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“Associate yourself with males of good quality in the event that you esteem your very own reputation, for ’tis easier to be alone than in bad company.” ~ George Washington.
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Image by eyewashdesign: A. Golden
Brand new Yorkers Protest the US0 BILLION (US TRILLION) Wall Street BAILOUT: Wall Street, NYC – September 25, 2008

Phototgrapher: a. golden, eyewash design – c. 2008.

Upon talking about going to this BAILOUT protest, a local United states connect of mine discussed that somewhere close to the located area of the NY stock-exchange – on Wall Street – ended up being your website for a bloody battle between Native tribes and United states invaders. I was thinking this become instead serious and instead apropos, considering, really, every thing!

After some research, i possibly could maybe not discover that this exact area was THE LOCATION, but discovered the following information through the www.hmbd.org website:

"Sankofa" —> African Burial-ground National Monument
Inscription. [on marker is the Adinkra symbolization "Sankofa," a symbol for need for mastering from past]

"For those who have been lost,
For all those who had been taken,
For all those who have been left out,
For those who were not forgotten."

*Erected 2007 by National Park Service, U.S. Department of inside.*

Place. 40° 42.864′ N, 74° 0.267′ W. Marker is in new york, New York, in nyc County. Marker is on Federal Plaza/Duane Street 0.04 kilometers west of African Burial Ground Way/Elk Street, on the right when taking a trip east. Simply click for chart. Marker inscriptions are part of the African burial-ground Memorial designed by Rodney Leon and accessible to pedestrians from the eastern reasons regarding the Ted Weiss Federal Building (290 Broadway) off Federal Plaza/Duane Street. Marker is in this post office location: New York NY 10007, united states.

Other nearby markers. About 8 other markers are within walking length of the marker. Richard Montgomery (approx. 0.3 miles away); Remains of Maj. Gen. Richard Montgomery (approx. 0.3 miles away); St. Paul’s Chapel (approx. 0.3 miles away); 100 year old Sycamore (approx. 0.3 miles away); Us citizens of Chinese Ancestry (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); Lin Ze Xu (approx. 0.3 miles away); guys who died whilst imprisoned in this City (approx. 0.6 kilometers away); Ohio Company of Associates (approx. 0.6 kilometers away).

If anyone has actually any details about the fight that my buddy talked, I would love to read about it. Meanwhile, I might just have to ask once again!

—————————————————————————————————————————-

Friends,

The richest 400 Us americans — that’s right, just four-hundred individuals — own significantly more than the base 150 million People in america COMBINED! 400 regarding the wealthiest Americans ‘ve got more stashed away than half the complete country! Their particular combined net worth is .6 trillion. Through the eight years of the Bush management, their wide range has increased by nearly 0 billion — the same quantity which they had been demanding We give to all of them for "bailout." How about we they just spend the money they made under Bush to bail themselves completely? They would still have nearly a trillion bucks left-over to distribute amongst themselves!

Naturally, they may not be gonna do this — at least not voluntarily. George W. Bush ended up being given a 7 billion excess whenever Bill Clinton left company. For the reason that it money had been your cash and not HIS, he performed just what the wealthy prefer to do — invest it and never look right back. Now we have a .5 trillion debt which will simply take seven generations from which to recoup. Why — on –earth – performed — our — "representatives" — give — these — robber — barons — $US850 BILLION — of – OUR — money?

A week ago, suggested my own bailout program. My recommendations, given just below, had been based on the single and easy belief that rich must pull on their own up by their platinum bootstraps. Sorry, fellows, however you drilled it into our minds one too many times: THERE…IS…NO…FREE… LUNCH ~ PERIOD! And thanks for motivating united states to hate folks on benefit! So, there need already been NO HANDOUTS FROM United States FOR YOU! Final Friday, after voting from this BAILOUT, in an unprecedented change of occasions, your house FLIP-FLOPPED their particular "No" Vote & said "Yes", in a hurry form of a "bailout" bill vote. NOTWITHSTANDING INDIVIDUALS’S OVERWHELMING DISAPPROVAL OF THIS BAILOUT BILL… REGARDLESS OF AN INCREDIBLE NUMBER OF CALLS THROUGH THE PEOPLE CRASHING WASHINGTON "representatives’" PHONE LINES…IN SPITE OF CRASHING OUR POLITICIAN’S WEBSITES…IN SPITE OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE PROTESTING ROUND THE COUNTRY… THEY VOTED FOR THIS BAILOUT! The People first been successful on Monday using the home, but unsuccessful do so with the Senate and then THE HOME FIRED UP United States TOO!

It is obvious, though, we cannot simply carry on protesting without proposing exactly what it is we think THESE IDIOTS should/’ve do/one. So, after seeing many people smarter than Phil Gramm, here’s the suggestion, now known as "Mike’s Rescue Arrange." (From Michael Moore’s Bailout Arrange) This has 10 easy, simple things. They have been you DIDN’T, BUT SHOULD’VE:

1. APPOINTED AN UNIQUE PROSECUTOR TO CRIMINALLY INDICT ANYONE ON WALL STREET whom KNOWINGLY CONTRIBUTED FOR THIS COLLAPSE. Before any new money had been expended, Congress needs dedicated, by resolution, to CRIMINALLY PROSECUTE anybody who had almost anything to do using tried SACKING OF YOUR ECONOMY. This means anybody who committed insider trading, securities fraud or any activity that aided produce this collapse must have and MUST GO TO JAIL! This Congress NEED needed a Special Prosecutor who does vigorously go after everyone which developed the mess, and others who tries to scam the general public in future. (i prefer Elliot Spitzer ~ therefore, he played some hanky-panky…Wall Street hates him & this is a GOOD thing.)

2. THE DEEP MUST HAVE TAKEN CARE OF THEIR VERY OWN BAILOUT! They may need live-in 5 homes in place of 7. They may must drive 9 cars as opposed to 13. The cook for mini-terriers may need to be reassigned. But there is no way in hell, after pushing family earnings going down significantly more than ,000 bucks throughout the Bush years, that professional and also the middle income should have to fork over one dime to underwrite the second boat purchase.

If they really required the 0 billion they state they needed, well, let me reveal a good way they might have raised it:

a) Every couple makeing over a million bucks annually and each single taxpayer whom makes over 0,000 annually should pay a 10percent surcharge income tax for five years. (it is the Senator Sanders plan. He’s like Colonel Sanders, just he is off to fry just the right birds.) This means the wealthy might have nevertheless already been having to pay less tax than whenever Carter ended up being president. That would have raise a complete of 0 billion.

b) Like just about any various other democracy, they should have charged a 0.25% taxation on every stock deal. This will have raised over 0 billion in a-year.

c) Because every stockholder is a patriotic American, stockholders need forgone receiving a dividend search for ONE quarter and alternatively this cash could have gone the treasury to simply help purchase the bullsh*t bailout.

d) 25% of significant U.S. corporations at this time spend NO national income tax. National business income tax incomes at this time total 1.7% of GDP when compared with 5% in 1950s. If we raised the corporate tax BACK to the amount regarding the 1950s, this might provide us with an extra 0 billion.

