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UK 2010 election: imagine if the Spanish electoral system had been used?
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Image by oledoe
Licence: This image and associated information is licensed under an innovative commons licence. Which means it is possible to replicate it at no cost, however must credit me personally for creating it and connect back to these pages, e.g. "(cc) oledoe flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md". If any political party or any other organisation or individual with governmental association or propensity utilizes these, they ought to make it clear that I am not endorsing them or other political party or cause.

UK 2010 “what if” general election outcomes
The united kingdom recently voted in a broad election therefore the outcome is a parliament without any party having an outright bulk. One of the problems being hotly debated is electoral reform, possibly altering from a plurality (first-past-the-post) system to a single of proportional representation. There are various designs for this, each with positives and negatives. Some look for to mirror the diverse views for the electorate since precisely as you possibly can, others reduce this precision for greater governability or sensed equity (e.g. amplifying or decreasing results for small events or areas).

This is certainly only a believed experiment to fulfill my desire for just what the UK parliament would seem like had the ballots in 2010 general election been cast in an unusual electoral system. The four examples offered are “pure proportional representation”, the Spanish system, the German system and counting the vootes in line with the d’Hondt method. Due to the differences in amounts of MPs, regions and amounts of ballots, the results of these examples are necessarily approximations. If these system ended up being utilized in the UK, it would very first have to be adjusted to its special situations. Lastly, numerous voters might have voted in a different way in an unusual system. Therefore, do add a grain of sodium to those results!

Actual British results for comparison: flic.kr/p/7Zv9yA
"Pure" proportional representation: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Gy
Spanish system: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md
German system: flic.kr/p/7ZrYpv
d’Hondt system: flic.kr/p/7ZZD7e

Note: so that you can attempt to illustrate possible majorities, I had to put the functions into some type of purchase from remaining to right. Since I have always been unfamiliar with most smaller parties, they might be in an order it doesn’t make much sense. No offence meant. I’d appreciate ideas for enhancement.

Note: the data resource may be the election result as reported by the BBC here: news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/election2010/results/ . During the time of writing, 649 off 650 seating being declared. Where appropriate to these calculations, I am assuming that the Conservatives will win the seat in Thirsk & Malton.

Note: in which applicable, I did not actually determine variety of seats using an approach including d’Hondt or Sainte-Laguë, as it is carried out in truth. Instead I simply utilized proportions and rounded the outcomes. This might lead to a difference of a seat or two every now and then according to which strategy is used.

— ABOUT THIS IMAGE —

This image ( flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md ) reveals the hypothetical result of the UK 2010 basic election if the seating in Parliament was allocated in accordance with the exact same system that chairs are allocated in Spanish Congreso de los Diputados. Truth be told there, each area gets a number of chairs in line with population dimensions, that are then distributed towards the functions proportionally relating to their leads to these areas. There is a 3per cent entry threshold, which means that parties who don’t get 3per cent of the vote, do not get any seating.

Hypothetical seat allocation within scenario:
Conventional: 240 seats
Labour: 199 seating
Liberal Democrat: 154 chairs
British Independence Party: 15 chairs
Scottish National Celebration: 11 seating
Democratic Unionist Party: 6 seating
Sinn Fein: 6 seats
British National Celebration: 5 seats
Plaid Cymru: 4 seats
Social Democratic & Labour celebration: 4 seating
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new energy: 4 chairs
Alliance Party: 1 chairs
Conventional Unionist Voice: 1 seats

So that you can approximate the Spanish electoral system utilising the Uk ballots, here’s what I did:

In place of the Spanish regions We used the 9 government workplace areas of England plus Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, leading to 12 regions. The Spanish Congreso de los Diputados has actually 350 chairs, whereas the united kingdom Parliament has 650 (which can be 1.86 times the maximum amount of). Therefore, rather than allocating 2 automatic seating to each area, we allocated 4 to every. The remaining 602 seats where allotted to the regions based on population information from the 2001 census ( www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001 ).

The Spanish system has a threshold of 3per cent of this vote for a celebration to get seats inside Congreso. I actually do perhaps not understand whether this limit is applied on the across the country results or within each area. But if it was applied to the entire British instead of by area, then just the big three plus UKIP would get any chairs, barring such events because the SNP or Plaid Cymru from entry into Parliament (ultimately punishing all of them for maybe not fielding prospects in England). Since I have never believe that such a system would previously be contemplated, I used the 3percent limit within each area. Therefore, the seating for every single area are distributed proportionately between all parties that received at least 3percent of the vote for the reason that area.

For completeness, here are the intermediate figures associated with computations:

FEW SEATING:
Region :: Population :: Pop per cent :: automated seats :: chairs for pop :: Total chairs
Scotland :: 5,062,011 :: 8.61% :: 4 :: 52 :: 56
Wales :: 2,903,085 :: 4.94per cent :: 4 :: 30 :: 34
Northern Ireland :: 1,685,267 :: 2.87per cent :: 4 :: 17 :: 21
North-west :: 6,729,764 :: 11.45percent :: 4 :: 69 :: 73
North East :: 2,515,442 :: 4.28% :: 4 :: 26 :: 30
Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: 4,964,833 :: 8.45percent :: 4 :: 51 :: 55
East Midlands :: 4,172,174 :: 7.10percent :: 4 :: 43 :: 47
Western Midlands :: 5,267,308 :: 8.96per cent :: 4 :: 54 :: 58
Eastern :: 5,388,140 :: 9.17per cent :: 4 :: 55 :: 59
South East :: 8,000,645 :: 13.61per cent :: 4 :: 82 :: 86
South West :: 4,928,434 :: 8.38% :: 4 :: 50 :: 54
London :: 7,172,091 :: 12.20% :: 4 :: 73 :: 77
TOTAL :: 58,789,194 :: 100.00per cent :: 48 :: 602 :: 650

SEATS with PARTY BY REGION (only those functions with 3percent or higher regarding the ballots in that area):

Scotland :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Labour :: 1035528 :: 0.43 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 465471 :: 0.19 :: 11
Scottish National Celebration :: 491386 :: 0.2 :: 11
Traditional :: 412855 :: 0.17 :: 10
Total :: 2405240 :: 1 :: 56

Wales :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Labour :: 531601 :: 0.39 :: 13
Conventional :: 382730 :: 0.28 :: 9
Liberal Democrat :: 295164 :: 0.21 :: 7
Plaid Cymru :: 165394 :: 0.12 :: 4
Total :: 1374889 :: 1 :: 34

Northern Ireland :: Ballots :: percent :: Chairs
Democratic Unionist Celebration :: 168216 :: 0.27 :: 6
Sinn Fein :: 171942 :: 0.28 :: 6
Social Democratic & Labour celebration :: 110970 :: 0.18 :: 4
Alliance Celebration :: 42762 :: 0.07 :: 1
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new power :: 102361 :: 0.16 :: 3
Traditional Unionist Voice :: 26300 :: 0.04 :: 1
Total :: 622551 :: 1 :: 21

North West :: Ballots :: percent :: Seats
Labour :: 1292978 :: 0.41 :: 30
Traditional :: 1038967 :: 0.33 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 707770 :: 0.23 :: 16
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 103782 :: 0.03 :: 2
Complete :: 3143497 :: 1 :: 73

North-east :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Labour :: 518261 :: 0.46 :: 14
Traditional :: 282347 :: 0.25 :: 7
Liberal Democrat :: 280468 :: 0.25 :: 7
British National Party :: 51940 :: 0.05 :: 1
Total :: 1133016 :: 1 :: 30

Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: Votes :: percent :: chairs
Labour :: 821368 :: 0.37 :: 20
Conservative :: 769895 :: 0.34 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 543684 :: 0.24 :: 13
British National Celebration :: 104177 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2239124 :: 1 :: 55

