their-class innovative staff, led by Tony Award-winning director and Olivier Award-nominated choreographer Jerry Mitchell (Hairspray). LEGALLY BLONDE ran for three victorious years in the western End, over couple of years on Broadway and it is currently on a major UNITED KINGDOM Tour playing to packed homes. Winner of seven major honors like the coveted Best New Musical 2011 (Olivier Awards®) this all performing, all dance romantic comedy is all about knowing who you are and showing everything’ve got!

The Australian Premiere for this award-winning Broadway and West End sensation had been secured for Sydney with all the help of NSW national through Destination NSW plus the City of Sydney.

Legally Blonde To Open Tonight…

The Sydney Lyric Theatre will be host towards popular musical ‘Legally Blonde’.

Legally Blonde The Musical is the hilarious tale of college lover and homecoming queen, Elle Woods – a lady would youn’t just take no for an answer. Whenever the woman boyfriend dumps her for some body "serious", Elle leaves along the bank card, hits the publications and heads for Harvard Law class! As you go along, she shows that being true to yourself never fades of style.

Legally Blonde The Musical – Winner of ideal Musical 2011 Olivier Awards and a smash hit working into its 3rd 12 months regarding West End is made by a world-class innovative staff led by Tony Award-winning manager Jerry Mitchell.

Based on the motion picture featuring Reese Witherspoon and remaining true to your script, Legally Blonde the Musical is a feel-good number with a ’90s experience.

University lover Elle heads to law school to regain her boyfriend Warner after he dumps the girl for some one more severe, only to graduate top of the woman course and discover a definitely better love interest.

Warner, too, locates the courage to dump family objectives of a career in-law and politics and go after his true calling as a model.

"i have seen it on Broadway together with western End and it’s great. It certainly does do the film justice," leading actress Lucy Durack states.

"Everyone loves the role of Elle. Just as much as she appears like she hasn’t a treatment on earth, people are unkind to the girl and assess her and she struggles with that.

"But she takes an optimistic course and rises above it. She does not use the low road, ever before. The entire tv show is a celebration – be who you really are, the most effective version of your self, and be proud."

LEGALLY BLONDE THE MUSICAL starts in ‘las vegas’ Sydney today!

Websites

Legally Blonde The Musical (Australia)
www.legallyblonde.com.au

The Star
www.star.com.au

Sydney Lyric Theatre
www.sydneylyric.com.au

Echo Entertainment
www.echoentertainment.com.au

Eva Rinaldi Photographer Flickr
www.flickr.com/evarinaldiphotography

Eva Rinaldi Photographer
www.evarinaldi.com

Music News Australian Continent
www.musicnewsaustralia.com

internet protocol address Promotion
www.ippublicity.com.au

Stephen Mahy
secured credit card
Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Real Time Songs Photographer
Legally Blonde The Musical opens up at The Star, Sydney

GALA WORLD AUSTRALIAN PREMIERE
PURPLE CARPET ARRIVALS AND AFTER CELEBRATION

Media tend to be welcomed to cover the Purple Carpet arrivals within Gala Australian Premiere of award winning music LEGALLY BLONDE on Thursday October 4, 2012. Friends within orifice night include NSW Minister for significant occasions together with Arts George Souris; X Factor judges Mel B and Natalie Bassingthwaite; Adam Garcia; Danielle Spencer; Home and Away’s Dan Ewing, Lisa Gormley, David Jones Roberts and Rhiannon Fish; Triple J morning meal staff Tom Ballard and Alex Dyson; MTV’s Keiynan Lonsdale, Kate Peck and Jules Sebastian; television personalities David Campbell, Michael Caton, Laura Csortan, Gigi Edgley, Josh Horner and Kerri-Anne Kennerley; performers of music theatre including Kelley Abbey, Simon Burke, Bobby Fox, Amanda Harrison and Ian Stenlake; alongside the UK producer of LEGALLY BLONDE Howard Panter and his Australian co-producer John Frost.

Sydney will continue to secure world class enjoyment by way of our pals at celebrity and Lyric, so we encourage you to definitely consider just what all the fuss is about.

Enhance…

STARTING EVENING GUESTS feature:

Kelley Abbey
Mel B
Tom Ballard
Natalie Bassingthwaite
Angela Bishop
Simon Burke
Tina Bursill
David Campbell
Michael Caton
Michael Cormick
Laura Csortan
Paulini Curuenavuli
Andrew Daddo
Lochie Daddo
Chloe Dallimore
Lorrae Desmond
Alex Dyson
Gigi Edgley
Dan Ewing
Rhiannon Fish
Bobby Fox
Mia Freedman
Adam Garcia
Mark Geyer
Julie Lea Goodwin
Lisa Gormley
Amanda Harrison
Nancye Hayes
Josh Horner
George Houvardes
Verity Hunt-Ballard
Bartholomew John
David Jones Roberts
Kerri-Anne Kennerley
Toni Lamond
Damien Leith
Keiynan Lonsdale
Stephen Mahy
Reece Maston
Andrew McFarlane
Marney McQueen
Sharon Millerchip
Ben Mingay
Tara Morice
Peter Morrissey
Amanda Muggleton
Callan Mulvey
Timomatic
Stephen Webpage
Kate Peck
Ed Phillips
Kathryn Robinson
Jordan Rodrigues
Magdalena Roze
Anne Sanders
Jules Sebastian
The Hon George Souris
Danielle Spencer
Ian Stenlake
Erik Thomson
Maria Venuti
Brian Walsh
Richard Wilkins
Gus Worland

On the basis of the hit film of the same title starring Reese Witherspoon, LEGALLY BLONDE is the award-winning London and Broadway feeling produced by a top-of-their-class imaginative staff, led by Tony Award-winning manager and Olivier Award-nominated choreographer Jerry Mitchell (Hairspray). LEGALLY BLONDE went for three triumphant years when you look at the western End, over 2 yrs on Broadway and is presently on an important British journey playing to packed homes. Winner of seven significant prizes including the coveted Best New Musical 2011 (Olivier Awards®) this all singing, all dancing enchanting comedy is about once you understand who you really are and showing everything’ve got!

The Australian Premiere for this award-winning Broadway and western End feeling had been secured for Sydney using the help of this NSW Government through Destination NSW together with City of Sydney.

The Sydney Lyric Theatre will likely be number into the famous musical ‘Legally Blonde’.

Legally Blonde The Musical may be the hilarious story of college lover and homecoming queen, Elle Woods – a lady who doesn’t take no for a solution. Whenever her boyfriend dumps the girl for somebody "serious", Elle places along the charge card, hits the publications and heads for Harvard Law class! Along the way, she shows that becoming real to your self never ever goes out of style.

Legally Blonde The music – Winner of Best Musical 2011 Olivier Awards and a smash hit operating into its third 12 months on the western End was made by a world-class innovative staff led by Tony Award-winning manager Jerry Mitchell.

On the basis of the motion picture starring Reese Witherspoon and remaining true toward script, Legally Blonde the Musical is a feel-good quantity with a ’90s feel.

University lover Elle heads to legislation school to regain her boyfriend Warner after he dumps the girl for someone more severe, and then graduate top of her course in order to find a greater love interest.

Warner, also, finds the nerve to dump family objectives of a profession in-law and politics and pursue their real calling as a design.

"I seen it on Broadway therefore the western End and it is great. It surely does do the movie justice," leading actress Lucy Durack claims.

"Everyone loves the part of Elle. Around she looks like she’sn’t an attention on earth, folks are unkind to her and judge the lady and she struggles with this.

"But she takes a positive path and rises above it. She doesn’t make the reduced roadway, previously. The complete tv show is a celebration – be who you really are, best form of your self, and stay happy."

Websites

Legally Blonde The Musical (Australian Continent)
www.legallyblonde.com.au

The Celebrity
www.star.com.au

Sydney Lyric Theatre
www.sydneylyric.com.au

Echo Entertainment
www.echoentertainment.com.au

Eva Rinaldi Photographer Flickr
www.flickr.com/evarinaldiphotography

Eva Rinaldi Photographer
www.evarinaldi.com

Songs Information Australian Continent
www.musicnewsaustralia.com

internet protocol address Publicity
www.ippublicity.com.au

Paulini Curuenavuli
secured bank card
Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Real Time Music Photographer
Legally Blonde The Music opens up on Star, Sydney

GALA WORLD AUSTRALIAN PREMIERE
PURPLE CARPET ARRIVALS AND UPON CELEBRATION

Media tend to be invited to pay for the Purple Carpet arrivals at the Gala Australian Premiere associated with the award winning musical LEGALLY BLONDE on Thursday October 4, 2012. Visitors on orifice evening feature NSW Minister for Major Events while the Arts George Souris; X Factor judges Mel B and Natalie Bassingthwaite; Adam Garcia; Danielle Spencer; Home and Away’s Dan Ewing, Lisa Gormley, David Jones Roberts and Rhiannon Fish; Triple J morning meal group Tom Ballard and Alex Dyson; MTV’s Keiynan Lonsdale, Kate Peck and Jules Sebastian; tv personalities David Campbell, Michael Caton, Laura Csortan, Gigi Edgley, Josh Horner and Kerri-Anne Kennerley; stars of musical theatre including Kelley Abbey, Simon Burke, Bobby Fox, Amanda Harrison and Ian Stenlake; alongside the UK producer of LEGALLY BLONDE Howard Panter along with his Australian co-producer John Frost.