This combined need been adequate to end the calamity. The wealthy will have reached keep their mansions and their servants and our US federal government ("COUNTRY VERY FIRST!") would’ve have just a little leftover to repair some roads, bridges and schools…

3. YOU SHOULD HAVE BAIL OUT THE FOLKS SHEDDING THEIR HOMES, never THE INDIVIDUALS WHO CAN DEVELOP AN EIGHTH HOME! You will find 1.3 million domiciles in foreclosure right now. This is certainly something in the centre of the issue. So, in place of giving the funds to your banking institutions as something special, they need to have paid down all these mortgages by 0,000. They should have forced the banking institutions to renegotiate the home loan and so the homeowner could spend on its existing worth. To insure that this assistance wouldn’t check-out investors and those which attempted to making money by flipping houses, the bailout must have just been for individuals’s main residences. And, in return for the 0K pay-down in the existing home loan, the us government would have reached share in holding associated with the mortgage so it could get several of its cash back. Hence, the sum total initial price of repairing the mortgage crisis at its roots (rather than with the greedy loan providers) is 0 billion, not 0 BILLION.

And why don’t we set the record straight. Those that have defaulted on their mortgages aren’t "bad risks." They’ve been our fellow Us americans, and all sorts of they desired ended up being that which we all desire: a home to phone their very own. But, through the Bush many years, an incredible number of the folks lost the decent investing jobs that they had. SIX MILLION fell into impoverishment! SEVEN MILLION lost their own health insurance! And, each of them saw their particular real earnings decrease by ,000! People who DARE look down upon these Us americans just who got hit with one bad break after another should-be ASHAMED.! we’re a better, more powerful, safer and happier community when our residents are able to afford to live in property they have.

4. PRESENT NEED TO HAVE BEEN A STIPULATION THAT IF YOUR BANK otherwise BUSINESS GOT SOME OF OUR MONEY IN A "BAILOUT," SUBSEQUENTLY WE OWN YOU. Sorry, that’s exactly how it is done. If bank gives myself cash so I can purchase a house, the lender "owns" that household until I pay all of it right back — with interest. Same bargain for Wall Street. Whatever cash you will need to remain afloat, if our government views you a secure danger — and needed for the nice of the country — then you can certainly get that loan, but WE MUST OWN YOU. In the event that you default, we are going to offer you. This is the way the Swedish government made it happen also it worked.

5. each REGULATIONS SHOULD HAVE BEEN BE RESTORED. THE REAGAN TRANSFORMATION IS DEAD! This catastrophe occurred because we let the fox have the secrets to the hen-house. In 1999, Phil Gramm authored a bill to get rid of all the regulations that governed Wall Street and our bank system. The balance passed and Clinton finalized it. This is what Sen.Phil Gramm, McCain’s main economic consultant, stated at costs signing:

"In the 1930s … it absolutely was thought that federal government was the clear answer. It was thought that security and growth came from federal government overriding the performance of no-cost areas.

"Our company is here right now to repeal [that] because we’ve learned that federal government is not the response. We learned that freedom and competition will be the responses. We have learned that we advertise financial growth therefore we advertise stability insurance firms competitors and freedom.

"I am proud to-be right here since this is a vital costs; it is a deregulatory bill. I believe that this is the revolution of the future, and I also in the morning awfully proud to have already been an integral part of making it a reality."

BECAUSE OF THIS NOT TO REOCCUR, This BILL MUST HAVE BEEN REPEALED! Bill Clinton might have assisted by leading your time and effort when it comes to repeal of Gramm costs as well as the reinstating of even tougher laws regarding our banking institutions. So when they were completed with that, they should have restored the laws for the airlines, the evaluation of our meals, the oil business, OSHA, and each various other entity that impacts our day to day everyday lives. All oversight terms for almost any "bailout" must have had enforcement monies attached to all of them and unlawful penalties for many offenders.

6. IF IT’S TOO LARGE TO FAIL, THEN THIS MEANS IT IS TOO BIG TO EXIST! Enabling the development of these mega-mergers and not implementing the monopoly and anti-trust laws has actually allowed a number of finance institutions and corporations to become so large, ab muscles considered their failure indicates a level larger failure across the entire economy. No body or TWO companies should EVER have this energy! The alleged "economic Pearl Harbor" can not happen when you have hundreds — thousands — of establishments where people have their money. Whenever we have twelve automobile businesses, if a person goes belly-up, we DON’T FACE A NATIONAL DISASTER! Whenever we have three separately-owned day-to-day periodicals in your neighborhood, the other media organization can not call all of the shots (i am aware… exactly what was We thinking?! which checks out a paper any longer? Sure happy those mergers and buyouts left united states with a good and "FREE" hit!). Rules needs been enacted to avoid businesses from becoming therefore big and dominant that with one slingshot into eye, the MONSTER FALLS and DIES. With no institution must certanly be permitted to set up money systems that NO ONE understands. If you fail to describe it in 2 sentences, you shouldn’t be using anyone’s money!

7. NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD EVER BE PAID MORE THAN 40 TIMES THEIR TYPICAL WORKER, AND NO EXECUTIVE MUST RECEIVE ANY VARIETY OF "PARACHUTE" APART FROM THE VERY GENEROUS SALARY HE OR SHE MADE WHILE DOING WORK FOR THE COMPANY. In 1980, the typical American CEO made 45 times what their workers made. By 2003, these people were making 254 times exactly what their staff made. After 8 many years of Bush, they today make over 400 times what their average worker tends to make. Exactly how we have actually allowed this to happen at publicly held organizations is beyond reason. In Britain, the average CEO makes 28 times exactly what their typical employee makes. In Japan, it’s just 17 times! The very last I heard, the CEO of Toyota was living the high life in Tokyo. So how exactly does he take action on so small money? Seriously, this will be an OUTRAGE! We now have developed the mess we are in by allowing the folks at the top become swollen beyond belief with vast amounts. IT HAS TO STOP! Not merely should no exec who obtains help of this mess profit from it, but any administrator who had been in charge of running his organization in to the ground should really be FIRED prior to the organization gets ANY assistance.

8. CONGRESS NEED TO HAVE STRENGTHENED THE FDIC AND MADE IT A MODEL FOR PROTECTING NOT JUST INDIVIDUALS COST SAVINGS, BUT IN ADDITION THEIR PENSIONS AND THEIR HOMES. Obama ended up being correct to propose expanding FDIC protection of men and women’s cost savings inside their banking institutions to 0,000. But, this same type of federal government insurance must certanly be provided to our never need to concern yourself with whether or not the money they’ve put away due to their senior years may be indeed there. This should have meant rigid government oversight of businesses just who manage their staff’ resources — or maybe it indicates the companies must have been forced to start those funds and their particular administration to the federal government? Individuals personal retirement funds also needs to be shielded, but possibly it is the right time to think about without having an individual’s pension dedicated to the casino referred to as stock market??? Our federal government must have a solemn task to make sure that no body which develops old within nation has got to be concerned about becoming destitute.