East Midlands :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Conventional :: 915933 :: 0.42 :: 20
Labour :: 661813 :: 0.3 :: 14
Liberal Democrat :: 462988 :: 0.21 :: 10
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Celebration :: 72659 :: 0.03 :: 2
British Nationwide Party :: 69706 :: 0.03 :: 1
Complete :: 2183099 :: 1 :: 47

West Midlands :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Traditional :: 1044081 :: 0.42 :: 24
Labour :: 808114 :: 0.32 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 540160 :: 0.22 :: 13
British Independence Celebration :: 106273 :: 0.04 :: 2
Complete :: 2498628 :: 1 :: 58

Eastern :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Conventional :: 1356739 :: 0.5 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 692932 :: 0.25 :: 15
Labour :: 564581 :: 0.21 :: 12
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 123437 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2737689 :: 1 :: 59

South-east :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Conservative :: 2140895 :: 0.52 :: 44
Liberal Democrat :: 1124786 :: 0.27 :: 23
Labour :: 697567 :: 0.17 :: 14
UK Independence Celebration :: 177269 :: 0.04 :: 4
Complete :: 4140517 :: 1 :: 86

South-west :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Conventional :: 1187637 :: 0.44 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 962954 :: 0.36 :: 19
Labour :: 426910 :: 0.16 :: 9
British Independence Party :: 123975 :: 0.05 :: 2
Complete :: 2701476 :: 1 :: 54

London :: Ballots :: per cent :: Chairs
Labour :: 1245637 :: 0.39 :: 30
Traditional :: 1174568 :: 0.37 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 751561 :: 0.24 :: 18
Total :: 3171766 :: 1 :: 77

Opening May plenary session
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Image by European Parliament
The EP’s position from the future negotiations for a trade arrangement between the EU and US are finalised through the May plenary. MEPs will also vote on resolutions to bolster media freedom, reports in the progress made by Bosnia and past Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia towards joining the EU as well as the dates the 2014 European elections. They will in addition encourage EU governing bodies to step-up the battle against tax evasion prior to the EU summit on Wednesday dedicated to this problem.

Read more: www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/content/20130517…

These photographs are copyright free, but needs to be credited: © Eu 2013 – European Parliament. (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Commons permit). If you need high definition files usually do not hesitate to call us. Kindly do not forget to send the hyperlink or a duplicate of publication to united states: webcom-flickr(AT)europarl.europa.eu

33_and in 1860 27 per cent regarding the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
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Image by Jim Surkamp

Hamilton Hatter role 2 – publications would be the Holy path TRT: 25:43s
youtu.be/H95odtzcU1k

Browse script with matching photos –

1_My_Heart_Is_In_The_Mountains.jpg
(songs) mama of limestone fountains! My heart extends back using establishing sunshine — My heart, my heart is within the Mountains!

2_The “Most Exceptional” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (songs) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,

3_seizes opportunities to find out and over come
Hamilton Hatter seizes possibilities to find out and over come. At one university he builds youthful thoughts plus its structures –

4_then launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia
after that launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia once more – building thoughts – and buildings. But first he had to overcome. (music)

5_and I am able to rejoice today inside belief your CLASS GOES ON
"and I Could rejoice today when you look at the belief that THE CLASS IS CERTAINLY GOING ON!”

6_The children had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years of age
The kids had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years old, nicely and comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful,

7_intelligent countenances
with an unusual assortment of acceptable and intelligent countenances peering on the tops of the desks.

8_Northern reporter John Trowbridge found Charlestown
North reporter John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summertime of 1865, a war-worn town

9_with its ruins and seething
along with its ruins and seething and six months before Hatter’s school was exposed here.

10_Trowbridge reached Charlestown
Trowbridge attained Charlestown in about might, 1865 anticipating nothing in particular.

11_At the termination of an extended hour’s ride
At the conclusion of a lengthy time’s trip, we arrived at Charles Town, mainly of great interest in my opinion due to the fact host to John Brown’s martyrdom.

12_on the edge of boundless unfenced industries
We alighted from the train in the edge of boundless unfenced areas, into whoever melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied by themselves – streams to that particular ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected feminine sitting,

13_sorrowfully from the wayside
sorrowfully regarding the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses dropped negligently about functions which could as soon as being attractive.

14_On the tips of a boarding household
In the tips of a boarding residence i discovered an acquaintance whoever countenance gleamed with satisfaction

15_“at sight,” as he stated, “of an individual devoted face
“at picture,” as he said, “of a single loyal face because nest of secession.” He’d already been two or three days within the location waiting around for baggage which was in fact miscarried.

16_the belief toward secession through the entire County before the Civil War varied extensively
While Jefferson County, West Virginia continues to be little, the belief toward secession through the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist belief in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large facilities.

17_“They are all Rebels right here – all rebels!”
“They are typical Rebels here – all rebels!” he exclaimed while he took his cane and stepped beside me. “They tend to be a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there’s absolutely no profit the spot, and barely anything to consume.

18_We have actually for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We now have for morning meal salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for lunch. At supper, the fare is slightly diverse, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason.

19_My landlady’ s child is south fire incarnate
My landlady’ s girl is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern folks in addition to government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Often I venture to resolve this lady, whenever she flies at me, figuratively talking, like a cat. The ladies aren’t the only out-spoken Rebels, even though they would be the worst.

20_The males don’t think twice to declare their particular sentiments
The guys don’t think twice to declare their sentiments, in period and out of season.” My buddy determined with this specific figure:

21_The war sensation the following is like a burning bush with a wet blanket
“The war sensation let me reveal like a burning-bush with a wet blanket covered around it. Viewed through the outside, the fire appears quenched. But simply peep underneath the blanket and truth be told there its, all alive and eating, consuming in. The wet blanket is the present government plan; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is permitting in such air to feed the fire.”

22_The time Hamilton came to be
The day Hamilton was born in April, 1856,

23_36-year-old Frank Hatter seems to be working
his daddy 36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working certainly one of Washington family homesteads into the County and

24_his mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord ended up being working
most useful evidence shows their mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord had been using the household Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their particular Charles Town house at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.

25_or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, whom lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors regarding the big landowner here, Logan Osburn.
it is unclear whether Hamilton, his cousin George (who had been born in 1853) and his sibling Charlotte (created in 1858) existed using their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, just who lived-in Kabletown, and being next-door neighbors of large landowner here, Logan Osburn.

26_School may be the Holy path
Class could be the Holy path Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868

27_Once the totally free will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a college
After the complimentary will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a school to teach those today freed,

28_Hamilton each day would go to the school
Hamilton every day would go into school in Charles Town for freed African-Americans in which

29_he would dedicate the newest act
he would dedicate the brand new work of learning to read, compose and think critically,

30_setting his footsteps regarding the long, hard but enthralling roa
establishing their footsteps on the lengthy, difficult but enthralling road to large grant and achievement.

31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of the women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, ended up being one of many ladies coming from Maine borne by their complimentary will most likely Baptist faith to begin Mission institutes in places like Charlestown.

32_They were determined to release the thoughts
They were determined to release the minds of only freed African-Americans –

33_and in 1860 27 percent associated with the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
plus 1860 27 per cent of this County’s residents had been enslaved people. Multiple had opted during war. Dudley, in addition a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,

34_and two various other teachers
as well as 2 other teachers who does show at Charlestown

35_came straight down by ship and train
arrived down by ship and train,

36_likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.

37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Skip Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach-in the Charlestown Mission college too.

38_Dudley penned Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley published Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight miles from Charles Town: “I am going to Charlestown to open a college there a few weeks.