Sydney will continue to secure top notch activity by way of our pals during the celebrity and Lyric, and we also encourage one to check-out just what most of the hassle is mostly about.

Enhance…

OPENING NIGHT GUESTS feature:

Kelley Abbey
Mel B
Tom Ballard
Natalie Bassingthwaite
Angela Bishop
Simon Burke
Tina Bursill
David Campbell
Michael Caton
Michael Cormick
Laura Csortan
Paulini Curuenavuli
Andrew Daddo
Lochie Daddo
Chloe Dallimore
Lorrae Desmond
Alex Dyson
Gigi Edgley
Dan Ewing
Rhiannon Fish
Bobby Fox
Mia Freedman
Adam Garcia
Mark Geyer
Julie Lea Goodwin
Lisa Gormley
Amanda Harrison
Nancye Hayes
Josh Horner
George Houvardes
Verity Hunt-Ballard
Bartholomew John
David Jones Roberts
Kerri-Anne Kennerley
Toni Lamond
Damien Leith
Keiynan Lonsdale
Stephen Mahy
Reece Maston
Andrew McFarlane
Marney McQueen
Sharon Millerchip
Ben Mingay
Tara Morice
Peter Morrissey
Amanda Muggleton
Callan Mulvey
Timomatic
Stephen Page
Kate Peck
Ed Phillips
Kathryn Robinson
Jordan Rodrigues
Magdalena Roze
Anne Sanders
Jules Sebastian
The Hon George Souris
Danielle Spencer
Ian Stenlake
Erik Thomson
Maria Venuti
Brian Walsh
Richard Wilkins
Gus Worland

Based on the hit motion picture of the same title starring Reese Witherspoon, LEGALLY BLONDE could be the award-winning London and Broadway sensation produced by a top-of-their-class imaginative group, led by Tony Award-winning manager and Olivier Award-nominated choreographer Jerry Mitchell (Hairspray). LEGALLY BLONDE went for three triumphant many years within the western End, over 2 yrs on Broadway and it is at this time on a major UNITED KINGDOM journey playing to packed homes. Winner of seven major awards like the coveted Best brand new Musical 2011 (Olivier Awards®) all of this singing, all dance romantic comedy is about once you understand who you are and showing what you’ve got!

The Australian Premiere of the award-winning Broadway and western End sensation was secured for Sydney using help of this NSW national through Destination NSW and City of Sydney.

The Sydney Lyric Theatre will probably be host into the famous musical ‘Legally Blonde’.

Legally Blonde The Musical could be the hilarious story of university lover and homecoming queen, Elle Woods – a girl would youn’t take no for a remedy. When her boyfriend dumps the girl for someone "serious", Elle puts along the charge card, hits the books and minds for Harvard Law class! Along the way, she demonstrates that being real to your self never ever is out of style.

Legally Blonde The Musical – Winner of ideal Musical 2011 Olivier Awards and a smash hit running into its 3rd year on West End is made by a world-class creative team led by Tony Award-winning manager Jerry Mitchell.

Based on the film starring Reese Witherspoon and continuing to be real towards the script, Legally Blonde the Musical is a feel-good number with a ’90s feel.

University sweetheart Elle heads off to law college to win back her boyfriend Warner after he dumps the lady for somebody more serious, only to graduate top of the woman course in order to find a better love interest.

Warner, also, finds the courage to dump family members objectives of a profession in law and politics and go after his true calling as a design.

"I seen it on Broadway in addition to West End and it is great. It certainly does perform some film justice," leading actress Lucy Durack claims.

"I love the part of Elle. Whenever she seems like she hasn’t a care in the world, folks are unkind to this lady and judge her and she struggles with this.

"But she takes a confident course and rises above it. She doesn’t use the reasonable road, ever before. Your whole show is a celebration – be who you really are, best version of your self, and get happy."

Websites

Legally Blonde The Musical (Australian Continent)
www.legallyblonde.com.au

The Star
www.star.com.au

Sydney Lyric Theatre
www.sydneylyric.com.au

Echo Entertainment
www.echoentertainment.com.au

Eva Rinaldi Photography Flickr
www.flickr.com/evarinaldiphotography

Eva Rinaldi Photography
www.evarinaldi.com

Music Information Australian Continent
www.musicnewsaustralia.com

IP Publicity
www.ippublicity.com.au

Nice Bad Credit Auto Loans photographs

Some cool bad credit automotive loans pictures:

“i really believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to the liberties than standing armies. ~ Thomas Jefferson.
bad credit automotive loans
Image by eyewashdesign: A. Golden
Brand new Yorkers Protest the US0 BILLION (US TRILLION) Wall Street BAILOUT: Wall Street, NYC – September 25, 2008

Phototgrapher: a. golden, eyewash design – c. 2008.

Pals,

The richest 400 Us americans — you got that right, simply four-hundred individuals — own MORE than the bottom 150 million People in america COMBINED! 400 regarding the wealthiest Americans ‘ve got more saved than half the entire country! Their particular combined web well worth is .6 trillion. Through the eight many years of the Bush Administration, their particular wide range has grown by nearly 0 billion — equivalent amount they had been demanding We share with them the "bailout." Let’s they simply spend the money they made under Bush to bail by themselves out? They would have almost a trillion bucks left-over to spread amongst on their own!

Needless to say, they may not be probably accomplish that — at the least maybe not voluntarily. George W. Bush ended up being handed a 7 billion surplus whenever Bill Clinton left office. Because that cash ended up being the cash and never HIS, he performed exactly what the wealthy would rather do — spend it and do not look back. We have now a .5 trillion debt that’ll simply take seven years where to recoup. The reason why — on –earth – performed — our — "representatives" — give — these — robber — barons — $US850 BILLION — of – OUR — cash?

The other day, proposed my personal bailout plan. My suggestions, given below, were based on the singular and easy belief your rich must pull by themselves up by their very own platinum bootstraps. Sorry, fellows, nevertheless drilled it into our heads one way too many times: THERE…IS…NO…FREE… LUNCH ~ PERIOD! And thanks for motivating us to hate people on benefit! So, there must have already been NO HANDOUTS FROM United States TO YOU! Final Friday, after voting AGAINST this BAILOUT, in an unprecedented turn of occasions, the House FLIP-FLOPPED their particular "No" Vote & stated "Yes", in a hurry version of a "bailout" costs vote. IN SPITE OF THE INDIVIDUALS’S INTIMIDATING DISAPPROVAL FOR THIS BAILOUT BILL… NOTWITHSTANDING MILLIONS OF CALLS FROM GROUP CRASHING WASHINGTON "representatives’" PHONE LINES…IN SPITE OF CRASHING OUR POLITICIAN’S WEBSITES…IN SPITE OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS PROTESTING ALL OVER COUNTRY… THEY VOTED WITH THIS BAILOUT! The folks first been successful on Monday using the House, but failed do so because of the Senate and then THE HOUSE TURNED-ON United States TOO!

It really is clear, however, we can not just continue protesting without proposing exactly what it is we think THESE IDIOTS should/’ve do/one. So, after seeing numerous people smarter than Phil Gramm, here’s the proposal, now-known as "Mike’s save Plan." (From Michael Moore’s Bailout Arrange) It’s 10 quick, straightforward points. These are generally you DIDN’T, BUT SHOULD’VE:

1. APPOINTED A SPECIAL PROSECUTOR TO CRIMINALLY INDICT ANYONE ON WALL STREET Just who KNOWINGLY CONTRIBUTED TO THIS COLLAPSE. Before any brand new cash ended up being expended, Congress need committed, by quality, to CRIMINALLY PROSECUTE anybody who had ANYTHING to do because of the attempted SACKING OF OUR ECONOMY. Which means anyone who committed insider trading, securities fraud or any activity that assisted cause this failure needs to have and MUST VISIT JAIL! This Congress NEEDS needed an unique Prosecutor that would vigorously follow everybody which developed the mess, and others which tries to con the public in the future. (i love Elliot Spitzer ~ so, he played somewhat hanky-panky…Wall Street dislikes him & this is an excellent thing.)