9. EVERYBODY MUST TAKE A GOOD DEEP BREATH, CALM DOWN, AND NEVER allow WORRY RULE THE AFTERNOON. Turn off your TVs! We’re NOT when you look at the 2nd Great anxiety. The sky is NOT falling, Chicken Little! Pundits and politicians have actually lied to united states so FAST and FURIOUS it really is tough to not ever be affected by all the fear mongering. Even I composed to and repeated what I heard regarding the news last week, the Dow had the largest 1 day fall in its history. Well, that was true when it comes to things, but its 7% drop emerged nowhere near to Ebony Monday in 1987 once the currency markets in one time destroyed 23% of its value. In ’80s, 3,000 financial institutions shut, but America don’t walk out company. These institutions have actually constantly had their particular pros and cons and in the end it really works down. This has to, because the wealthy hate their particular wealth being interrupted! They have a vested curiosity about soothing things down and getting back into their particular Jacuzzis before they put on their particular million thread-count sheets to drift off to a peaceful, Vodka tonic and Ambien-induced slumber.

As crazy as things are today, thousands of folks got car finance a week ago. Thousands went along to the bank and got a mortgage buying property. Students only back once again to university found banks above thrilled to put them into hock for the next 15 years with an educatonal loan. I was also pre-approved for a USK personal bank loan. Yes, life has gone on with little-or-no-change (aside from the whopping 6.1percent unemployment price, but that happened last thirty days). Perhaps not a single person lost any of his/her monies in bank, or a treasury note, or in a CD. And, the perhaps the many amazing thing is that the US public SUBSEQUENTLY don’t buy the scare campaign. The residents did not blink, as an alternative informing Congress to take that bailout and shove it. Which was impressive. Why don’t the population succumb to your fright-filled warnings from their particular president and his cronies? Well, you can easily just state ‘Saddam has got the bomb’ countless times ahead of the people recognize you’re a lying sack of shit. After eight long many years, the world is exhausted and simply cannot take it any longer. Society is completely fed up & I don’t blame all of them.

10. THEY SHOULD GET DEVELOPED A NATIONAL BANK, A "PEOPLE’S BANK." Because they’re truly irritation to print up a trillion dollars, rather than offering it to a few wealthy men and women, why don’t We give it to ourselves? Since We possess Freddie and Fannie, you will want to set up a People’s lender? The one that provides low-interest loans for many sorts of people who wish own a home, begin a small business, head to school, develop the remedy for disease or produce the next great invention. And, now that we have AIG – the country’s largest insurance provider – why don’t we take the alternative and supply HEALTH INSURANCE FOR ALL. MEDICARE FOR ALL! It will SAVE YOURSELF united states SUCH MONEY in the future (as well as bring peace of mind to all). And, The united states defintely won’t be 12th from the endurance number! We will have the ability to have an extended lifespan, appreciating our government-protected retirement and can stay to understand day if the business crooks which caused anywhere near this much distress tend to be let-out of prison to make certain that We can assist re-acclimate them to plain old ordinary, civilian life — a life with ONE great house and ONE gas-free car created with assistance from the People’s Bank.

P.S. Phone your Senators today !!! —> www.visi.com/juan/congress/

Since they voted against driving the expansion of unemployment advantages and skipped out to "campaign" to us become re-elected…call all of them and tell them you certainly will vote the various other "guy" when they don’t get their particular work collectively!

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ENHANCE: INDIVIDUALS OWN VOTED! A HISTORIC SECOND: NOVEMBER 4th 2008!

——> THE Historic ELECTION <——

"A operate in PROGRESS."

Nov. 4th, 2008.

An excellent United states leader when said, "As individual hands we are able to be easily broken. But TOGETHER We make a mighty fist." These terms too had been talked by a minority leader. He was the venerable Chief Sitting Bull. No, Barack Obama’s not the initial American minority to speak eloquently and then he definitely won’t be the very last. Though, ultimately, this election was not also shut !!! The planet watched as, "YES WE CAN!" changed into, "YES WE DID!" since it today ushers in, "YES WE OUGHT TO!" time is!

What WE do with this minute shall determine US, forthright. America has chosen a man with a back ground of partial African – US descent as President elect. An innovative new frontrunner with origins from Kenya to Kansas (with a step-father from Indonesia), will likely be doing work in combination with a vice-Presidential of Anglo-European roots. This can be anything in which citizens of events – both right here additionally the world ’round – have loudly REJOICED. The reason why discuss competition? Is race crucial? You bet! Because – want it or not – competition has dominated and influenced our everyday everyday lives for thousands of years. Most likely: "To understand in which We’re going, we ought to first understand where We’ve been".

We have come a LONG Way child! What was as soon as "acceptable" in 1965 isn’t any much longer in 2008 and LUCKILY.

This will be an altering of guard. Specifically since forty-percent of America’s population is recognized as to be a "minority". Just four years removed, the repression of African slaves by Anglo Saxons caused hundreds of thousands of brothers to eliminate brothers in a viscous and bloody fight that changed the basic principals of this Constitutional Republic from rhetoric to reality. This too was an important changing associated with the guard.

For the first time within the history of the nation, the ancestors among these exact same those who so passionately fought for slavery have finally OVERWHELMINGLY voted for a minority frontrunner. This too ushers in a new part in the reputation for The united states. This might be a huge nod to those great US frontrunners before United States who risked every little thing to ensure We find ourselves at this accurate moment in time. We ought to offer as a result of these people just who both tirelessly and unselfishly gave their particular resides to mix and also to assist shatter the racial, sexual and personal boundaries imbued in the reputation for the usa of America.

It’s now happened. There’s a palpable renewed feeling of expect a far better the next day – a HOPE these same crippling boundaries shall finally forever be erased. Yet it is advisable to don’t forget the adage, "Actions talk louder than words" and Our rhetoric must today be changed into action. The capacity to certainly rise above variations also to not only talk about this, informs much of Our lengthy and constant trip. If We remember the old North American Indian saying, "We cannot inherit our planet from our ancestors, we borrow it from our youngsters." We may just have a fighting opportunity.

Individuals have talked! A record-setting 130 million Us citizens’ proved to vote in Tuesday’s election, in which Barack Obama made record on a Democratic tidal trend of triumph. Polling suggests voters arrived on the scene in record numbers considering growing problems throughout the economic climate, tasks, medical care, power, additionally the war in Iraq.

Plainly, the federal government therefore the brand new Democratic bulk in Washington have actually the opportunity to make powerful alterations in Our everyday lives – stretching ­from Wall Street to Main Street. Indeed, this moment shows decency about individual possibility and why don’t we face it, we’re able to utilize only a little decency TODAY.