39_The nature that hung John Brown however life
The nature that hung John Brown nevertheless life, plus the individuals are highly against schools the Freedman indeed there, also right here.

40_I-go alone
I go alone, but I trust the law and also the Lord will protect myself.”

41_townspeople at best had been okay with training
More the townspeople at the best had been okay with training

42_but having refined feamales in public connection
those as soon as enslaved, but having processed ladies in public connection with those they when had enslaved breeched a hackneyed presumption.

43_lady regarding the town to associate with such a woman eg Miss Dudley
And a lady for the city to associate with these types of a female particularly skip Dudley from elsewhere – worse nevertheless from a Yankee condition – would-be a personal suicide in Charlestown.

44_Dudley composed: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding location for almost 2 months”
Dudley penned: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding place for almost 8 weeks (for it would have been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee educators while the

45_there could be no return to pals and society
Rubicon as soon as passed, there might be no return to buddies and culture, no more than on the hills of caste in Asia, as community belief ended up being)

46_so I became here alone
thus I had been here alone, boarding myself and teaching night and day,

47_until I had 150 scholars of ages and complexions”
until I experienced 150 scholars of centuries and complexions” training the rudiments of reading to any or all “from white to black,

48_and of all of the many years
as well as all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” With this shunning, Dudley could only discover board and a school space all

49_freed African United States blacksmith
in solitary roofing of freed African United states blacksmith Achilles Dixon along with his partner.

50_southeast part of Samuel and Liberty streets
It had been on the southeast part of Samuel and Liberty roads.

51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – formally the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. Initially arranged in July, 1865, – 30 days after Trowbridge’s go to –

52_crucial part enforcing the legal rights
the Bureau stretched its jurisdiction on Eastern Panhandle seeing the requirement and played a vital role implementing the legal rights associated with the

53_when the western Virginia local government ended up being not able
recently freed and their educators at a time whenever West Virginia local government had been incapable of do so, particularly in Jefferson County.

54_the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s lease
Actually, the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent so she could have a college room, albeit just fifteen sqft. After being confronted by a mob, the soldiers using Freedmen’s Bureau gave her an escort.

55_Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter during the mind of my sleep during the night,

56_resolved to sell my entire life as dearly as possible – if you need to
resolved to sell my entire life as dearly possible – if necessary.”

57_to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two instructors
Overwhelmed by work that prompted home Mission Society to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers rather than one in the springtime of 1866, Dudley wrote that February:

58_No it’s possible to previously understand the anxiety i’ve sensed
“No you can ever know the anxiety I have felt, additionally the energy i’ve needed to make these two long months, since I have came here, occupying a harsh wood household, cool as a barn, teaching and boarding in identical rooms because i possibly could perhaps not get board elsewhere, resting there without any guy or son inside your home for single night, although the opponents regarding the school had been threatening without, and not knowing just what next time might deliver; hearing 100 different scholars recite lessons in one day. doing my personal work, obtaining company, writing letters, etc. etc. and I also can rejoice today into the belief that IT WILL CONTINUE!”

59_Every time coming through the little home
Daily coming through little door was the woman fondest hope.

60_Strother described them
Strother described all of them: The room is obviously full to overflowing.

61_reduced one-half due to the necessity
In summer the attendance is decreased one-half due to the requirement of this older pupils going on to service,

62_remunerative labor of some kind
or engaging in remunerative work of some sort.

63_comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful
The children had been of both sexes, nicely and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an unusual array of pleasant and smart countenances peering over the tops for the desks. These people were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,

64_rudeness related to the street-corner brat
without a trace of this barbaric squalor and rudeness with respect to the street-corner brat of former times, sometimes found today among those who didn’t visit college.

He continues on:

65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
As the most the students attended into existence considering that the Emancipation Proclamation, there clearly was however lots more than that event, plus some whose recollections antedate the truly amazing war. Yet within their profession of schooling they have all started even.

66_It are often seen that great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones
It might probably additionally be observed that the great scholars usually are outstripped by the kids, which just visits verify the typically gotten viewpoint that younger plants tend to be more effortlessly transplanted and trained than older ones more positively true at heart and morals compared to horticulture.

67_i will never forget the oft repeated prayer
Dudley published to "The day Star," the complimentary will most likely Baptist book: all of the colored men and women manifested the greatest kindness towards united states. I will remember the oft-repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the instructor which comes a far distance to show united states. Front and fight the woman battles and deliver her safe home to Glory, if you be sure to Jesus.”

The main focus shifted to presenting a permanent school building. State legislation, due to amendments in 1865, segregated pupils by race. State legislation by 1867, additionally required going the duty of providing knowledge to African Us citizens

68_from the goal schools towards regional college board.
through the objective schools towards neighborhood school board. But before a reorganization eliminated the Freedman’s Bureau entirely from Jefferson County in October, 1868,

69_the new school, supplying some 20,000 bricks and money for materials
Bureau management prodded the Charlestown’s college board to building this new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for products to match profits the township college board was to gather to construct the permanent college for its African Americans. The college under new administration unsealed with time the fall program in 1868.

70_The Freedmen Bureau males in addition engineered a match. It resulted in a determination by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit judge reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling ended up being circulated and became getting a de facto plan through the state.

71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) wrote in her own diary: “And right here, i have to confess your instructors at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert your colored individuals of their particular charges will compare positively with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much.”

72_Wrote Strother how the class Board finally came around
Wrote Strother how the class Board eventually emerged around, tossing their reduced objectives: The County Commission of Examiners report many positively associated with general cleverness exhibited by the colored students, and of their particular progress in all the primary limbs of common-school knowledge.

73_One of this bright faces into the class
The brilliant faces in the class room to profit was the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, which saw

74_his world starting
his world opening and vast through reading, it absolutely was the trail to his future.

Main Credits:

With generous, community-minded assistance from American Public University program. (The sentiments within manufacturing never by any means mirror modern-day guidelines of APUS). Much more at apus.edu

Investigated, Written, Developed, Narrated – Jim Surkamp

Musicians
"My Heart is within the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (general public domain) songs by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright laws logo) 2010, GHF Music, (terrytucker.net)

Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (cammillar.com)

Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright laws Shana Aisenberg. (shanasongs.com)

Sound FX:
children playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free sfx.uk.com”

Sources:

Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An United states Phoenix: a brief history of Storer College from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer Printing House.

Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s brand new Monthly mag, nyc, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 concern 292 (September, 1874).

Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land where we had been dreaming, as well as other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, shared ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.

“Sarah Jane Foster: instructor of this Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine girl in the South After the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.

Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Western Virginia.” West Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.

Taylor, James L. “A History of Ebony Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966.”

Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The Southern: a trip of the battlefields and ruined locations, a trip through desolated says, and talks using men and women: being a description of this current state associated with the country – its farming – railroads – business and funds.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.

Nice Poor Credit photos

A few nice poor credit images I found:

Yesterday’s Flakes (10 Jan 2013) #1
poor credit
Image by Doundounba
It looks like this flake "accreted" many frozen water droplets on its back as it fell…

It was about -6C, the snow was falling in big, wet clumps, and there was also some water on the metal stairs… Not the best weather, and messy flakes as a result, but such is life., and still some nice photos to be taken!

First shots "in the wild" with my Poor Man’s MP-E: a Pentax-M 135mm F/3.5 coupled with a reversed Tamron Adaptall 28-70mm F/3.5-4.5 (159A). Macro range is 1.9:1 to 4.8:1. In the future, I think I’ll need to shoot a little more closed to get more DoF. This is F/11 on the zoom and F/8 on the 135mm.


IMPORTANT:

If you would like to use this photo in a way that is appropriate under its Creative Commons license, you are welcome to do so, but please make sure to credit me by my real name and Flickr handle, and please also include a link to the Flickr page of the photo, as well as a link to the relevant Creative Commons license text. I have put examples of proper attribution on my profile page. Optionally, you may also send me a little note about your use… 🙂

For any other type of use, please contact me to properly license this image.