2. THE RICH NEEDS TO HAVE PAID FOR THEIR OWN BAILOUT! They might have to are now living in 5 homes in the place of 7. They may need to drive 9 automobiles rather than 13. The cook due to their mini-terriers might have to be reassigned. But there is absolutely no way in hell, after pushing family members incomes to go down more than ,000 bucks through the Bush many years, that employees and also the middle-class need to have to fork over one dime to underwrite another boat buy.

Should they truly needed the 0 billion they state they required, well, listed here is a simple way they might have raised it:

a) Every few makeing over a million dollars per year and every single taxpayer who makes over 0,000 annually should pay a 10percent surcharge tax for five years. (oahu is the Senator Sanders plan. He’s like Colonel Sanders, just he is off to fry the best birds.) Meaning the rich will have nonetheless been having to pay less tax than whenever Carter was president. That could have raise a complete of 0 billion.

b) Like virtually every various other democracy, they need to have charged a 0.25percent income tax on every stock transaction. This could have raised above 0 billion in a-year.

c) Because every stockholder is a patriotic United states, stockholders needs forgone receiving a dividend look for one-quarter and instead this money will have gone the treasury to simply help pay for the bullsh*t bailout.

d) 25percent of major U.S. corporations presently pay NO national tax. Federal corporate income tax profits presently amount to 1.7per cent associated with GDP versus 5% when you look at the 1950s. When we increased the organization income tax returning to the amount associated with 1950s, this could provide us with a supplementary 0 billion.

This combined needs to have been adequate to end the disaster. The rich might have gotten to keep their particular mansions and their particular servants and our united states of america federal government ("COUNTRY VERY FIRST!") would’ve have a little leftover to correct some roads, bridges and schools…

3. YOU SHOULD HAVE BAIL-OUT THE INDIVIDUALS DROPPING THEIR HOMES, NOT INDIVIDUALS WHO WILL BUILD AN EIGHTH HOME! You can find 1.3 million domiciles in property foreclosure today. Which understanding at the heart for this problem. Therefore, in place of offering the funds toward banking institutions as a present, they should have reduced all these mortgages by 0,000. They ought to have required the banking institutions to renegotiate the mortgage so the home owner could spend on its existing price. To insure that assistance wouldn’t head to investors and people just who attempted to earning profits by flipping homes, the bailout should have only been for people’s major residences. And, in return for the 0K pay-down regarding the existing mortgage, the us government would have gotten to share into the holding associated with mortgage therefore it could easily get a few of its cash back. Hence, the total preliminary price of fixing the mortgage crisis at its origins (as opposed to utilizing the money grubbing loan providers) is 0 billion, maybe not 0 BILLION.

And let’s set the record straight. Individuals who have defaulted on their mortgages aren’t "bad dangers." These are typically our fellow People in america, and all they desired was that which we all desire: a property to call their very own. But, through the Bush years, an incredible number of the individuals lost the decent investing tasks they’d. SIX MILLION fell into poverty! SEVEN MILLION lost their own health insurance coverage! And, every one of all of them saw their genuine earnings go DOWN by ,000! People who DARE look down upon these Us citizens which got hit with one bad break after another is ASHAMED.! Our company is a significantly better, stronger, safer and happier culture when all of our residents can afford to reside in property they own.

4. AROUND MUST HAVE BEEN A STIPULATION THAT WHEN THE BANK OR BUSINESS GOT SOME OF the MONEY IN A "BAILOUT," THEN WE OWN YOU. Sorry, that is just how it really is done. In the event that bank offers myself cash so I can purchase a residence, the bank "owns" that house until I pay all of it straight back — with interest. Exact same deal for Wall Street. Whatever cash you ought to remain afloat, if our federal government considers you a secure risk — and necessary for the great associated with country — then you can certainly get a loan, but WE HAVE TO OWN YOU. If you default, we shall offer you. This is the way the Swedish government did it therefore worked.

5. ALL REGULATIONS NEED TO HAVE BEEN BE RESTORED. THE REAGAN TRANSFORMATION IS DEAD! This disaster happened because we allow fox possess keys to the hen-house. In 1999, Phil Gramm authored a bill to eliminate all the laws that governed Wall Street and our bank system. The bill passed and Clinton finalized it. This is what Sen.Phil Gramm, McCain’s main economic consultant, said on costs signing:

"in 1930s … it absolutely was thought that federal government ended up being the clear answer. It had been believed that stability and growth originated from government overriding the functioning of free areas.

"We are here right now to repeal [that] because we’ve learned that federal government is not the response. We discovered that freedom and competitors will be the responses. We now have learned that we advertise economic growth and we advertise stability by having competitors and freedom.

"Im proud becoming here as this is an important bill; it really is a deregulatory bill. I really believe that this is the wave of the future, and I also in the morning awfully happy to possess been a part of rendering it possible."

WITH THIS TO NOT EVER REOCCUR, This BILL NEED BEEN REPEALED! Bill Clinton could have helped by leading the effort the repeal associated with Gramm costs therefore the reinstating of also tougher regulations regarding our financial institutions. And when these people were finished with that, they need to have restored the laws the air companies, the inspection of your food, the oil industry, OSHA, and each other entity that affects our everyday resides. All oversight arrangements for almost any "bailout" must have had enforcement monies attached to them and unlawful penalties for several offenders.

6. WHETHER IT’S TOO-BIG TO FAIL, THEN THIS MEANS IT’S TOO BIG TO EXIST! Enabling the development of these mega-mergers and never enforcing the dominance and anti-trust legislation features permitted numerous financial institutions and corporations in order to become therefore huge, ab muscles thought of their failure means a level larger failure across the entire economic climate. No-one or TWO businesses should EVER have this energy! The so-called "economic Pearl Harbor" cannot happen if you have hundreds — thousands — of establishments in which folks have their money. Once we have actually a dozen auto businesses, if a person goes belly-up, we do not FACE A NATIONAL DISASTER! When we have actually three separately-owned day-to-day newspapers in your neighborhood, then one news company can’t phone all shots (i am aware… exactly what was We thinking?! Just who reads a paper anymore? Certain pleased dozens of mergers and buyouts left united states with a solid and "FREE" press!). Laws must have been enacted to stop organizations from becoming so large and dominant that with one slingshot into the eye, the GIANT FALLS and DIES. With no organization is allowed to setup money systems that NO ONE understands. If you can’t explain it in 2 phrases, don’t be taking any person’s money!

7. NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD EVER BE PAID A LOT MORE THAN 40 TIMES THEIR AVERAGE EMPLOYEE, AND NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD RECEIVE ANY SORT OF "PARACHUTE" BESIDES AB MUSCLES GENEROUS SALARY HE OR SHE MADE WHILE WORKING FOR THE BUSINESS. In 1980, the typical American CEO made 45 times what their employees made. By 2003, these were making 254 times exactly what their workers made. After 8 several years of Bush, they today make over 400 times what their particular typical employee tends to make. How We have permitted this to occur at openly held companies is beyond explanation. In Britain, the typical CEO makes 28 times what their normal worker makes. In Japan, it’s just 17 times! The past we heard, the CEO of Toyota ended up being residing the large life in Tokyo. How does he take action on therefore small cash? Really, this really is an OUTRAGE! We have developed the mess we are in by allowing the people at the top become bloated beyond belief with millions of dollars. IT’S TO QUIT! Not merely should no professional who obtains help out for this mess make money from it, but any exec who was simply in control of working their organization in to the surface should be FIRED before the business receives ANY assistance.

8. CONGRESS SHOULD HAVE STRENGTHENED THE FDIC MAKING IT A MODEL FOR PROTECTING NOT MERELY PEOPLE’S COST SAVINGS, AND THEIR PENSIONS AND THEIR HOMES. Obama had been proper to propose expanding FDIC protection of people’s cost savings inside their financial institutions to 0,000. But, this same type of government insurance coverage must certanly be directed at our never need to bother about set up money they will have store with their later years are going to be there. This will have meant strict federal government oversight of businesses just who handle their employees’ resources — or perhaps it indicates the firms needs already been obligated to turn over those funds and their management into federal government? People’s private retirement funds should be protected, but perhaps it is time to give consideration to devoid of an individual’s your retirement invested in the casino referred to as stock market??? Our government should have a solemn duty to ensure that no-one whom expands old within nation has got to be worried about getting destitute.