Possibly moreover, this moment speaks volumes because’s an utter rejection for the right’s politics of fear and greed? It’ll now be years before there is another Republican bulk in Congress. Do not have the language, "Ask not exacltly what the nation may do obtainable, but what you could do for Your nation," seemed much more real for MANY. For, We-Are-Our-country. And We’re at a MAJOR crossroads. Where, oh where to start?

OBAMA / BIDEN Promotion.

In ny, performing Families voters, members, affiliates, followers and part frontrunners poured every little thing that they had into vital promotions that proved effective. Many are now naturally exhausted – though significantly more than slightly happy with that which was carried out. And, the outcome had been fantastic ~ or even downright historical. For the first time considering that the mid-1930, the State Senate will NO LONGER be controlled by Republicans. It is today in the possession of of a Democratic performing Families bulk! Just-take-one-moment-and-soak-this-in. MASSIVE Democratic majorities in BOTH your house plus the SENATE!

Together, the W.F.P built a great cooperation with Senate Democrats, knocking on over fifty percent a million doorways for progressive CHANGE. And, in the long run, "We the People" overwhelmingly reacted. This is a MILESTONE. There’s now a renewed feeling of real HOPE resonating from Washington, without a doubt, across the world. This is certainly powerful. Because, without HOPE, there’s merely nothing to get.

But We must take care not to fall victim to disillusionment. If illusions tear People asunder, after that disillusion outright kills the individual nature. This basically means, divided THEY conquer, united, WE stand. That this historic minute ended up being ushered in during local United states Indian month is apropos. Because, we ought to not forget the very genuine foundations for this idealistic country and spend homage to the 500 plus year challenge of Our very first Peoples’ for the fundamental liberties afforded all of them within very own Constitution. Obama’s success should indeed be a victory representing the multitudes. It is precisely because his success mirrors the public, without several wealthy, power-elite that this is really so electrifying. A VERY palpable, "Finally!" ended up being the phrase heard ’round the planet.

The entire world woke up WEDNESDAY using genuine chance for a really RARE CHANCE – ideal generally in most Our lifetimes. This really is a chance to undoubtedly change The united states.

But, We mustn’t your investment very difficult realities existing inside country. Only ask any woman…any "person of color"…or, any First Peoples surviving in this "great" land. For, as long as indigenous American Indians within our country still are now living in policies of containment on reservations minus the really fundamentals, particularly working water, electricity, or heat… provided more than 75per cent regarding the prison population includes African-Americans, very first and Taino Peoples …as lengthy once we still enable Our income tax dollars spent become 3 x more per among these prisoners per mind than on our personal college childrens’ training…as very long as American females still earn not as much as males for the SAME work…as long even as we enable privately held corporations to occur without extreme PRINCIPAL reform…as long as We consistently enable our youngsters to trample on international soil to destroy and to be killed in "Our" names…as long once we sit idly by expecting or content to let other people to "Do the best thing," for all of us… providing we do not ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE TOGETHER in challenging and fighting for the OWN WELL-BEING for the improvement of future generations… provided We choose to stay ignorant plus in denial to the faults…TRUE CHANGE can, and will NEVER HAPPEN.

Though, like such a thing uncommon and special, we should very first just take correct time for you Honor…to offer by way of those before united states just who, without their commitment and sacrifice, made this moment feasible. We ought to get together. Immediate formulation and a proper plan to defend and protect this minute with intense dedication is required. Brand new frontrunners are required and can emerge therefore we provide moments such as this become the norm, in the place of only token fluke. When we HOPE to change Tuesday’s results into a real break from the shipwreck of the most immediate final thirty years – We MUST start with realizing this election presents that – a START. It is Round One of Our LONGER and CONTINUOUS fight.

And, Round Two should be just like difficult, if not more so. Keeping this course could easily be forgotten when People are dying from inadequate health care; when they’ve found themselves from the streets for insufficient shelter so that as they develop more and more desperate because lack of job possibilities. Only ask people of Native or African US descent. Or, one of Our homeless veterans living on America’s roads of plenty.

Indeed, the home of cards has dropped HARD and FAST. And, President / V.P. elect Barack Obama and Joe Biden have passed down numerous seemingly insurmountable difficulties. GENUINE CHANGE – maybe not rhetoric – is what’s required. And have it, we should demand it. We MUST march and start to become watchdogs for the sake of the coming years. Interaction with this political leaders is vital. Most of all, we ought to stand TOGETHER and start to become happy to fight to safeguard what is right and what is advantageous to the countless, NOT the FEW.

UNITED We STAY, DIVIDED, We FALL.

A President Obama will have to be simultaneously supported AND pressed. His training as a community organizer provides one self-confidence which he’ll not just understand, but should also anticipate this dynamic. It really is imperative for people to mind the trusty, "Follow the money" strategy. Do not forget, president-elect Obama dually made record by raising the essential unprecedented quantity of campaign bucks inside reputation for U.S. Presidential elections. In accordance with CNN, if annualized, the Obama promotion’s advertisement paying for the post-primary Presidential campaign would arrive at US0 million. This quantity is exceeded amongst big corporations such as for instance Verizon and AT&T – both heavy sponsors for the Republican plus the Democratic national celebration conventions.

At the start of October, the Democratic nationwide Committee revealed it lifted US.9 million with US.5 million sitting in bank. The celebration raised cash through-joint fund-raising occasions with Obama and was able to make use of that cash to aid his candidacy. These figures had been only feasible because he opted from the public financing system for fall promotion. John McCain thought we would be involved in the device, which limited him to United States million the September / October stretch before the election. After in the beginning guaranteeing to simply accept general public funding if McCain did, Obama changed their head after establishing main fund-raising records. Actually, once the primaries struck, Obama ended up being raising around US million everyday. The Obama / Biden campaign increased over US0 million in September alone – a stunning and unprecedented eruption of political giving. This extraordinary fund-raising will set an innovative new standard in politics which could doom current taxpayer-paid system create within the 1970’s.

HOPEfully never.

The party presidential nominees – Democrat Barack Obama and Republican John McCain – collectively invested above US BILLION, also an unprecedented figure. Based on White home for Sale, a nonpartisan team that monitors political giving, Obama had 605 bundlers, or donors just who collect money from friends and associates and bundle all of them together. Four years ago, Democrat John F. Kerry had 588 bundlers and, in 2000, Al Gore had not one. McCain had 851 bundlers doing work for their promotion, in comparison to 557 whom lifted money for Bush-Cheney re-election committee in 2004. George W. Bush is largely credited with institutionalizing the role of bundlers in 2000, as he recruited a then unprecedented 555 surrogate fundraisers.

Ask Yourselves: Who really benefits many from having contributed to your Obama / Biden campaign?