Thank you!

(IMGP3846_Etc)

Flakes In Situ (March 22nd, 2014) #4
poor credit
Image by Doundounba
Bubbly snowflake. (The upper right branch had partially broken, so it was not in the same plane as the rest of the flake, and is thus slightly out of focus.)

Another 15cm of snow on March 22nd, about -3C as the snow was falling. Mix of larger and smaller flakes. Shot handheld, with another version of my Poor Man’s MP-E: Pentax-M 150mm F/3.5 with stacked, reversed Sigma 24-70mm F/3.5-5.6.


IMPORTANT:

If you would like to use this photo in a way that is appropriate under its Creative Commons license, you are welcome to do so, but please make sure to credit me by my real name and Flickr handle, and please also include a link to the Flickr page of the photo, as well as a link to the relevant Creative Commons license text. I have put examples of proper attribution on my profile page. Optionally, you may also send me a little note about your use… 🙂

For any other type of use, please contact me to properly license this image.

Thank you!

(IMGP5218_EtcBW)

Snow Crystal From the 17th of January
poor credit
Image by Doundounba
I love the gorgeous messiness of this snowflake, shot in-situ after it fell on the back stairs of my house.

This is a combination/stack of two handheld shots – I didn’t plan it that way, I just saw, when I came back inside, that I had a front-focused shot and a slightly less front-focused shot, and that the flake was too good to just let it go. A friend helped with the stacking, which, I’m sorry to say, wiped the EXIF.

Lens here was my Poor Man’s MP-E, a Pentax-M 135mm F/3.5 coupled with a reversed Tamron Adaptall 28-70mm F/3.5-4.5 (159A). This was also my first session trying off-camera wireless flash…


IMPORTANT:

If you would like to use this photo in a way that is appropriate under its Creative Commons license, you are welcome to do so, but please make sure to credit me by my real name and Flickr handle, and please also include a link to the Flickr page of the photo, as well as a link to the relevant Creative Commons license text. I have put examples of proper attribution on my profile page. Optionally, you may also send me a little note about your use… 🙂

For any other type of use, please contact me to properly license this image.

Thank you!

(SnowCrystalMergeV4)

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” scenic view

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free credit score government In the P-38 Lockheed designer Clarence “” Kelly” Johnson as well as his group of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine competitors ever flown by any type of country. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and also the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed a lot more Japanese airplane than pilots flying any kind of various other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, The U.S.A.’s leading boxer ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to examine an experimental technique of interconnecting the activity of the throttle and also prop control levers. Nonetheless, his appropriate engine blew up in flight before he can carry out the experiment.

Transferred from the USA Flying force.

Manufacturer:

Physical Summary:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine boxer; tricycle landing equipment.

– – – – -.

Pricing estimate < a href=" http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/artifact.cfm?id=A19500100000" rel =" nofollow" > Smithsonian National Air and also Room Gallery|Boeing B-29 Superfortress “” Enola Gay”“:

. Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was one of the most advanced propeller-driven bombing plane of World War II and the very first bomber to house its crew in pressurized areas. Although designed to combat in the European cinema, the B-29 discovered its particular niche beyond of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of airborne weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear tools.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO went down the very first atomic tool utilized in fight on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later on, Bockscar (on display at the United States Air Pressure Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a 2nd atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advancement weather condition reconnaissance aircraft that day. A 3rd B-29, The Great Artist, flew as an observation aircraft on both goals.

Moved from the USA Air Pressure.

Maker:
< a href=" http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/cons.cfm?id=1164" rel=" nofollow" > Boeing Airplane Co.< a href=" http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/cons.cfm?id=15148" rel=" nofollow" > Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945.

Native land:
United States of America.

Measurements:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16 in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9 lb., 141ft 15/16in.).

Products:
Sleek overall light weight aluminum surface.

Physical Summary:
Four-engine hefty bombing plane with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect proportion wings. Refined aluminum finish overall, basic late-World Battle II Military Air Forces insignia on wings and also aft body and also identification number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings paintinged in black; “” Enola Gay”” in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Nice auto Finance photos

A few nice auto finance pictures I found:

2013 V8 Dunlop Series – Test Day
car lease
Image by adrenalinmatt
April 18th 2013 Queensland Raceway

Kir’s Brand New VW
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Image by brentdanley
Kirsten traded in minivan yesterday for a Volkswagen Jetta. It is ideal for her; tiny and adorable with sexy lines. All I’d to do ended up being appear and signal the paperwork. She discovered the vehicle she desired, performed the study, and negotiated the financing.

Kenworth – Kenworth T270 1 – U.S.
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Kenworth Truck Company and PACCAR Financial announce a 2015 warranty Program for U.S. customers who buy brand new Kenworth Class 5-7 factory vehicles funded through PACCAR Financial. Kenworth customers may receive a 2-year / 200,000-mile basic car extended warranty by selecting PACCAR Financial to finance expenditures of the latest Kenworth Class 5-7 trucks. PACCAR Financial prices are offered for as low as 4.99 per cent for qualifying consumers in the usa. Rates tend to be at the mercy of alter, therefore consult your Kenworth dealership or PACCAR Financial. (U.S. version. When it comes to Canadian type of this picture, kindly visit: www.flickr.com/photos/truckpr/16452168800/)

Nice Reverse Mortgage photos

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Reverse Home mortgage Cover Web page
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Reverse Home loan Switch
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< img alt="reverse mortgage"src="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/24297183562_751e432964.jpg"size="400"/ > Photo by All Reverse Home mortgage This is a photo of a reverse mortgage switch. When utilizing this photo please provide photo credit scores(link)to: reverse.mortgage

Kind Credit Agencies photos

Some cool credit bureaus pictures:

Unidentified guy and girl at podium
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Image by Mississippi Division of Archives and History
Range: Mississippi Farm Bureau Federation Range
Call number: PI/2010.0002/Series II
System ID: 107781.
Backlink to the catalog

Unidentified guy and girl at podium.

Just see our account web page for all about ordering.

Scanned as TIFF in 2011/10/18 by MDAH.

Credit: due to the Mississippi Department of Archives and record

Cool Credit Rating photos

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“The Day the planet earth Stood Still,” 1951
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Image by classic_film
The 1951 science fiction film classic, "The Day our planet Stood Nevertheless," won a Golden world honor and in 2008, was placed as #5 on American movie Institute’s set of the 10 biggest films when you look at the Sci-Fi category.

Film synopsis, via Wikipedia:
"The Day our planet Stood Still" (a.k.a. "Farewell on Master" and "Journey towards World") is a 1951 black-and-white US science-fiction film from 20th Century Fox, produced by Julian Blaustein, directed by Robert smart, that stars Michael Rennie, Patricia Neal, Hugh Marlowe, and Sam Jaffe. The screenplay was compiled by Edmund H. North, on the basis of the 1940 science-fiction short-story, "Farewell on Master" by Harry Bates. The score ended up being composed by Bernard Herrmann.
 
In "The Day the planet earth Stood However," a humanoid alien customer known as Klaatu involves Earth, combined with a robust eight-foot-tall robot, Gort, to deliver a significant message that will impact the whole human race.
 
In 1995, the film was chosen for conservation in the usa National movie Registry as "culturally, typically, or aesthetically significant".