9. EVERYBODY HAS TO TAKE A BREATH, RELAX, AND NEVER allow FEAR RULE YOUR DAY. Turn fully off your TVs! We have been never into the 2nd Great anxiety. The sky just isn’t dropping, Chicken Little! Pundits and political leaders have actually lied to us so QUICK and FURIOUS it’s hard not to be afflicted with most of the concern mongering. Even we penned to and continued the things I heard in the development the other day, that the Dow had the largest 1 day drop with its history. Well, that was true when it comes to points, but its 7per cent drop emerged nowhere near to Ebony Monday in 1987 as soon as the currency markets in one single time destroyed 23percent of its worth. In ’80s, 3,000 finance companies closed, but America don’t go out of business. These establishments have actually constantly had their particular pros and cons and finally it works aside. It offers to, as the wealthy don’t like their particular wide range becoming disturbed! They have a vested interest in soothing things down and having back to their Jacuzzis before they slip into their million thread-count sheets to move off to a peaceful, Vodka tonic and Ambien-induced slumber.

As crazy as things tend to be at this time, tens and thousands of people got car finance a week ago. Thousands went to the bank and got a home loan to purchase a home. Students only to college found banks over happy to place them into hock for the next fifteen years with an educatonal loan. I was also pre-approved for a USK personal loan. Yes, life has gone on with little-or-no-change (apart from the whopping 6.1per cent unemployment price, but that occurred last month). Perhaps not a single individual lost some of his or her monies in lender, or a treasury note, or in a CD. And, the probably the many amazing thing is the fact that United states general public FINALLY did not purchase the scare campaign. The citizens didn’t blink, rather informing Congress to simply take that bailout and shove it. Which was impressive. Why didn’t the people succumb into the fright-filled warnings from their particular president and his cronies? Well, you’ll only say ‘Saddam has got the bomb’ a lot of times before the folks understand you are a lying sack of shit. After eight lengthy many years, the country is worn out and simply can not take it any further. The whole world is fed-up & I do not blame all of them.

10. THEY SHOULD GET CREATED A NATIONAL BANK, A "PEOPLE’S BANK." Because they’re really itching to print up a trillion dollars, in place of offering it to a few rich folks, we will provide to ourselves? Now that We own Freddie and Fannie, why-not put up a People’s lender? One which can offer low-interest loans for many sorts of individuals who wish have a home, start a small business, head to college, produce the remedy for disease or create the next great invention. And, given that we possess AIG – the united states’s largest insurance carrier – let’s use the next thing and PROVIDE HEALTH INSURANCE FOR ALL. MEDICARE FOR SEVERAL! It’s going to SAVE YOUR SELF united states SO MUCH profit the long term (as well as bring reassurance to all or any). And, America defintely won’t be 12th from the endurance record! We’ll manage to have an extended lifespan, enjoying our government-protected pension and certainly will stay to see the day as soon as the corporate criminals whom caused that much misery are let-out of prison so We can help re-acclimate them to common ordinary, civilian life — a life with ONE great residence and something gas-free vehicle invented with help from individuals’s Bank.

P.S. Phone your Senators today !!! —> www.visi.com/juan/congress/

Because they voted against passing the extension of jobless benefits and skipped off to "campaign" to united states to-be re-elected…call all of them and let them know you’ll vote for various other "guy" if they don’t get their work collectively!

—————————————————–

IMPROVE: THE INDIVIDUALS NEED VOTED! A HISTORIC MINUTE: NOVEMBER 4th 2008!

——> THE Historic ELECTION <——

"A work in PROGRESS."

Nov. 4th, 2008.

Outstanding American leader when stated, "As specific hands We can easily be damaged. But TOGETHER We make a mighty fist." These terms too had been talked by a minority frontrunner. He was the venerable Chief Sitting Bull. No, Barack Obama’s perhaps not the very first United states minority to talk eloquently and then he definitely won’t be the final. Though, in the end, this election was not also shut !!! The whole world viewed as, "YES WE COULD!" turned into, "YES WE DID!" as it today ushers in, "YES WE MUST!" time is currently!

That which we do with this particular moment shall determine US, forthright. America has now elected a person with a history of partial African – American descent as President elect. A brand new frontrunner with roots from Kenya to Kansas (with a step-father from Indonesia), is supposed to be working in conjunction with a vice-Presidential of Anglo-European origins. That is one thing in which people of events – both here as well as the world ’round – have actually loudly REJOICED. The reason why mention battle? Is race important? Without a doubt! Because – enjoy it or otherwise not – battle has actually dominated and governed our day to day lives for thousands of years. In the end: "To understand where we are going, we ought to first understand where we have been".

We’ve advanced significantly infant! The thing that was when "acceptable" in 1965 isn’t any longer in 2008 and LUCKILY.

It is a switching of guard. Specially since forty-percent of America’s population is recognized as to-be a "minority". Just four generations removed, the repression of African slaves by Anglo Saxons caused thousands and thousands of brothers to eliminate brothers in a viscous and bloody battle that changed might principals of this Constitutional Republic from rhetoric to reality. This too was an important changing of guard.

The very first time into the history of the united states, the ancestors among these same individuals who so passionately battled for slavery have now OVERWHELMINGLY voted for a minority frontrunner. This also ushers in a fresh chapter into the history of The united states. It is a huge nod to those great United states leaders before United States who risked every thing making sure that We look for ourselves as of this accurate moment in time. We ought to offer by way of these women and men which both tirelessly and unselfishly offered their resides to mix and also to help shatter the racial, intimate and social boundaries imbued into the history of the United States of The united states.

It’s now happened. There is a palpable renewed sense of a cure for a significantly better the next day – a HOPE that these same crippling boundaries shall finally once and for all be erased. Yet it is advisable to don’t forget the adage, "Actions talk louder than words" and Our rhetoric must now be changed into activity. The capacity to certainly go above variations also to not only speak of performing this, tells a lot of Our lengthy and continuous trip. When we remember the old us Indian saying, "We never inherit the planet earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our youngsters." We would only have a fighting chance.

The individuals have actually spoken! A record-setting 130 million Americans’ turned out to vote in Tuesday’s election, where Barack Obama made record on a Democratic tidal trend of triumph. Polling indicates voters came out in record figures as a result of developing problems within the economic climate, tasks, healthcare, power, and war in Iraq.

Plainly, the national government and also the brand-new Democratic majority in Washington have actually a chance to make powerful changes in Our lives – stretching ­from Wall Street to principal Street. Indeed, this minute shows decency about personal possibility and let us face it, we’re able to utilize somewhat decency TODAY.

Perhaps moreover, this minute speaks amounts because it’s a total rejection for the right’s politics of fear and greed? It’ll now be years before there’s another Republican vast majority in Congress. Never have the language, "Ask maybe not exactly what your country can do for your needs, but what You can do for the country," appeared much more true for PLENTY. For, We-Are-Our-country. Therefore we’re at an important crossroads. Where, oh how to start?

OBAMA / BIDEN Promotion.

Here in New York, Working households voters, members, affiliates, supporters and section frontrunners poured every little thing they’d into crucial promotions that shown successful. Lots of people are today naturally fatigued – though significantly more than slightly pleased with that which was carried out. And, the outcomes had been great ~ if you don’t downright historical. The very first time because the mid-1930, their state Senate will not be managed by Republicans. It really is today in the possession of of a Democratic Operating households bulk! Just-take-one-moment-and-soak-this-in. MASSIVE Democratic majorities in BOTH your house while the SENATE!

Collectively, the W.F.P built a good cooperation with Senate Democrats, knocking on over fifty percent a million doorways for modern CHANGE. And, in the long run, "We the People" overwhelmingly reacted. This might be a MILESTONE. There’s today a renewed feeling of genuine HOPE resonating from Washington, without a doubt, all over the world. This might be effective. Because, without HOPE, there’s merely nothing to gain.

However, we ought to try not to fall victim to disillusionment. If illusions tear folks asunder, after that disillusion outright kills the individual character. This means, split THEY conquer, united, WE stand. That historic minute was ushered in during local American Indian month is apropos. Because, we ought to keep in mind the genuine foundations of the idealistic country and pay homage towards the 500 plus year challenge of your First Peoples’ the basic legal rights afforded all of them within our own Constitution. Obama’s victory is definitely a victory representing the multitudes. It’s precisely because their success mirrors the public, in the place of a couple of affluent, power-elite this can be so electrifying. AN EXTREMELY palpable, "Finally!" had been the expression heard ’round the world.

The planet woke up WEDNESDAY using genuine potential for a rather RARE OPPORTUNITY – the greatest in many Our lifetimes. This can be a chance to really transform America.