President – elect Barack Obama & John McCain’s U.S. Presidential campaign resources details:

OBAMA:
Complete:US0,767,963
Bundlers:605
LobbyistBundlers:17

MCCAIN:
Total: US2,525,058
Bundlers: 851
Lobbyist Bundlers: 77

Start to see the Center for Responsive Politics Presidential campaign monies for a far better viewpoint:

2008: Obama AND McCain – US.3 BILLION

(Obama: US0,767,963 million / McCain: US2,525,058 million)

2004: Bush AND Kerry – US.2 BILLION

2000: Gore AND Bush – US.56 MILLION

1996: Dole AND Clinton – US.82 MILLION

1992: Clinton AND Bush – US.24 MILLION

* TO SEARCH FOR MEGA-DONERS, Follow this link: www.whitehouseforsale.org/searchDonor.cfm?CandidateSelect… McCain&StateSelect=&SortOrder=Last_Name, First_Name, Middle_Name, Suffix.*

Democrats in Washington and will be under enormous stress to "play it safe", even while everybody knows We need bold activity plus some sorts of brand new, New contract. And, when we permit the "play-it-safe" crowd to dominate, then Obama (and We) will likely not be successful. Make NO mistake: the organization big-wigs and free-market fundamentalists see this for exactly what it is: THE FIGHT OF A LIFETIME. They want nothing more than when it comes to Democrats to let you down, because then your HOPEfulness that Obama presents can be crammed back in the container and cynicism can again regain its devote Our nationwide political culture.

We Can Not Let This Happen!

Whether it’s revamping our health treatment system…implementing a fresh fair-based trade policy…creating a sound, realistic and really thought-out immigration plan…jobs programs…organizing legal rights in Washington, or promotion election reform, household leave or reasonable fees, this election features set the stage for a completely brand new social agreement amongst the government and the individuals. This election opens up up an actual chance – tiny, but real – that individuals could make real progress as a society, with regards to equality and freedom and true sustainability. To put it differently, the democracy We preach, but do not teach. Exactly what comes next is up to United States. And, we have to really prepared OURSELVES.

In short, the true concept of this election hasn’t yet been determined.

Overall, there’s lots of work to do. It’s crucial that EVERYONE do his share – whether this means attending an area or union conference, signing a petition, organizing or operating a bus to a demonstration, taking place a lobby go to, making an economic share, or just talking to a stranger concerning the need and desirability regarding the common great.

Thank you for all you do!
Live your values. Love your nation.
And, keep in mind: TOGETHER, We can make a D-I-F-F-E-R-E-N-C-E !

Bush Crimes: IMPEACH BUSH before Bush pardons himself: 73 times left.
bad credit car loan
Image by eyewashdesign: A. Golden
Brand new Yorkers Protest the US0 BILLION (US TRILLION) Wall Street BAILOUT: Wall Street, NYC – September 25, 2008

Phototgrapher: a. golden, eyewash design – c. 2008.

Pals,

The richest 400 Americans — you got that right, only four-hundred folks — very own MORE than underneath 150 million Us americans COMBINED! 400 regarding the wealthiest People in the us have much more stashed away than half the entire country! Their combined web well worth is .6 trillion. During the eight several years of the Bush management, their wealth has increased by almost 0 billion — similar quantity they were demanding We give to them the "bailout." How about we they simply spend the cash they made under Bush to bail themselves on? They would still have nearly a trillion dollars left to distribute amongst on their own!

Needless to say, they’re not planning to accomplish that — at the least not voluntarily. George W. Bush had been given a 7 billion surplus when Bill Clinton left company. Because that cash had been OUR cash and not HIS, he performed just what the wealthy prefer to do — spend it and do not look straight back. We now have a .5 trillion debt that will take seven years that to recover. The reason why — on –earth – did — our — "representatives" — give — these — robber — barons — $US850 BILLION — of – the — money?

The other day, recommended my personal bailout program. My recommendations, the following, had been predicated on the singular and easy belief that rich must pull on their own up by their particular platinum bootstraps. Sorry, fellows, nevertheless drilled it into our minds one way too many times: THERE…IS…NO…FREE… LUNCH ~ STAGE! And thanks for motivating us to hate men and women on benefit! So, there needs to have been NO HANDOUTS FROM United States FOR YOUR REQUIREMENTS! Final Friday, after voting from this BAILOUT, in an unprecedented turn of occasions, the home FLIP-FLOPPED their particular "No" Vote & said "Yes", in a hurry form of a "bailout" costs vote. NOTWITHSTANDING THE PEOPLE’S OVERWHELMING DISAPPROVAL FOR THIS BAILOUT BILL… DESPITE MILLIONS OF CALLS FROM SOCIETY CRASHING WASHINGTON "representatives’" PHONE LINES…IN SPITE OF CRASHING your POLITICIAN’S WEBSITES…IN SPITE OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS PROTESTING ACROSS THE COUNTRY… THEY VOTED WITH THIS BAILOUT! The individuals initially been successful on Monday with all the House, but failed take action utilizing the Senate then YOUR HOUSE FIRED UP US TOO!

It really is obvious, however, we can’t just continue protesting without proposing exactly what it is we think THESE IDIOTS should/’ve do/one. So, after consulting with a number of people smarter than Phil Gramm, here’s the proposal, now-known as "Mike’s Rescue Arrange." (From Michael Moore’s Bailout Arrange) It has 10 easy, straightforward things. They have been that you DIDN’T, BUT SHOULD’VE:

1. APPOINTED A PARTICULAR PROSECUTOR TO CRIMINALLY INDICT ANYBODY ON WALL STREET WHO KNOWINGLY CONTRIBUTED FOR THIS COLLAPSE. Before any brand-new money had been expended, Congress need to have dedicated, by resolution, to CRIMINALLY PROSECUTE ANYONE who had ANYTHING to do with all the attempted SACKING OF YOUR ECONOMY. This means anyone who committed insider trading, securities fraud or any action that assisted cause this failure needs and MUST CHECK-OUT JAIL! This Congress MUST HAVE needed an unique Prosecutor that would vigorously go after everybody whom developed the mess, and anyone else just who attempts to con the general public in future. (i love Elliot Spitzer ~ therefore, he played a little hanky-panky…Wall Street hates him & this is a GOOD thing.)

2. THE DEEP MUST HAVE TAKEN CARE OF THEIR OWN BAILOUT! They might have to inhabit 5 houses in the place of 7. They may need certainly to drive 9 vehicles instead of 13. The cook for mini-terriers may have to be reassigned. But there is however not a way in hell, after forcing household earnings to go down over ,000 dollars through the Bush many years, that working people and also the middle-income group need to have to fork over one dime to underwrite another yacht purchase.

If they undoubtedly required the 0 billion they do say they required, well, listed here is a simple way they are able to have raised it:

a) Every couple makeing over a million bucks annually and every single taxpayer which makes over 0,000 a year should spend a 10percent surcharge tax for 5 years. (oahu is the Senator Sanders program. He’s like Colonel Sanders, only he’s off to fry the right chickens.) Meaning the wealthy will have however been spending less income tax than whenever Carter ended up being president. That could have raise a total of 0 billion.

b) Like nearly every various other democracy, they ought to have recharged a 0.25percent income tax on every stock exchange. This will have raised over 0 billion in per year.

c) Because every stockholder is a patriotic United states, stockholders needs to have forgone obtaining a dividend check for one-quarter and alternatively this money could have gone the treasury to aid pay for the bullsh*t bailout.

d) 25percent of significant U.S. corporations at this time pay NO national income-tax. National business tax profits at this time total 1.7% associated with the GDP compared to 5% within the 1950s. If we lifted the organization income-tax back once again to the amount associated with the 1950s, this will provide us with a supplementary 0 billion.