Movie trivia, via IMDb:
One reason why that Michael Rennie was cast as Klaatu was because he was generally speaking not known to United states audiences, and will be more readily acknowledged as an "alien" than a more identifiable actor. Studio head Darryl F. Zanuck had shown the script to Spencer Tracy, who was desperate to have fun with the part. Producer Julian Blaustein objected, saying that the audience could have many expectations concerning the character upon seeing an actor of these repute emerging through the flying saucer. Blaustein knew that Zanuck had the greatest control, if he insisted, Blaustein would either need to resign, or make the motion picture in an unsatisfactory means. Fortunately, Zanuck assented, and Rennie ended up being cast as an alternative.
 
Bernard Herrmann utilized two Theremins to produce his creepy score, one pitched higher, others lower, making this one of the primary films to feature a mostly electronic rating. The musical rating by Herrmann ended up being what inspired Danny Elfman becoming a composer.
 
To improve the sense of truth, several of the most famous broadcast journalists of that time period were employed doing cameos as on their own. These included Gabriel Heatter, H.V. Kaltenborn, and Received Pearson.
 
To provide the appearance of seamlessness towards the room ship, the break round the door had been filled up with putty, after that painted over. When the door exposed, the putty had been torn apart, making the doorway appear to simply appear. To depict the smooth closing for the ship and its own ramp, they simply reversed the film for the shot for the ship’s ramp and home showing up
 
Good movie’s Christian allegory, Klaatu adopts the name "Carpenter" when concealing right out of the authorities. Robert Wise hadn’t considered the Christian ramifications until it was pointed out to him several years later.
 
Patricia Neal features accepted in interviews that she was completely unaware throughout the recording your movie would turn-out so well, and turn the great science-fiction classics of them all. She thought it will be yet another among then-current and rather trashy flying saucer films, and she found challenging to help keep a straight face while saying her lines.
 
The Army refused to work after reading the script. The National Guard had no these types of qualms and happily provided their collaboration.
 
The crowds had been made up of town workers, including some from FBI offices, who had been expected to participate in the film. No releases had been required of staff members.
 
Writer Edmund H. North had been an old army officer whom penned the script as a result towards proliferation of nuclear tools throughout the cool War.
 
Doubles were utilized for Klaatu and Bobby in lengthy shots of those perambulating Washington, DC. In fact, nothing regarding the main cast previously went along to Washington, therefore the scenes with Klaatu and Bobby at Lincoln Memorial and at Arlington Cemetery were shot before background displays utilizing footage shot by the 2nd device team in Washington, DC.
 
Although he had been currently signed to try out the Einstein-like Professor Barnhardt, the studio desired to pull Sam Jaffe due to the governmental witch hunts which were after that underway. Producer Julian Blaustein appealed to studio chief Darryl F. Zanuck. Zanuck allowed Jaffe to play the role, nonetheless it will be Jaffe’s last Hollywood movie until the late 1950s.
 
The part of Gort was played by Lock Martin, the doorman from Grauman’s Chinese Theater, because he had been incredibly tall. However, he was unable to pick-up Helen because he had been so poor and had becoming aided by cables (in shots from the straight back in which he’s holding the lady, is in reality a lightweight dummy in his hands). He in addition had trouble aided by the hefty Gort suit and may just stay-in it for around a half time at any given time.
 
The term "Klaatu barada nikto" became a popular term among sci-fi fans through the years and has now already been showcased in other films, such as for example "Army of Darkness" (1992).
 
The scene regarding the large crowd fleeing the saucer location after Gort seems is all too demonstrably "sped up" film, making the chance search abnormal. The cause of the hasten movie result had been explained by manager Robert Wise in a job interview. It seems that, despite much pleading and cajoling from him, the group of inexperienced extras portraying the saucer onlookers merely wouldn’t move away from the saucer rapidly adequate to look panicky and convincing. After a few provides, smart finally must move ahead with filming and reluctantly permitted the scene becoming "sped up" in post manufacturing, realizing that the end result would look strange.

*********
Fair Use Doctrine; if you use this picture, please supply attribution credit; maybe not for commercial usage (see Creative Commons permit).

credit score picture
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Image by Frederick Virginia homes
keeping track of your credit score is essential.

Nice Credit Report Online photos

A few nice credit report online images I found:

Uganda – Regional Meeting on Sustainable Development in African Mountain Regions, November 2011 (Atari Village)
credit report online
Image by Mountain Partnership
Twenty years on from the first “Earth Summit” (Rio 1992) and in preparation to the Rio+20 Summit (June 2012), a World Mountain Conference was convened within the framework of the Mountain Partnership from 11 to 12 October 2011 in Lucerne, Switzerland. The main organizers of the event were the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss Federal Office for Spatial Development (ARE). With more than 100 participants representing governments, non-governmental organizations, academia, civil society, politics, business and the United Nations system, the two-day conference was intended to help mountains stand tall on the Rio+20 agenda, said Dr Daniel Maselli from the SDC.

On this occasion, a number of reports focusing on different mountain regions worldwide were presented and discussed and a Call for Action was prepared by the Conference Secretariat based on the inputs received by participants and experts. Mountains are trans-boundary and interdisciplinary, said Brice Lalonde, former Minister for Environment in France and Executive Coordinator for Rio+20. Therefore, the mountain voice must speak out in the context of international negotiations on water, energy, food security, planet monitoring, social issues and risk preparedness.

The Mountain Partnership invited its Members to include mountain-related inputs taken from the Call for Action in their submissions to the Compilation Document for UNCSD Rio+20. As a result, the word “mountain” occurred 2,728 times in 71 submissions. The Compilation Document formed the basis for the Zero Draft of the Outcome Document of Rio+20. On 10 January, the Zero Draft was made available online, with a whole paragraph directly addressing mountains.

Read more on the Lucerne World Mountain Conference
www.mountainpartnership.org/eventspage/lucerne.html

Read more on the Mountain Partnership’s involvement in the Rio+20 process
www.mountainpartnership.org/eventspage/rio/indexen.html

Photo credit: ©MPCAH/Alma Karsymbek

You are welcome to use the photos from the Mountain Partnership photo gallery for non-commercial use. Please provide appropriate attribution, including the name of the photographer.

Banksy in Boston: View of F̶O̶L̶L̶O̶W̶ ̶Y̶O̶U̶R̶ ̶D̶R̶E̶A̶M̶S̶ CANCELLED on Essex St, Chinatown, Boston, with rush hour traffic
credit report online
Image by Chris Devers
Interestingly, both of the Boston area Banksy pieces are on Essex St:

F̶O̶L̶L̶O̶W̶ ̶Y̶O̶U̶R̶ ̶D̶R̶E̶A̶M̶S̶ CANCELLED (aka chimney sweep) in Chinatown, Boston
NO LOITRIN in Central Square, Cambridge.

Does that mean anything? It looks like he favors Essex named streets & roads when he can. In 2008, he did another notable Essex work in London, for example, and posters on the Banksy Forums picked up & discussed on the Essex link as well.

Is there an Essex Street in any of the other nearby towns? It looks like there are several: Brookline, Charlestown, Chelsea, Gloucester, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lynn, Medford, Melrose, Quincy, Revere, Salem, Saugus, Somerville, Swampscott, and Waltham. Most of these seem improbable to me, other than maybe Brookline, or maybe Somerville or Charlestown. But they start getting pretty suburban after that.

But, again, why "Essex"? In a comment on this photo, Birbeck helps clarify:

I can only surmise that he’s having a ‘dig’ at Essex UK, especially with the misspelling of ‘Loitering’. Here, the general view of the urban districts in Essex: working class but with right wing views; that they’re not the most intellectual bunch; rather obsessed with fashion (well, their idea of it); their place of worship is the shopping mall; enjoy rowdy nights out; girls are thought of as being dumb, fake blonde hair/tans and promiscuous; and guys are good at the ‘chit chat’, and swagger around showing off their dosh (money).