But, we ought ton’t your investment quite difficult realities current inside nation. Just ask any woman…any "person of color"…or, any very first Peoples located in this "great" land. For, provided that indigenous American Indians within our country however live-in policies of containment on bookings without the extremely fundamentals, eg operating liquid, electricity, or temperature… provided that a lot more than 75% associated with prison population includes African-Americans, First and Taino Peoples …as lengthy as We consistently allow Our income tax bucks spent is three times much more for each of those prisoners per head than on our very own school childrens’ education…as very long as American women still earn less than men for the SAME work…as long once we allow independently held corporations to occur without severe VITAL reform…as very long even as we consistently enable our youngsters to trample on international soil to destroy and also to be killed in "Our" names…as very long even as we sit idly by expecting or content to let others to "Do the right thing," for us… so long as We DON’T ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE TOGETHER in challenging and fighting for the personal WELL-BEING when it comes to betterment of future generations… providing We choose to stay ignorant and in denial to the faults…TRUE CHANGE can, and will NEVER HAPPEN.

Though, like anything uncommon and special, we should initially simply take appropriate time for you to Honor…to give thanks to those before united states which, without their dedication and sacrifice, made this minute possible. We ought to get together. Immediate formula and a genuine plan to guard and also to protect this minute with tough determination is required. Brand new frontrunners are expected and can emerge therefore we ensure moments similar to this become the norm, without only token fluke. Whenever we HOPE to change Tuesday’s results into a real break from the shipwreck quite instant final thirty many years – We MUST begin by realizing this election presents exactly that – a-start. It is Round our EXTENDED and CONTINUOUS battle.

And, Round Two may be equally tough, or even more therefore. Keeping the course can easily be forgotten when anyone tend to be dying from inadequate medical care; if they’ve found themselves in the streets for lack of shelter and as they grow a lot more desperate as a result of decreased work opportunities. Just ask folks of Native or African US descent. Or, our homeless veterans living on America’s roads of lots.

Yes, the house of cards has fallen cast in stone. And, President / V.P. elect Barack Obama and Joe Biden have actually passed down many seemingly insurmountable difficulties. REAL CHANGE – maybe not rhetoric – is exactly what’s needed. And also to have it, we should need it. We ought to march and stay watchdogs with regard to the coming years. Interaction with this political leaders is crucial. Above all, we should stand TOGETHER and start to become prepared to combat to protect what is right and something advantageous to the numerous, never the limited.

UNITED We STAND, DIVIDED, We FALL.

A President Obama should be at the same time supported AND pushed. His education as a community organizer offers one confidence he’ll not just realize, but also needs to expect this powerful. It is imperative for people to mind the trusty, "Follow the money" method. Remember, President elect Obama dually made record by raising probably the most unprecedented level of promotion dollars in the reputation for U.S. Presidential elections. Relating to CNN, if annualized, the Obama campaign’s advertising spending on the post-primary Presidential campaign would started to US0 million. This quantity is just exceeded amongst big corporations such as for instance Verizon and AT&T – both hefty sponsors of this Republican in addition to Democratic national party conventions.

At the start of October, the Democratic nationwide Committee revealed it lifted US.9 million with US.5 million sitting in bank. The celebration raised cash through joint fund-raising activities with Obama and could make use of that cash to aid their candidacy. These figures had been just possible because he opted from the community financing system for autumn promotion. John McCain thought we would take part in the system, which restricted him to United States million for the September / October stretch ahead of the election. After initially promising to just accept general public funding if McCain did, Obama changed their brain after establishing main fund-raising records. Actually, by the time the primaries struck, Obama ended up being increasing whenever United States million every day. The Obama / Biden campaign raised a lot more than US0 million in September alone – a sensational and unprecedented eruption of political giving. This extraordinary fund-raising is likely to set a unique standard in politics that may doom the current taxpayer-paid system put up when you look at the 1970’s.

HOPEfully never.

The party presidential nominees – Democrat Barack Obama and Republican John McCain – collectively invested significantly more than US BILLION, also an unprecedented figure. Based on White home available, a nonpartisan team that monitors political giving, Obama had 605 bundlers, or donors whom gather money from pals and associates and bundle all of them together. Four years back, Democrat John F. Kerry had 588 bundlers and, in 2000, Al Gore had not one. McCain had 851 bundlers employed by his promotion, in comparison to 557 just who raised money for Bush-Cheney re-election committee in 2004. George W. Bush is largely paid with institutionalizing the part of bundlers in 2000, as he recruited a then unprecedented 555 surrogate fundraisers.

Ask Yourselves: which really benefits many from having contributed towards the Obama / Biden promotion?

President – elect Barack Obama & John McCain’s U.S. Presidential campaign funds details:

OBAMA:
Complete:US0,767,963
Bundlers:605
LobbyistBundlers:17

MCCAIN:
Complete: US2,525,058
Bundlers: 851
Lobbyist Bundlers: 77

Understand Center for Responsive Politics Presidential promotion monies for an improved viewpoint:

2008: Obama AND McCain – US.3 BILLION

(Obama: US0,767,963 million / McCain: US2,525,058 million)

2004: Bush AND Kerry – US.2 BILLION

2000: Gore AND Bush – US.56 MILLION

1996: Dole AND Clinton – US.82 MILLION

1992: Clinton AND Bush – US.24 MILLION

* TO FIND MEGA-DONERS, click the link: www.whitehouseforsale.org/searchDonor.cfm?CandidateSelect… McCain&StateSelect=&SortOrder=Last_Name, First_Name, Middle_Name, Suffix.*

Democrats in Washington and you will be under enormous pressure to "play it safe", whilst everyone understands we truly need strong action plus some style of brand-new, New contract. And, whenever we permit the "play-it-safe" crowd to take over, then Obama (so we) wont succeed. Make NO error: the corporate big-wigs and free-market fundamentalists see this for what it really is: THE FIGHT OF FOREVER. They need nothing more than the Democrats to let you down, because then the HOPEfulness that Obama signifies are filled in the bottle and cynicism can yet again restore its place in Our national governmental culture.

We Can Not Let This Happen!

Whether it is revamping our health and wellness treatment system…implementing a new fair-based trade policy…creating an audio, practical and well thought-out immigration plan…jobs programs…organizing rights in Washington, or campaign election reform, family members keep or fair taxes, this election features set the stage for a totally NEW social contract involving the government in addition to folks. This election starts up a genuine possibility – little, but genuine – that We could make real development as a society, regarding equivalence and freedom and real sustainability. Put differently, the democracy We preach, but try not to show. Exactly what comes next is around US. And, we have to seriously prepared OURSELVES.

In short, the true meaning of this election has not yet been decided.

Overall, there are many strive to do. It’s imperative that EVERYONE do their share – whether this means attending an area or union conference, signing a petition, arranging or riding a coach to a demonstration, taking place a lobby see, making a monetary share, or perhaps talking to a complete stranger in regards to the need and desirability regarding the common good.

Thanks for anything you do!
Live your values. Love your country.
And, remember: TOGETHER, We can make a D-I-F-F-E-R-E-N-C-E !

Industrials Drop 680 After Later Collapse
bad credit automotive loans
Image by YoTuT
Industrials Drop 680 After Later Collapse
By PETER A. MCKAY

The stock exchange’s collapse accelerated Thursday as lender lending stayed stubbornly blocked and investors remained unwilling to keep such a thing except cash and federal government financial obligation, regardless of how small the comes back for performing this.
The Dow Jones Industrial typical declined for a 7th straight time, plunging 678.91 things, or 7.3per cent, to 8579.19. Blue chips final dipped underneath the 9000 level five years ago. Thursday’s fall had been the Dow’s third-worst in history in point terms and 11th worst in percentage terms. During its current dropping run, blue chips have actually dropped by a startling 20.9% and tend to be down 39.4percent from their particular record large, that was hit exactly twelve months ago.
New D-Day when it comes to Dow
1:36
Investors will bear in mind Oct. 9, as soon as the Dow peaked above 14,000 in 2007 and closed 40per cent lower one year later. MarketWatch’s editor-in-chief Dave Callaway reports. (Oct. 9)
Translating your day’s losses into dollar terms, the Dow Jones Wilshire 5000, a proxy when it comes to complete U.S. stock exchange, destroyed 2 billion in market capitalization on Thursday, .5 trillion over the past seven trading sessions, and .3 trillion since the all-time large it hit final October.
"This is indiscriminate selling," said trader Todd Salamone, of Schaeffer’s Investment analysis, an analysis and asset-management company in Cincinnati. "Not until you can find massive improvements into the credit markets tend to be we more likely to see this really end."
Areas on the road