All of this combined need been enough to end the calamity. The wealthy would have gotten to keep their particular mansions and their servants and our United States federal government ("COUNTRY VERY FIRST!") would’ve have a little leftover to correct some roadways, bridges and schools…

3. YOU NEED TO HAVE BAIL-OUT THE PEOPLE DROPPING THEIR HOMES, NOT THE FOLKS WHO WILL BUILD AN EIGHTH HOME! You can find 1.3 million houses in property foreclosure right now. That’s what exactly is at the heart for this issue. Therefore, in the place of providing the amount of money on banks as a gift, they need to have paid down each of these mortgages by 0,000. They need to have required the financial institutions to renegotiate the home loan so the homeowner could spend on its current worth. To guarantee that help wouldn’t go to investors and those just who attempted to making money by flipping homes, the bailout should have just been for people’s main residences. And, in return for the 0K pay-down from the current mortgage, the federal government might have gotten to share when you look at the holding of the home loan so it could easily get a few of its money back. Hence, the total preliminary cost of repairing the home loan crisis at its origins (rather than using money grubbing lenders) is 0 billion, perhaps not 0 BILLION.

And why don’t we set the record right. Those who have defaulted to their mortgages aren’t "bad dangers." These are generally our other People in the us, and all they wanted ended up being what we all wish: a home to call unique. But, throughout the Bush many years, an incredible number of the People destroyed the good paying tasks they’d. SIX MILLION fell into poverty! SEVEN MILLION lost their own health insurance coverage! And, every one of all of them saw their particular genuine wages drop by ,000! Those who DARE look down upon these People in the us who got hit with one bad break after another must be ASHAMED.! we have been a better, stronger, safer and happier society when all of our people can afford to call home in a property they have.

4. AROUND MUST HAVE BEEN A STIPULATION THAT IF YOUR BANK OR COMPANY GOT ANY OF the PROFIT A "BAILOUT," THEN WE OWN YOU. Sorry, which is how it really is done. In the event that lender offers me personally money and so I can find a residence, the lender "owns" that house until I pay everything straight back — with interest. Exact same offer for Wall Street. Whatever cash you’ll want to stay afloat, if our federal government views you a safe risk — and required for the nice of country — you’ll be able to get financing, but WE OUGHT TO OWN YOU. If you default, we are going to offer you. This is the way the Swedish federal government made it happen also it worked.

5. each REGULATIONS NEEDS BEEN BE RESTORED. THE REAGAN REVOLUTION IS DEAD! This catastrophe occurred because we let the fox possess secrets to the hen-house. In 1999, Phil Gramm authored a bill to eliminate most of the regulations that governed Wall Street and our bank system. The bill passed and Clinton finalized it. This is what Sen.Phil Gramm, McCain’s primary financial advisor, stated at costs signing:

"in 1930s … it absolutely was thought that government was the solution. It was thought that security and development originated from government overriding the performance of no-cost areas.

"We are here today to repeal [that] because we’ve learned that federal government is not the response. We’ve discovered that freedom and competition would be the answers. We’ve learned that we promote financial development therefore we promote security with competitors and freedom.

"i’m pleased is here because this is a vital costs; it’s a deregulatory bill. I believe that this is the revolution for the future, and I also am awfully proud having been an integral part of rendering it possible."

BECAUSE OF THIS TO NOT EVER REOCCUR, This BILL NEED BEEN REPEALED! Bill Clinton could have assisted by leading the time and effort for repeal of Gramm bill while the reinstating of even harder regulations with regards to our finance institutions. When they certainly were finished with that, they need to have restored the laws the air companies, the assessment of your food, the oil business, OSHA, and every various other entity that impacts our everyday life. All oversight provisions for "bailout" should have had enforcement monies attached with all of them and unlawful charges for all offenders.

6. IF IT IS TOO-BIG TO FAIL, THEN WHICH MEANS IT REALLY IS TOO BIG TO EXIST! Permitting the development of these mega-mergers and not enforcing the monopoly and anti-trust regulations has actually allowed numerous financial institutions and corporations to become so large, ab muscles thought of their particular failure implies a much larger failure across the entire economic climate. No body or TWO companies should EVER have this kind of energy! The so-called "economic Pearl Harbor" cannot take place when you have hundreds — thousands — of organizations where people have their cash. Once we have twelve auto companies, if a person goes belly-up, we do not FACE A NATIONAL DISASTER! Whenever we have actually three separately-owned day-to-day periodicals in your area, the other news organization cannot phone most of the shots (I know… exactly what are I thinking?! Just who reads a paper anymore? Sure happy dozens of mergers and buyouts left us with a powerful and "FREE" press!). Laws need already been enacted to prevent organizations from becoming therefore huge and prominent that with one slingshot to the eye, the GIANT FALLS and DIES. With no establishment should-be permitted to arranged money schemes that NO ONE understands. If you fail to describe it in two phrases, avoid being using any person’s money!

7. NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD EVER BE PAID MORE THAN 40 TIMES THEIR TYPICAL EMPLOYEE, WITH NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD GET ANY TYPE OF "PARACHUTE" BESIDES THE GENEROUS SALARY HE OR SHE MADE WHILST WORKING FOR THE ORGANIZATION. In 1980, the common American CEO made 45 times what their staff made. By 2003, these were making 254 times just what their staff made. After 8 years of Bush, they today make over 400 times just what their normal employee makes. Exactly how we have permitted this to happen at publicly held businesses is beyond explanation. In Britain, the average CEO makes 28 times just what their particular normal staff member makes. In Japan, it is only 17 times! The very last we heard, the CEO of Toyota was living the high life in Tokyo. How can he do it on therefore little cash? Really, this is an OUTRAGE! We now have created the mess we’re in by allowing the individuals at the very top become bloated past belief with vast amounts. IT HAS TO PREVENT! Not just should no administrator whom obtains help for this mess make money from it, but any manager who was simply responsible for running his business in to the ground should-be FIRED before the company obtains ANY help.

8. CONGRESS NEEDS STRENGTHENED THE FDIC MAKING IT A MODEL FOR PROTECTING NOT MERELY INDIVIDUALS SAVINGS, BUT IN ADDITION THEIR PENSIONS AND THEIR HOMES. Obama ended up being proper to recommend broadening FDIC defense of men and women’s savings inside their financial institutions to 0,000. But, this exact same kind of federal government insurance coverage must certanly be provided to our NEVER have to worry about set up money they will have store with regards to their old-age is there. This would have meant rigid federal government supervision of organizations just who handle their workers’ resources — or it indicates the companies need to have already been obligated to turn over those resources and their management to your government? People’s private pension funds must be protected, but maybe it is time to start thinking about without having one’s retirement dedicated to the casino referred to as currency markets??? Our government need a solemn responsibility to guarantee that nobody just who grows old within nation has got to be worried about getting destitute.