It was also the region that once had Europe’s largest Ford motor factory. In its heyday, 1 in 3 British cars were made in Dagenham, Essex. Pay was good for such unskilled labour, generations worked mind-numbing routines on assembly lines for 80 years. In 2002 the recession ended the dream.

• • • • •

This photo appeared on Grafitti – A arte das ruas on Yahoo Meme. Yes, Yahoo has a Tumblr/Posterous-esque "Meme" service now — I was as surprised as you are.

• • • • •

Banksy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Banksy
Birth name
Unknown

Born
1974 or 1975 (1974 or 1975), Bristol, UK[1]

Nationality
British

Field
Graffiti
Street Art
Bristol underground scene
Sculpture

Movement
Anti-Totalitarianism
Anti-capitalism
Pacifism
Anti-War
Anarchism
Atheism
Anti-Fascism

Works
Naked Man Image
One Nation Under CCTV
Anarchist Rat
Ozone’s Angel
Pulp Fiction

Banksy is a pseudonymous[2][3][4] British graffiti artist. He is believed to be a native of Yate, South Gloucestershire, near Bristol[2] and to have been born in 1974,[5] but his identity is unknown.[6] According to Tristan Manco[who?], Banksy "was born in 1974 and raised in Bristol, England. The son of a photocopier technician, he trained as a butcher but became involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom of the late 1980s."[7] His artworks are often satirical pieces of art on topics such as politics, culture, and ethics. His street art, which combines graffiti writing with a distinctive stencilling technique, is similar to Blek le Rat, who began to work with stencils in 1981 in Paris and members of the anarcho-punk band Crass who maintained a graffiti stencil campaign on the London Tube System in the late 1970s and early 1980s. His art has appeared in cities around the world.[8] Banksy’s work was born out of the Bristol underground scene which involved collaborations between artists and musicians.

Banksy does not sell photos of street graffiti.[9] Art auctioneers have been known to attempt to sell his street art on location and leave the problem of its removal in the hands of the winning bidder.[10]

Banksy’s first film, Exit Through The Gift Shop, billed as "the world’s first street art disaster movie", made its debut at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival.[11] The film was released in the UK on March 5.[12]

Contents

1 Career
•• 1.1 2000
•• 1.2 2002
•• 1.3 2003
•• 1.4 2004
•• 1.5 2005
•• 1.6 2006
•• 1.7 2007
•• 1.8 2008
•• 1.9 2009
•• 1.10 2010
2 Notable art pieces
3 Technique
4 Identity
5 Controversy
6 Bibliography
7 References
8 External links

Career

Banksy started as a freehand graffiti artist 1992–1994[14] as one of Bristol’s DryBreadZ Crew (DBZ), with Kato and Tes.[15] He was inspired by local artists and his work was part of the larger Bristol underground scene. From the start he used stencils as elements of his freehand pieces, too.[14] By 2000 he had turned to the art of stencilling after realising how much less time it took to complete a piece. He claims he changed to stencilling whilst he was hiding from the police under a train carriage, when he noticed the stencilled serial number[16] and by employing this technique, he soon became more widely noticed for his art around Bristol and London.[16]

Stencil on the waterline of The Thekla, an entertainment boat in central Bristol – (wider view). The image of Death is based on a 19th century etching illustrating the pestilence of The Great Stink.[17]

Banksy’s stencils feature striking and humorous images occasionally combined with slogans. The message is usually anti-war, anti-capitalist or anti-establishment. Subjects often include rats, monkeys, policemen, soldiers, children, and the elderly.

In late 2001, on a trip to Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, he met up with the Gen-X pastellist, visual activist, and recluse James DeWeaver in Byron Bay[clarification needed], where he stencilled a parachuting rat with a clothes peg on its nose above a toilet at the Arts Factory Lodge. This stencil can no longer be located. He also makes stickers (the Neighbourhood Watch subvert) and sculpture (the murdered phone-box), and was responsible for the cover art of Blur’s 2003 album Think Tank.

2000

The album cover for Monk & Canatella‘s Do Community Service was conceived and illustrated by Banksy, based on his contribution to the "Walls on fire" event in Bristol 1998.[18][citation needed]

2002

On 19 July 2002, Banksy’s first Los Angeles exhibition debuted at 33 1/3 Gallery, a small Silverlake venue owned by Frank Sosa. The exhibition, entitled Existencilism, was curated by 33 1/3 Gallery, Malathion, Funk Lazy Promotions, and B+.[19]

2003

In 2003 in an exhibition called Turf War, held in a warehouse, Banksy painted on animals. Although the RSPCA declared the conditions suitable, an animal rights activist chained herself to the railings in protest.[20] He later moved on to producing subverted paintings; one example is Monet‘s Water Lily Pond, adapted to include urban detritus such as litter and a shopping trolley floating in its reflective waters; another is Edward Hopper‘s Nighthawks, redrawn to show that the characters are looking at a British football hooligan, dressed only in his Union Flag underpants, who has just thrown an object through the glass window of the cafe. These oil paintings were shown at a twelve-day exhibition in Westbourne Grove, London in 2005.[21]

2004

In August 2004, Banksy produced a quantity of spoof British £10 notes substituting the picture of the Queen’s head with Princess Diana‘s head and changing the text "Bank of England" to "Banksy of England." Someone threw a large wad of these into a crowd at Notting Hill Carnival that year, which some recipients then tried to spend in local shops. These notes were also given with invitations to a Santa’s Ghetto exhibition by Pictures on Walls. The individual notes have since been selling on eBay for about £200 each. A wad of the notes were also thrown over a fence and into the crowd near the NME signing tent at The Reading Festival. A limited run of 50 signed posters containing ten uncut notes were also produced and sold by Pictures on Walls for £100 each to commemorate the death of Princess Diana. One of these sold in October 2007 at Bonhams auction house in London for £24,000.

2005

In August 2005, Banksy, on a trip to the Palestinian territories, created nine images on Israel’s highly controversial West Bank barrier. He reportedly said "The Israeli government is building a wall surrounding the occupied Palestinian territories. It stands three times the height of the Berlin Wall and will eventually run for over 700km—the distance from London to Zurich. "[22]

2006

• Banksy held an exhibition called Barely Legal, billed as a "three day vandalised warehouse extravaganza" in Los Angeles, on the weekend of 16 September. The exhibition featured a live "elephant in a room", painted in a pink and gold floral wallpaper pattern.[23]
• After Christina Aguilera bought an original of Queen Victoria as a lesbian and two prints for £25,000,[24] on 19 October 2006 a set of Kate Moss paintings sold in Sotheby’s London for £50,400, setting an auction record for Banksy’s work. The six silk-screen prints, featuring the model painted in the style of Andy Warhol‘s Marilyn Monroe pictures, sold for five times their estimated value. His stencil of a green Mona Lisa with real paint dripping from her eyes sold for £57,600 at the same auction.[25]
• In December, journalist Max Foster coined the phrase, "the Banksy Effect", to illustrate how interest in other street artists was growing on the back of Banksy’s success.[26]