Track indexes and hot shares, with roll over charting and headlines. Plus, extensive protection of bonds, commodities and forex. Areas Data Center highlights:
Most Actives, Gainers, Losers
New Highs and Lows, Cash Flows
Intraday Futures and Currencies
On the list of Dow’s elements, General Motors stocks plunged 31percent after the automobile manufacturer’s credit scoring and those of the financing device were wear watch out for downgrade by traditional & Poor’s. The Dow’s monetary elements suffered besides, with Citigroup falling 10per cent and Bank of The united states falling 11.2percent. Exxon Mobil shares fell 11.7per cent following the front-month crude-oil futures contract decided at .59, the lowest settlement since Oct. 23, 2007. People stress financial aftershocks from the credit crisis will control interest in gas.
Investors are usually skeptical that the vast amounts of federal government money which can be being pumped in to the economic climate does a lot to unfreeze the credit areas. Economists worry that with companies frozen out-of short-term investment sources, a severe recession could result. Areas are beginning to cost in such a scenario, analysts say.
"Every single company on the planet requires working capital," said strategist Doug Peta, of this ny portfolio-management company J. & W. Seligman & Co. "You must spend money which will make one thing before you can sell it, which is what makes your earnings, which is what pushes the stock exchange. This is exactly why the stress in short term investment could be the crux of the marketplace’s problem today."
According to information from British Bankers’ Association, overnight U.S. dollar Libor dropped slightly compared to Wednesday’s rectifying. But longer-term financing pressures tightened. The important thing three-month Libor price rose to 4.75percent from 4.52per cent.
Those rates are foundational to to establishing the values of credit that banks charge their customers, including companies whose tasks drive growth in the wider economy.
Other significant stock yardsticks plunged. The Nasdaq Composite Index fell 5.5percent to 1645.12. The small-stock Russell 2000 tumbled 8.7per cent to 499.20. The S&P 500 shed 7.6percent to shut at 909.92. Each of its areas posted big losings, ranging from a 3.3percent drop in technology to a 14.4percent slide in energy. The S&P financials were down 10.4per cent.
Strategist Jim Paulsen, of Wells Capital Management in Minneapolis, said the fear with seized industry lately can be an unintended, self-fulfilling result of present efforts in Washington to pass through a 0 billion relief of businesses saddled with illiquid mortgage securities.
"To sell the bailout to the general public, everyone else from the President on down must venture out and tell people how dreadful every little thing had been, that globe ended up being arriving at a finish," said Mr. Paulsen. "Ever since, people’s objectives about the economic climate have gotten worse and more serious and worse, and their response to each new activity to fix the problems has actually gotten worse and even worse and even worse."
Wall Street’s few staying giants experienced deep share declines on Thursday. Morgan Stanley, which along with rival Goldman Sachs Group abandoned the independent brokerage model a few weeks ago to transform it self into a deposit-taking institution, plunged 26per cent. Merrill Lynch, which includes decided to be sold to Bank of The united states, also dropped 26per cent. Goldman stocks had been down 10per cent.
Another organization very determined by free-flowing credit areas — student-loan giant SLM — declined 19percent. Investment manager Legg Mason plunged 25% and bond insurer Ambac Financial Group fell 29per cent. Insurer Prudential Financial dropped 23%. With so many companies experiencing such steep skids, the market’s anxiety gauges leapt. The Chicago Board Alternatives Exchange Volatility Index soared by 11percent to 63.92.
Lasting Treasury rates fell. The 10-year note shed 1-2/32 to yield 3.785per cent. The 30-year relationship had been off 1-16/32, yielding 4.121per cent. The buck strengthened against significant international rivals. The euro expense .3654, down from .3667 belated Wednesday. One dollar fetched 100.96 yen, up from 99.84 yen.
Peter Cardillo, primary marketplace economist at Avalon Partners, hoped that 9000 amount would hold as the lowest when it comes to Dow, signaling the crisis of confidence had run its training course. Alternatively, it today seems the bloodletting could continue for days much longer, about.
"It’s getting to a point where it really is every man for himself," said Mr. Cardillo. "whenever anxiety reaches that amount, you’re getting close to a bottom. But we’re demonstrably not there rather yet."
—Kevin McKay, Geoffrey Rogow and Rob Curran added for this articleWrite to Peter A. McKay at peter.mckay@wsj.com.

Nice Complimentary Credit File Government photos

Some cool no-cost credit history government photos:

UK 2010 election: imagine if the Spanish electoral system had been used?
free credit file government
Image by oledoe
Licence: This image and associated information is licensed under an innovative commons licence. Which means it is possible to replicate it at no cost, however must credit me personally for creating it and connect back to these pages, e.g. "(cc) oledoe flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md". If any political party or any other organisation or individual with governmental association or propensity utilizes these, they ought to make it clear that I am not endorsing them or other political party or cause.

UK 2010 “what if” general election outcomes
The united kingdom recently voted in a broad election therefore the outcome is a parliament without any party having an outright bulk. One of the problems being hotly debated is electoral reform, possibly altering from a plurality (first-past-the-post) system to a single of proportional representation. There are various designs for this, each with positives and negatives. Some look for to mirror the diverse views for the electorate since precisely as you possibly can, others reduce this precision for greater governability or sensed equity (e.g. amplifying or decreasing results for small events or areas).

This is certainly only a believed experiment to fulfill my desire for just what the UK parliament would seem like had the ballots in 2010 general election been cast in an unusual electoral system. The four examples offered are “pure proportional representation”, the Spanish system, the German system and counting the vootes in line with the d’Hondt method. Due to the differences in amounts of MPs, regions and amounts of ballots, the results of these examples are necessarily approximations. If these system ended up being utilized in the UK, it would very first have to be adjusted to its special situations. Lastly, numerous voters might have voted in a different way in an unusual system. Therefore, do add a grain of sodium to those results!

Actual British results for comparison: flic.kr/p/7Zv9yA
"Pure" proportional representation: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Gy
Spanish system: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md
German system: flic.kr/p/7ZrYpv
d’Hondt system: flic.kr/p/7ZZD7e

Note: so that you can attempt to illustrate possible majorities, I had to put the functions into some type of purchase from remaining to right. Since I have always been unfamiliar with most smaller parties, they might be in an order it doesn’t make much sense. No offence meant. I’d appreciate ideas for enhancement.

Note: the data resource may be the election result as reported by the BBC here: news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/election2010/results/ . During the time of writing, 649 off 650 seating being declared. Where appropriate to these calculations, I am assuming that the Conservatives will win the seat in Thirsk & Malton.

Note: in which applicable, I did not actually determine variety of seats using an approach including d’Hondt or Sainte-Laguë, as it is carried out in truth. Instead I simply utilized proportions and rounded the outcomes. This might lead to a difference of a seat or two every now and then according to which strategy is used.

— ABOUT THIS IMAGE —

This image ( flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md ) reveals the hypothetical result of the UK 2010 basic election if the seating in Parliament was allocated in accordance with the exact same system that chairs are allocated in Spanish Congreso de los Diputados. Truth be told there, each area gets a number of chairs in line with population dimensions, that are then distributed towards the functions proportionally relating to their leads to these areas. There is a 3per cent entry threshold, which means that parties who don’t get 3per cent of the vote, do not get any seating.

Hypothetical seat allocation within scenario:
Conventional: 240 seats
Labour: 199 seating
Liberal Democrat: 154 chairs
British Independence Party: 15 chairs
Scottish National Celebration: 11 seating
Democratic Unionist Party: 6 seating
Sinn Fein: 6 seats
British National Celebration: 5 seats
Plaid Cymru: 4 seats
Social Democratic & Labour celebration: 4 seating
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new energy: 4 chairs
Alliance Party: 1 chairs
Conventional Unionist Voice: 1 seats

So that you can approximate the Spanish electoral system utilising the Uk ballots, here’s what I did:

In place of the Spanish regions We used the 9 government workplace areas of England plus Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, leading to 12 regions. The Spanish Congreso de los Diputados has actually 350 chairs, whereas the united kingdom Parliament has 650 (which can be 1.86 times the maximum amount of). Therefore, rather than allocating 2 automatic seating to each area, we allocated 4 to every. The remaining 602 seats where allotted to the regions based on population information from the 2001 census ( www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001 ).

The Spanish system has a threshold of 3per cent of this vote for a celebration to get seats inside Congreso. I actually do perhaps not understand whether this limit is applied on the across the country results or within each area. But if it was applied to the entire British instead of by area, then just the big three plus UKIP would get any chairs, barring such events because the SNP or Plaid Cymru from entry into Parliament (ultimately punishing all of them for maybe not fielding prospects in England). Since I have never believe that such a system would previously be contemplated, I used the 3percent limit within each area. Therefore, the seating for every single area are distributed proportionately between all parties that received at least 3percent of the vote for the reason that area.