9. EVERYONE HAS TO TAKE A GOOD DEEP BREATH, RELAX, AND NEVER LET FEAR RULE YOUR DAY. Turn fully off your TVs! We are NOT in 2nd Great anxiety. The sky is NOT dropping, Chicken minimal! Pundits and political leaders have lied to us therefore QUICK and FURIOUS it really is hard not to ever be affected by most of the worry mongering. Even we blogged to and continued what I heard in the news a week ago, that the Dow had the biggest one-day fall with its record. Well, that was true with regards to things, but its 7per cent fall arrived nowhere near Black Monday in 1987 if the currency markets in one single time lost 23per cent of the value. Within the ’80s, 3,000 banking institutions sealed, but America didn’t walk out business. These institutions have actually always had their particular pros and cons and in the end it works aside. It’s to, considering that the rich hate their particular wide range being disrupted! Obtained a vested fascination with soothing things down and getting back into their Jacuzzis before they slip into their particular million thread-count sheets to drift off to a peaceful, Vodka tonic and Ambien-induced slumber.

As crazy as things tend to be now, tens of thousands of folks got car finance last week. Thousands went to the financial institution and got a home loan to buy a home. Pupils only returning to college found financial institutions over thrilled to place them into hock for the next fifteen years with a student-based loan. I was also pre-approved for a USK personal bank loan. Yes, life moved on with little-or-no-change (besides the whopping 6.1% jobless rate, but that took place final month). Not an individual lost any of his or her monies in lender, or a treasury note, or in a CD. And, the perhaps the most amazing thing is the fact that the US public FINALLY don’t buy the scare promotion. The residents don’t blink, as an alternative informing Congress to just take that bailout and shove it. THAT was impressive. Why don’t the population succumb toward fright-filled warnings from their president along with his cronies? Well, you’ll only state ‘Saddam gets the bomb’ numerous times before the folks recognize you are a lying sack of shit. After eight long years, the country is worn-out and simply can not go anymore. The WORLD is fed-up & I do not blame all of them.

10. THEY NEED TO HAVE CREATED A NATIONAL BANK, A "PEOPLE’S BANK." Since they’re actually itching to print up a trillion dollars, as opposed to giving it to some rich individuals, let us provide to ourselves? Now that We possess Freddie and Fannie, you will want to arranged a People’s bank? One which provides low-interest financial loans for many sorts of individuals who desire to own a house, begin your small business, check-out college, produce the cure for cancer tumors or produce the next great invention. And, since we own AIG – the nation’s largest insurance carrier – let’s take the next thing and offer HEALTH INSURANCE FOR EVERYBODY. MEDICARE FOR SEVERAL! It’ll SAVE us SO MUCH profit the long term (not forgetting bring peace of mind to all). And, The united states won’t be twelfth on the life expectancy record! We will have the ability to have an extended lifespan, appreciating our government-protected retirement and can live to start to see the day once the corporate crooks who caused this much distress tend to be let-out of prison to make certain that we are able to assist re-acclimate all of them to the usual ordinary, civilian life — a life with ONE nice residence and ONE gas-free car created with assistance from individuals’s Bank.

P.S. Call your Senators today !!! —> www.visi.com/juan/congress/

Because they voted against moving the expansion of unemployment benefits and skipped off to "campaign" to us to-be re-elected…call all of them and inform them could vote for various other "guy" if they aren’t getting their work together!

—————————————————–

UPGRADE: THE PEOPLE NEED VOTED! A HISTORIC MOMENT: NOVEMBER 4th 2008!

——> THE Historical ELECTION <——

"A operate in PROGRESS."

Nov. 4th, 2008.

An excellent United states frontrunner once said, "As specific fingers we are able to easily be broken. But TOGETHER We make a mighty fist." These terms also had been talked by a minority frontrunner. He was the venerable Chief Sitting Bull. No, Barack Obama’s perhaps not the initial American minority to talk eloquently and he most definitely will not be the final. Though, in the end, this election was not also shut !!! The world watched since, "YES WE ARE ABLE TO!" converted into, "YES WE DID!" as it today ushers in, "YES WE SHOULD!" time happens to be!

Everything we do using this moment shall determine US, forthright. The united states has now chosen a man with a history of partial African – US descent as president-elect. A unique frontrunner with roots from Kenya to Kansas (with a step-father from Indonesia), would be employed in conjunction with a vice-Presidential of Anglo-European roots. This is some thing by which residents of events – both here and world ’round – have actually loudly REJOICED. The reason why discuss competition? Is competition important? You bet! Because – like it or perhaps not – race has dominated and governed Our daily life for thousands of years. Most likely: "To know in which we are going, we should initially know where we have been".

We have come a LONG Way child! The thing that was as soon as "acceptable" in 1965 is not any longer in 2008 and THANKFULLY.

This might be a switching associated with the guard. Specially since forty-percent of America’s populace is known as to-be a "minority". Only four years removed, the repression of African slaves by Anglo Saxons caused thousands of brothers to eliminate brothers in a viscous and bloody battle that changed might principals with this Constitutional Republic from rhetoric to truth. This too ended up being a substantial changing of shield.

The very first time in the reputation for the nation, the ancestors among these same people who so passionately fought for slavery have now OVERWHELMINGLY voted for a minority leader. This too ushers in a new chapter inside history of America. This might be a significant nod to those great American leaders before Us which risked everything in order for We discover ourselves at this precise moment in time. We ought to give as a result of these gents and ladies which both tirelessly and unselfishly provided their particular life to mix and help shatter the racial, sexual and social boundaries imbued when you look at the reputation for america of The united states.

It offers today taken place. There’s a palpable renewed sense of a cure for a better the next day – a HOPE that these exact same crippling boundaries shall finally for good be erased. Yet it is wise to also remember the adage, "Actions speak louder than words" and Our rhetoric must now be changed into action. The capacity to undoubtedly go above differences and to not merely talk about doing this, tells much of Our long and continuous journey. If We recall the old North American Indian saying, "We try not to inherit our planet from our ancestors, we borrow it from our kids." We may just have a fighting chance.

The folks have actually spoken! A record-setting 130 million People in the us’ ended up to vote in Tuesday’s election, for which Barack Obama made record on a Democratic tidal wave of victory. Polling proposes voters arrived on the scene in record figures as a result of growing issues within the economy, tasks, medical care, power, together with war in Iraq.

Plainly, the Obama administration plus the brand new Democratic vast majority in Washington have actually an opportunity to make powerful alterations in Our resides – stretching ­from Wall Street to principal Street. Indeed, this minute shows decency about man chance and let’s face it, We could utilize somewhat decency RIGHT NOW.