2007

• On 21 February 2007, Sotheby’s auction house in London auctioned three works, reaching the highest ever price for a Banksy work at auction: over £102,000 for his Bombing Middle England. Two of his other graffiti works, Balloon Girl and Bomb Hugger, sold for £37,200 and £31,200 respectively, which were well above their estimated prices.[27] The following day’s auction saw a further three Banksy works reach soaring prices: Ballerina With Action Man Parts reached £96,000; Glory sold for £72,000; Untitled (2004) sold for £33,600; all significantly above estimated values.[28] To coincide with the second day of auctions, Banksy updated his website with a new image of an auction house scene showing people bidding on a picture that said, "I Can’t Believe You Morons Actually Buy This Shit."[6]
• In February 2007, the owners of a house with a Banksy mural on the side in Bristol decided to sell the house through Red Propeller art gallery after offers fell through because the prospective buyers wanted to remove the mural. It is listed as a mural which comes with a house attached.[29]
• In April 2007, Transport for London painted over Banksy’s iconic image of a scene from Quentin Tarantino‘s Pulp Fiction, with Samuel L. Jackson and John Travolta clutching bananas instead of guns. Although the image was very popular, Transport for London claimed that the "graffiti" created "a general atmosphere of neglect and social decay which in turn encourages crime" and their staff are "professional cleaners not professional art critics".[30] Banksy tagged the same site again (pictured at right). This time the actors were portrayed as holding real guns instead of bananas, but they were adorned with banana costumes. Banksy made a tribute art piece over this second Pulp Fiction piece. The tribute was for 19-year-old British graffiti artist Ozone, who was hit by an underground train in Barking, East London, along with fellow artist Wants, on 12 January 2007.[31] The piece was of an angel wearing a bullet-proof vest, holding a skull. He also wrote a note on his website, saying:

The last time I hit this spot I painted a crap picture of two men in banana costumes waving hand guns. A few weeks later a writer called Ozone completely dogged it and then wrote ‘If it’s better next time I’ll leave it’ in the bottom corner. When we lost Ozone we lost a fearless graffiti writer and as it turns out a pretty perceptive art critic. Ozone – rest in peace.[citation needed]

Ozone’s Angel

• On 27 April 2007, a new record high for the sale of Banksy’s work was set with the auction of the work Space Girl & Bird fetching £288,000 (US6,000), around 20 times the estimate at Bonhams of London.[32]
• On 21 May 2007 Banksy gained the award for Art’s Greatest living Briton. Banksy, as expected, did not turn up to collect his award, and continued with his notoriously anonymous status.
• On 4 June 2007, it was reported that Banksy’s The Drinker had been stolen.[33][34]
• In October 2007, most of his works offered for sale at Bonhams auction house in London sold for more than twice their reserve price.[35]

• Banksy has published a "manifesto" on his website.[36] The text of the manifesto is credited as the diary entry of one Lieutenant Colonel Mervin Willett Gonin, DSO, which is exhibited in the Imperial War Museum. It describes how a shipment of lipstick to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp immediately after its liberation at the end of World War II helped the internees regain their humanity. However, as of 18 January 2008, Banksy’s Manifesto has been substituted with Graffiti Heroes #03 that describes Peter Chappell’s graffiti quest of the 1970s that worked to free George Davis of his imprisonment.[37] By 12 August 2009 he was relying on Emo Phillips’ "When I was a kid I used to pray every night for a new bicycle. Then I realised God doesn’t work that way, so I stole one and prayed for forgiveness."
• A small number of Banksy’s works can be seen in the movie Children of Men, including a stenciled image of two policemen kissing and another stencil of a child looking down a shop.
• In the 2007 film Shoot ‘Em Up starring Clive Owen, Banksy’s tag can be seen on a dumpster in the film’s credits.
• Banksy, who deals mostly with Lazarides Gallery in London, claims that the exhibition at Vanina Holasek Gallery in New York (his first major exhibition in that city) is unauthorised. The exhibition featured 62 of his paintings and prints.[38]

2008

• In March, a stencilled graffiti work appeared on Thames Water tower in the middle of the Holland Park roundabout, and it was widely attributed to Banksy. It was of a child painting the tag "Take this Society" in bright orange. London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham spokesman, Councillor Greg Smith branded the art as vandalism, and ordered its immediate removal, which was carried out by H&F council workmen within three days.[39]
• Over the weekend 3–5 May in London, Banksy hosted an exhibition called The Cans Festival. It was situated on Leake Street, a road tunnel formerly used by Eurostar underneath London Waterloo station. Graffiti artists with stencils were invited to join in and paint their own artwork, as long as it didn’t cover anyone else’s.[40] Artists included Blek le Rat, Broken Crow, C215, Cartrain, Dolk, Dotmasters, J.Glover, Eine, Eelus, Hero, Pure evil, Jef Aérosol, Mr Brainwash, Tom Civil and Roadsworth.[citation needed]
• In late August 2008, marking the third anniversary of Hurricane Katrina and the associated levee failure disaster, Banksy produced a series of works in New Orleans, Louisiana, mostly on buildings derelict since the disaster.[41]
• A stencil painting attributed to Banksy appeared at a vacant petrol station in the Ensley neighbourhood of Birmingham, Alabama on 29 August as Hurricane Gustav approached the New Orleans area. The painting depicting a hooded member of the Ku Klux Klan hanging from a noose was quickly covered with black spray paint and later removed altogether.[42]
• His first official exhibition in New York, the "Village Pet Store And Charcoal Grill," opened 5 October 2008. The animatronic pets in the store window include a mother hen watching over her baby Chicken McNuggets as they peck at a barbecue sauce packet, and a rabbit putting makeup on in a mirror.[43]
• The Westminster City Council stated in October 2008 that the work "One Nation Under CCTV", painted in April 2008 will be painted over as it is graffiti. The council says it will remove any graffiti, regardless of the reputation of its creator, and specifically stated that Banksy "has no more right to paint graffiti than a child". Robert Davis, the chairman of the council planning committee told The Times newspaper: "If we condone this then we might as well say that any kid with a spray can is producing art". [44] The work was painted over in April 2009.
• In December 2008, The Little Diver, a Banksy image of a diver in a duffle coat in Melbourne Australia was vandalised. The image was protected by a sheet of clear perspex, however silver paint was poured behind the protective sheet and later tagged with the words "Banksy woz ere". The image was almost completely destroyed.[45].

2009

• May 2009, parts company with agent Steve Lazarides. Announces Pest Control [46] the handling service who act on his behalf will be the only point of sale for new works.
• On 13 June 2009, the Banksy UK Summer show opened at Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, featuring more than 100 works of art, including animatronics and installations; it is his largest exhibition yet, featuring 78 new works.[47][48] Reaction to the show was positive, with over 8,500 visitors to the show on the first weekend.[49] Over the course of the twelve weeks, the exhibition has been visited over 300,000 times.[50]
• In September 2009, a Banksy work parodying the Royal Family was partially destroyed by Hackney Council after they served an enforcement notice for graffiti removal to the former address of the property owner. The mural had been commissioned for the 2003 Blur single "Crazy Beat" and the property owner, who had allowed the piece to be painted, was reported to have been in tears when she saw it was being painted over.[51]
• In December 2009, Banksy marked the end of the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference by painting four murals on global warming. One included "I don’t believe in global warming" which was submerged in water.[52]

2010

• The world premiere of the film Exit Through the Gift Shop occurred at the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah, on 24 January. He created 10 street pieces around Park City and Salt Lake City to tie in with the screening.[53]
• In February, The Whitehouse public house in Liverpool, England, is sold for £114,000 at auction.[54] The side of the building has an image of a giant rat by Banksy.[55]
• In April 2010, Melbourne City Council in Australia reported that they had inadvertently ordered private contractors to paint over the last remaining Banksy art in the city. The image was of a rat descending in a parachute adorning the wall of an old council building behind the Forum Theatre. In 2008 Vandals had poured paint over a stencil of an old-fashioned diver wearing a trenchcoat. A council spokeswoman has said they would now rush through retrospective permits to protect other “famous or significant artworks” in the city.[56]
• In April 2010 to coincide with the premier of Exit through the Gift Shop in San Francisco, 5 of his pieces appeared in various parts of the city.[57] Banksy reportedly paid a Chinatown building owner for the use of their wall for one of his stencils.[58]
• In May 2010 to coincide with the release of "Exit Through the Gift Shop" in Chicago, one piece appeared in the city.