For completeness, here are the intermediate figures associated with computations:

FEW SEATING:
Region :: Population :: Pop per cent :: automated seats :: chairs for pop :: Total chairs
Scotland :: 5,062,011 :: 8.61% :: 4 :: 52 :: 56
Wales :: 2,903,085 :: 4.94per cent :: 4 :: 30 :: 34
Northern Ireland :: 1,685,267 :: 2.87per cent :: 4 :: 17 :: 21
North-west :: 6,729,764 :: 11.45percent :: 4 :: 69 :: 73
North East :: 2,515,442 :: 4.28% :: 4 :: 26 :: 30
Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: 4,964,833 :: 8.45percent :: 4 :: 51 :: 55
East Midlands :: 4,172,174 :: 7.10percent :: 4 :: 43 :: 47
Western Midlands :: 5,267,308 :: 8.96per cent :: 4 :: 54 :: 58
Eastern :: 5,388,140 :: 9.17per cent :: 4 :: 55 :: 59
South East :: 8,000,645 :: 13.61per cent :: 4 :: 82 :: 86
South West :: 4,928,434 :: 8.38% :: 4 :: 50 :: 54
London :: 7,172,091 :: 12.20% :: 4 :: 73 :: 77
TOTAL :: 58,789,194 :: 100.00per cent :: 48 :: 602 :: 650

SEATS with PARTY BY REGION (only those functions with 3percent or higher regarding the ballots in that area):

Scotland :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Labour :: 1035528 :: 0.43 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 465471 :: 0.19 :: 11
Scottish National Celebration :: 491386 :: 0.2 :: 11
Traditional :: 412855 :: 0.17 :: 10
Total :: 2405240 :: 1 :: 56

Wales :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Labour :: 531601 :: 0.39 :: 13
Conventional :: 382730 :: 0.28 :: 9
Liberal Democrat :: 295164 :: 0.21 :: 7
Plaid Cymru :: 165394 :: 0.12 :: 4
Total :: 1374889 :: 1 :: 34

Northern Ireland :: Ballots :: percent :: Chairs
Democratic Unionist Celebration :: 168216 :: 0.27 :: 6
Sinn Fein :: 171942 :: 0.28 :: 6
Social Democratic & Labour celebration :: 110970 :: 0.18 :: 4
Alliance Celebration :: 42762 :: 0.07 :: 1
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new power :: 102361 :: 0.16 :: 3
Traditional Unionist Voice :: 26300 :: 0.04 :: 1
Total :: 622551 :: 1 :: 21

North West :: Ballots :: percent :: Seats
Labour :: 1292978 :: 0.41 :: 30
Traditional :: 1038967 :: 0.33 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 707770 :: 0.23 :: 16
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 103782 :: 0.03 :: 2
Complete :: 3143497 :: 1 :: 73

North-east :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Labour :: 518261 :: 0.46 :: 14
Traditional :: 282347 :: 0.25 :: 7
Liberal Democrat :: 280468 :: 0.25 :: 7
British National Party :: 51940 :: 0.05 :: 1
Total :: 1133016 :: 1 :: 30

Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: Votes :: percent :: chairs
Labour :: 821368 :: 0.37 :: 20
Conservative :: 769895 :: 0.34 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 543684 :: 0.24 :: 13
British National Celebration :: 104177 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2239124 :: 1 :: 55

East Midlands :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Conventional :: 915933 :: 0.42 :: 20
Labour :: 661813 :: 0.3 :: 14
Liberal Democrat :: 462988 :: 0.21 :: 10
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Celebration :: 72659 :: 0.03 :: 2
British Nationwide Party :: 69706 :: 0.03 :: 1
Complete :: 2183099 :: 1 :: 47

West Midlands :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Traditional :: 1044081 :: 0.42 :: 24
Labour :: 808114 :: 0.32 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 540160 :: 0.22 :: 13
British Independence Celebration :: 106273 :: 0.04 :: 2
Complete :: 2498628 :: 1 :: 58

Eastern :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Conventional :: 1356739 :: 0.5 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 692932 :: 0.25 :: 15
Labour :: 564581 :: 0.21 :: 12
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 123437 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2737689 :: 1 :: 59

South-east :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Conservative :: 2140895 :: 0.52 :: 44
Liberal Democrat :: 1124786 :: 0.27 :: 23
Labour :: 697567 :: 0.17 :: 14
UK Independence Celebration :: 177269 :: 0.04 :: 4
Complete :: 4140517 :: 1 :: 86

South-west :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Conventional :: 1187637 :: 0.44 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 962954 :: 0.36 :: 19
Labour :: 426910 :: 0.16 :: 9
British Independence Party :: 123975 :: 0.05 :: 2
Complete :: 2701476 :: 1 :: 54

London :: Ballots :: per cent :: Chairs
Labour :: 1245637 :: 0.39 :: 30
Traditional :: 1174568 :: 0.37 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 751561 :: 0.24 :: 18
Total :: 3171766 :: 1 :: 77

Opening May plenary session
free credit report federal government
Image by European Parliament
The EP’s position from the future negotiations for a trade arrangement between the EU and US are finalised through the May plenary. MEPs will also vote on resolutions to bolster media freedom, reports in the progress made by Bosnia and past Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia towards joining the EU as well as the dates the 2014 European elections. They will in addition encourage EU governing bodies to step-up the battle against tax evasion prior to the EU summit on Wednesday dedicated to this problem.

Read more: www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/content/20130517…

These photographs are copyright free, but needs to be credited: © Eu 2013 – European Parliament. (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Commons permit). If you need high definition files usually do not hesitate to call us. Kindly do not forget to send the hyperlink or a duplicate of publication to united states: webcom-flickr(AT)europarl.europa.eu

33_and in 1860 27 per cent regarding the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
free credit file federal government
Image by Jim Surkamp

Hamilton Hatter role 2 – publications would be the Holy path TRT: 25:43s
youtu.be/H95odtzcU1k

Browse script with matching photos –

1_My_Heart_Is_In_The_Mountains.jpg
(songs) mama of limestone fountains! My heart extends back using establishing sunshine — My heart, my heart is within the Mountains!

2_The “Most Exceptional” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (songs) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,

3_seizes opportunities to find out and over come
Hamilton Hatter seizes possibilities to find out and over come. At one university he builds youthful thoughts plus its structures –

4_then launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia
after that launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia once more – building thoughts – and buildings. But first he had to overcome. (music)

5_and I am able to rejoice today inside belief your CLASS GOES ON
"and I Could rejoice today when you look at the belief that THE CLASS IS CERTAINLY GOING ON!”

6_The children had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years of age
The kids had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years old, nicely and comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful,

7_intelligent countenances
with an unusual assortment of acceptable and intelligent countenances peering on the tops of the desks.

8_Northern reporter John Trowbridge found Charlestown
North reporter John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summertime of 1865, a war-worn town

9_with its ruins and seething
along with its ruins and seething and six months before Hatter’s school was exposed here.

10_Trowbridge reached Charlestown
Trowbridge attained Charlestown in about might, 1865 anticipating nothing in particular.

11_At the termination of an extended hour’s ride
At the conclusion of a lengthy time’s trip, we arrived at Charles Town, mainly of great interest in my opinion due to the fact host to John Brown’s martyrdom.

12_on the edge of boundless unfenced industries
We alighted from the train in the edge of boundless unfenced areas, into whoever melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied by themselves – streams to that particular ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected feminine sitting,

13_sorrowfully from the wayside
sorrowfully regarding the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses dropped negligently about functions which could as soon as being attractive.

14_On the tips of a boarding household
In the tips of a boarding residence i discovered an acquaintance whoever countenance gleamed with satisfaction

15_“at sight,” as he stated, “of an individual devoted face
“at picture,” as he said, “of a single loyal face because nest of secession.” He’d already been two or three days within the location waiting around for baggage which was in fact miscarried.

16_the belief toward secession through the entire County before the Civil War varied extensively
While Jefferson County, West Virginia continues to be little, the belief toward secession through the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist belief in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large facilities.

17_“They are all Rebels right here – all rebels!”
“They are typical Rebels here – all rebels!” he exclaimed while he took his cane and stepped beside me. “They tend to be a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there’s absolutely no profit the spot, and barely anything to consume.

18_We have actually for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We now have for morning meal salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for lunch. At supper, the fare is slightly diverse, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason.

19_My landlady’ s child is south fire incarnate
My landlady’ s girl is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern folks in addition to government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Often I venture to resolve this lady, whenever she flies at me, figuratively talking, like a cat. The ladies aren’t the only out-spoken Rebels, even though they would be the worst.

20_The males don’t think twice to declare their particular sentiments
The guys don’t think twice to declare their sentiments, in period and out of season.” My buddy determined with this specific figure:

21_The war sensation the following is like a burning bush with a wet blanket
“The war sensation let me reveal like a burning-bush with a wet blanket covered around it. Viewed through the outside, the fire appears quenched. But simply peep underneath the blanket and truth be told there its, all alive and eating, consuming in. The wet blanket is the present government plan; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is permitting in such air to feed the fire.”

22_The time Hamilton came to be
The day Hamilton was born in April, 1856,

23_36-year-old Frank Hatter seems to be working
his daddy 36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working certainly one of Washington family homesteads into the County and

24_his mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord ended up being working
most useful evidence shows their mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord had been using the household Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their particular Charles Town house at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.

25_or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, whom lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors regarding the big landowner here, Logan Osburn.
it is unclear whether Hamilton, his cousin George (who had been born in 1853) and his sibling Charlotte (created in 1858) existed using their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, just who lived-in Kabletown, and being next-door neighbors of large landowner here, Logan Osburn.

26_School may be the Holy path
Class could be the Holy path Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868

27_Once the totally free will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a college
After the complimentary will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a school to teach those today freed,

28_Hamilton each day would go to the school
Hamilton every day would go into school in Charles Town for freed African-Americans in which

29_he would dedicate the newest act
he would dedicate the brand new work of learning to read, compose and think critically,

30_setting his footsteps regarding the long, hard but enthralling roa
establishing their footsteps on the lengthy, difficult but enthralling road to large grant and achievement.

31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of the women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, ended up being one of many ladies coming from Maine borne by their complimentary will most likely Baptist faith to begin Mission institutes in places like Charlestown.

32_They were determined to release the thoughts
They were determined to release the minds of only freed African-Americans –

33_and in 1860 27 percent associated with the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
plus 1860 27 per cent of this County’s residents had been enslaved people. Multiple had opted during war. Dudley, in addition a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,

34_and two various other teachers
as well as 2 other teachers who does show at Charlestown

35_came straight down by ship and train
arrived down by ship and train,

36_likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.

37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Skip Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach-in the Charlestown Mission college too.

38_Dudley penned Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley published Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight miles from Charles Town: “I am going to Charlestown to open a college there a few weeks.

39_The nature that hung John Brown however life
The nature that hung John Brown nevertheless life, plus the individuals are highly against schools the Freedman indeed there, also right here.

40_I-go alone
I go alone, but I trust the law and also the Lord will protect myself.”

41_townspeople at best had been okay with training
More the townspeople at the best had been okay with training

42_but having refined feamales in public connection
those as soon as enslaved, but having processed ladies in public connection with those they when had enslaved breeched a hackneyed presumption.

43_lady regarding the town to associate with such a woman eg Miss Dudley
And a lady for the city to associate with these types of a female particularly skip Dudley from elsewhere – worse nevertheless from a Yankee condition – would-be a personal suicide in Charlestown.

44_Dudley composed: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding location for almost 2 months”
Dudley penned: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding place for almost 8 weeks (for it would have been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee educators while the

45_there could be no return to pals and society
Rubicon as soon as passed, there might be no return to buddies and culture, no more than on the hills of caste in Asia, as community belief ended up being)

46_so I became here alone
thus I had been here alone, boarding myself and teaching night and day,

47_until I had 150 scholars of ages and complexions”
until I experienced 150 scholars of centuries and complexions” training the rudiments of reading to any or all “from white to black,

48_and of all of the many years
as well as all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” With this shunning, Dudley could only discover board and a school space all

49_freed African United States blacksmith
in solitary roofing of freed African United states blacksmith Achilles Dixon along with his partner.

50_southeast part of Samuel and Liberty streets
It had been on the southeast part of Samuel and Liberty roads.

51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – formally the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. Initially arranged in July, 1865, – 30 days after Trowbridge’s go to –

52_crucial part enforcing the legal rights
the Bureau stretched its jurisdiction on Eastern Panhandle seeing the requirement and played a vital role implementing the legal rights associated with the

53_when the western Virginia local government ended up being not able
recently freed and their educators at a time whenever West Virginia local government had been incapable of do so, particularly in Jefferson County.

54_the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s lease
Actually, the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent so she could have a college room, albeit just fifteen sqft. After being confronted by a mob, the soldiers using Freedmen’s Bureau gave her an escort.

55_Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter during the mind of my sleep during the night,

56_resolved to sell my entire life as dearly as possible – if you need to
resolved to sell my entire life as dearly possible – if necessary.”

57_to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two instructors
Overwhelmed by work that prompted home Mission Society to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers rather than one in the springtime of 1866, Dudley wrote that February:

58_No it’s possible to previously understand the anxiety i’ve sensed
“No you can ever know the anxiety I have felt, additionally the energy i’ve needed to make these two long months, since I have came here, occupying a harsh wood household, cool as a barn, teaching and boarding in identical rooms because i possibly could perhaps not get board elsewhere, resting there without any guy or son inside your home for single night, although the opponents regarding the school had been threatening without, and not knowing just what next time might deliver; hearing 100 different scholars recite lessons in one day. doing my personal work, obtaining company, writing letters, etc. etc. and I also can rejoice today into the belief that IT WILL CONTINUE!”

59_Every time coming through the little home
Daily coming through little door was the woman fondest hope.

60_Strother described them
Strother described all of them: The room is obviously full to overflowing.

61_reduced one-half due to the necessity
In summer the attendance is decreased one-half due to the requirement of this older pupils going on to service,

62_remunerative labor of some kind
or engaging in remunerative work of some sort.

63_comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful
The children had been of both sexes, nicely and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an unusual array of pleasant and smart countenances peering over the tops for the desks. These people were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,

64_rudeness related to the street-corner brat
without a trace of this barbaric squalor and rudeness with respect to the street-corner brat of former times, sometimes found today among those who didn’t visit college.

He continues on:

65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
As the most the students attended into existence considering that the Emancipation Proclamation, there clearly was however lots more than that event, plus some whose recollections antedate the truly amazing war. Yet within their profession of schooling they have all started even.

66_It are often seen that great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones
It might probably additionally be observed that the great scholars usually are outstripped by the kids, which just visits verify the typically gotten viewpoint that younger plants tend to be more effortlessly transplanted and trained than older ones more positively true at heart and morals compared to horticulture.

67_i will never forget the oft repeated prayer
Dudley published to "The day Star," the complimentary will most likely Baptist book: all of the colored men and women manifested the greatest kindness towards united states. I will remember the oft-repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the instructor which comes a far distance to show united states. Front and fight the woman battles and deliver her safe home to Glory, if you be sure to Jesus.”

The main focus shifted to presenting a permanent school building. State legislation, due to amendments in 1865, segregated pupils by race. State legislation by 1867, additionally required going the duty of providing knowledge to African Us citizens

68_from the goal schools towards regional college board.
through the objective schools towards neighborhood school board. But before a reorganization eliminated the Freedman’s Bureau entirely from Jefferson County in October, 1868,

69_the new school, supplying some 20,000 bricks and money for materials
Bureau management prodded the Charlestown’s college board to building this new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for products to match profits the township college board was to gather to construct the permanent college for its African Americans. The college under new administration unsealed with time the fall program in 1868.

70_The Freedmen Bureau males in addition engineered a match. It resulted in a determination by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit judge reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling ended up being circulated and became getting a de facto plan through the state.

71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) wrote in her own diary: “And right here, i have to confess your instructors at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert your colored individuals of their particular charges will compare positively with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much.”

72_Wrote Strother how the class Board finally came around
Wrote Strother how the class Board eventually emerged around, tossing their reduced objectives: The County Commission of Examiners report many positively associated with general cleverness exhibited by the colored students, and of their particular progress in all the primary limbs of common-school knowledge.

73_One of this bright faces into the class
The brilliant faces in the class room to profit was the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, which saw

74_his world starting
his world opening and vast through reading, it absolutely was the trail to his future.

Main Credits:

With generous, community-minded assistance from American Public University program. (The sentiments within manufacturing never by any means mirror modern-day guidelines of APUS). Much more at apus.edu

Investigated, Written, Developed, Narrated – Jim Surkamp

Musicians
"My Heart is within the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (general public domain) songs by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright laws logo) 2010, GHF Music, (terrytucker.net)

Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (cammillar.com)

Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright laws Shana Aisenberg. (shanasongs.com)

Sound FX:
children playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free sfx.uk.com”

Sources:

Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An United states Phoenix: a brief history of Storer College from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer Printing House.

Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s brand new Monthly mag, nyc, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 concern 292 (September, 1874).

Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land where we had been dreaming, as well as other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, shared ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.

“Sarah Jane Foster: instructor of this Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine girl in the South After the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.

Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Western Virginia.” West Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.

Taylor, James L. “A History of Ebony Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966.”

Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The Southern: a trip of the battlefields and ruined locations, a trip through desolated says, and talks using men and women: being a description of this current state associated with the country – its farming – railroads – business and funds.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.