Notable art pieces

In addition to his artwork, Banksy has claimed responsibility for a number of high profile art pieces, including the following:

• At London Zoo, he climbed into the penguin enclosure and painted "We’re bored of fish" in seven foot high letters.[59]
• At Bristol Zoo, he left the message ‘I want out. This place is too cold. Keeper smells. Boring, boring, boring.’ in the elephant enclosure.[60]
• In March 2005, he placed subverted artworks in the Museum of Modern Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn Museum, and the American Museum of Natural History in New York.[61]
• He put up a subverted painting in London’s Tate Britain gallery.
• In May 2005 Banksy’s version of a primitive cave painting depicting a human figure hunting wildlife whilst pushing a shopping trolley was hung in gallery 49 of the British Museum, London. Upon discovery, they added it to their permanent collection.[62]

Near Bethlehem – 2005

• Banksy has sprayed "This is not a photo opportunity" on certain photograph spots.
• In August 2005, Banksy painted nine images on the Israeli West Bank barrier, including an image of a ladder going up and over the wall and an image of children digging a hole through the wall.[22][63][64][65]

See also: Other Banksy works on the Israeli West Bank barrier

• In April 2006, Banksy created a sculpture based on a crumpled red phone box with a pickaxe in its side, apparently bleeding, and placed it in a street in Soho, London. It was later removed by Westminster Council. BT released a press release, which said: "This is a stunning visual comment on BT’s transformation from an old-fashioned telecommunications company into a modern communications services provider."[66]
• In June 2006, Banksy created an image of a naked man hanging out of a bedroom window on a wall visible from Park Street in central Bristol. The image sparked some controversy, with the Bristol City Council leaving it up to the public to decide whether it should stay or go.[67] After an internet discussion in which 97% (all but 6 people) supported the stencil, the city council decided it would be left on the building.[67] The mural was later defaced with paint.[67]
• In August/September 2006, Banksy replaced up to 500 copies of Paris Hilton‘s debut CD, Paris, in 48 different UK record stores with his own cover art and remixes by Danger Mouse. Music tracks were given titles such as "Why am I Famous?", "What Have I Done?" and "What Am I For?". Several copies of the CD were purchased by the public before stores were able to remove them, some going on to be sold for as much as £750 on online auction websites such as eBay. The cover art depicted Paris Hilton digitally altered to appear topless. Other pictures feature her with a dog’s head replacing her own, and one of her stepping out of a luxury car, edited to include a group of homeless people, which included the caption "90% of success is just showing up".[68][69][70]
• In September 2006, Banksy dressed an inflatable doll in the manner of a Guantanamo Bay detainment camp prisoner (orange jumpsuit, black hood, and handcuffs) and then placed the figure within the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad ride at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim, California.[71][72]

Technique

Asked about his technique, Banksy said:

“I use whatever it takes. Sometimes that just means drawing a moustache on a girl’s face on some billboard, sometimes that means sweating for days over an intricate drawing. Efficiency is the key.[73]

Stencils are traditionally hand drawn or printed onto sheets of acetate or card, before being cut out by hand. Because of the secretive nature of Banksy’s work and identity, it is uncertain what techniques he uses to generate the images in his stencils, though it is assumed he uses computers for some images due to the photocopy nature of much of his work.

He mentions in his book, Wall and Piece, that as he was starting to do graffiti, he was always too slow and was either caught or could never finish the art in the one sitting. So he devised a series of intricate stencils to minimise time and overlapping of the colour.

Identity

Banksy’s real name has been widely reported to be Robert or Robin Banks.[74][75][76] His year of birth has been given as 1974.[62]

Simon Hattenstone from Guardian Unlimited is one of the very few people to have interviewed him face-to-face. Hattenstone describes him as "a cross of Jimmy Nail and British rapper Mike Skinner" and "a 28 year old male who showed up wearing jeans and a t-shirt with a silver tooth, silver chain, and one silver earring".[77] In the same interview, Banksy revealed that his parents think their son is a painter and decorator.[77]

In May 2007, an extensive article written by Lauren Collins of the New Yorker re-opened the Banksy-identity controversy citing a 2004 photograph of the artist that was taken in Jamaica during the Two-Culture Clash project and later published in the Evening Standard in 2004.[6]

In October 2007, a story on the BBC website featured a photo allegedly taken by a passer-by in Bethnal Green, London, purporting to show Banksy at work with an assistant, scaffolding and a truck. The story confirms that Tower Hamlets Council in London has decided to treat all Banksy works as vandalism and remove them.[78]

In July 2008, it was claimed by The Mail on Sunday that Banksy’s real name is Robin Gunningham.[3][79] His agent has refused to confirm or deny these reports.

In May 2009, the Mail on Sunday once again speculated about Gunningham being Banksy after a "self-portrait" of a rat holding a sign with the word "Gunningham" shot on it was photographed in East London.[80] This "new Banksy rat" story was also picked up by The Times[81] and the Evening Standard.

Banksy, himself, states on his website:

“I am unable to comment on who may or may not be Banksy, but anyone described as being ‘good at drawing’ doesn’t sound like Banksy to me.[82]

Controversy

In 2004, Banksy walked into the Louvre in Paris and hung on a wall a picture he had painted resembling the Mona Lisa but with a yellow smiley face. Though the painting was hurriedly removed by the museum staff, it and its counterpart, temporarily on unknown display at the Tate Britain, were described by Banksy as "shortcuts". He is quoted as saying:

“To actually [have to] go through the process of having a painting selected must be quite boring. It’s a lot more fun to go and put your own one up.[83]

Peter Gibson, a spokesperson for Keep Britain Tidy, asserts that Banksy’s work is simple vandalism,[84] and Diane Shakespeare, an official for the same organization, was quoted as saying: "We are concerned that Banksy’s street art glorifies what is essentially vandalism".[6]

In June 2007 Banksy created a circle of plastic portable toilets, said to resemble Stonehenge at the Glastonbury Festival. As this was in the same field as the "sacred circle" it was felt by many to be inappropriate and his installation was itself vandalized before the festival even opened. However, the intention had always been for people to climb on and interact with it.[citation needed] The installation was nicknamed "Portaloo Sunset" and "Bog Henge" by Festival goers. Michael Eavis admitted he wasn’t fond of it, and the portaloos were removed before the 2008 festival.

In 2010, an artistic feud developed between Banksy and his rival King Robbo after Banksy painted over a 24-year old Robbo piece on the banks of London’s Regent Canal. In retaliation several Banksy pieces in London have been painted over by ‘Team Robbo’.[85][86]

Also in 2010, government workers accidentally painted over a Banksy art piece, a famed "parachuting-rat" stencil, in Australia’s Melbourne CBD. [87]

Bibliography

Banksy has self-published several books that contain photographs of his work in various countries as well as some of his canvas work and exhibitions, accompanied by his own writings:

• Banksy, Banging Your Head Against A Brick Wall (2001) ISBN 978-0-95417040-0
• Banksy, Existencilism (2002) ISBN 978-0-95417041-7
• Banksy, Cut it Out (2004) ISBN 978-0-95449600-5
• Banksy, Wall and Piece (2005) ISBN 978-1-84413786-2
• Banksy, Pictures of Walls (2005) ISBN 978-0-95519460-3

Random House published Wall and Piece in 2005. It contains a combination of images from his three previous books, as well as some new material.[16]

Two books authored by others on his work were published in 2006 & 2007:

• Martin Bull, Banksy Locations and Tours: A Collection of Graffiti Locations and Photographs in London (2006 – with new editions in 2007 and 2008) ISBN 978-0-95547120-9.
• Steve Wright, Banksy’s Bristol: Home Sweet Home (2007) ISBN 978-1906477004

External links

Official website
Banksy street work photos