Perhaps more to the point, this minute speaks amounts whilst’s a complete rejection regarding the right’s politics of anxiety and greed? It’s going to now be decades before there is another Republican bulk in Congress. Do not have the language, "Ask perhaps not exactly what your country can do for You, but what you are able to do for the nation," felt much more real for SO MANY. For, We-Are-Our-country. So we’re at a significant crossroads. Where, oh how to start?

OBAMA / BIDEN Promotion.

In ny, performing Families voters, people, affiliates, supporters and part leaders poured every thing they’d into important promotions that shown successful. Many are now naturally fatigued – though over only a little pleased with what was accomplished. And, the results were terrific ~ or even downright historical. The very first time because the mid-1930, the State Senate will not be controlled by Republicans. It’s today in the hands of a Democratic performing households majority! Just-take-one-moment-and-soak-this-in. MASSIVE Democratic majorities in BOTH the HOUSE and the SENATE!

Collectively, the W.F.P built a good relationship with Senate Democrats, knocking on more than half a million doorways for progressive CHANGE. And, in the long run, "We the People" overwhelmingly reacted. This will be a MILESTONE. There’s today a renewed feeling of genuine HOPE resonating from Washington, certainly, all over the world. This might be effective. Because, without HOPE, there is simply nothing to get.

However, we should take care not to fall prey to disillusionment. If illusions tear individuals asunder, after that disillusion outright eliminates the human character. In other words, split THEY beat, united, WE stand. That this historical minute had been ushered in during local United states Indian month is apropos. Because, We must keep in mind the genuine foundations with this idealistic country and spend homage towards 500 plus year struggle of your First Peoples’ when it comes to standard rights afforded all of them within own Constitution. Obama’s triumph should indeed be a victory representing the multitudes. It is exactly because his success mirrors the masses, instead of various affluent, power-elite this can be so electrifying. A VERY palpable, "Finally!" was the expression heard ’round the world.

Society woke up WEDNESDAY with the genuine risk of a very RARE CHANCE – the very best generally in most Our lifetimes. This is the opportunity to really transform The united states.

But, we ought ton’t forget the quite difficult realities current in this nation. Only ask any woman…any "person of color"…or, any First Peoples residing in this "great" land. For, so long as Native United states Indians in Our nation nonetheless inhabit guidelines of containment on reservations without the really tips, such as for example working water, electricity, or temperature… providing a lot more than 75per cent regarding the jail populace includes African-Americans, very first and Taino Peoples …as lengthy even as we continue steadily to enable Our income tax bucks invested becoming 3 x much more per of those prisoners per mind than on Our own school childrens’ training…as long as American women still make not as much as men for similar work…as long once we enable privately held corporations to exist without extreme SIGNIFICANT reform…as long once we continue to allow our youngsters to trample on international soil to eliminate also to be killed in "Our" names…as long as We sit idly by expecting or content to let other individuals to "Do the best thing," for all of us… as long as We DON’T ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE TOGETHER in challenging and battling for the OWN WELL-BEING for improvement of future generations… provided We choose to stay ignorant and in denial to Our faults…TRUE CHANGE can, and will NEVER HAPPEN.

Though, like any such thing uncommon and special, we should first simply take appropriate time for you to Honor…to offer by way of those before us just who, without their particular commitment and give up, made this minute feasible. We ought to come together. Immediate formulation and a genuine plan to protect also to protect this minute with tough determination is required. Brand new frontrunners are needed and certainly will emerge therefore we assure moments such as this get to be the norm, in place of only token fluke. Whenever we desire to change Tuesday’s outcomes into a genuine break through the shipwreck of the very instant final thirty years – we should start with recognizing this election presents just that – a-start. It really is Round One of Our LONGER and CONTINUOUS struggle.

And, Round Two would be in the same way tough, if not more so. Keeping the program could easily be forgotten when People tend to be dying from inadequate health care; once they’ve discovered themselves from the streets for not enough refuge and as they grow more and more desperate because of decreased work opportunities. Just ask folks of local or African US descent. Or, our homeless veterans living on America’s streets of plenty.

Indeed, the house of cards features dropped cast in stone. And, President / V.P. elect Barack Obama and Joe Biden have actually inherited many seemingly insurmountable challenges. GENUINE CHANGE – perhaps not rhetoric – is exactly what’s required. And also to have it, we should need it. We MUST march and become watchdogs for the sake of the coming generations. Interaction with your political leaders is vital. First and foremost, We MUST stand TOGETHER and get happy to battle to protect what is correct and what’s best for the countless, NOT the limited.

UNITED We STAY, DIVIDED, We FALL.

A President Obama will need to be at the same time supported AND pressed. His instruction as a community organizer offers one confidence he’ll not merely realize, but should also anticipate this dynamic. It’s crucial for all of us to mind the trusty, "Follow the money" method. Don’t forget, President elect Obama dually made history by raising more unprecedented level of promotion bucks in the HISTORY of U.S. Presidential elections. According to CNN, if annualized, the Obama campaign’s advertisement spending on the post-primary Presidential promotion would started to US0 million. This amount is only surpassed amongst huge corporations eg Verizon and AT&T – both hefty sponsors regarding the Republican therefore the Democratic nationwide party conventions.

At the start of October, the Democratic National Committee launched it lifted US.9 million with US.5 million sitting in lender. The party lifted cash through-joint fund-raising events with Obama and surely could use that cash to assist their candidacy. These figures were only feasible because he opted out of the general public financing system for autumn promotion. John McCain chose to participate in the device, which restricted him to US million the September / October stretch before the election. After initially promising to simply accept general public financing if McCain did, Obama changed his brain after establishing main fund-raising files. Indeed, once the primaries struck, Obama ended up being increasing up to United States million every day. The Obama / Biden campaign raised more than US0 million in September alone – a wonderful and unprecedented eruption of political giving. This extraordinary fund-raising is likely to set a unique standard in politics that may doom the current taxpayer-paid system arranged within the 1970’s.

HOPEfully never.

The celebration presidential nominees – Democrat Barack Obama and Republican John McCain – collectively invested above United States BILLION, additionally an unprecedented figure. In accordance with White home obtainable, a nonpartisan group that tracks political offering, Obama had 605 bundlers, or donors which gather money from buddies and colleagues and bundle all of them together. Four years back, Democrat John F. Kerry had 588 bundlers and, in 2000, Al Gore had nothing. McCain had 851 bundlers employed by their campaign, when compared with 557 just who lifted cash for Bush-Cheney re-election committee in 2004. George W. Bush is largely credited with institutionalizing the role of bundlers in 2000, as he recruited a then unprecedented 555 surrogate fundraisers.

Ask Yourselves: Who actually benefits many from having donated toward Obama / Biden campaign?

President – elect Barack Obama & John McCain’s U.S. Presidential campaign resources details:

OBAMA:
Total:US0,767,963
Bundlers:605
LobbyistBundlers:17

MCCAIN:
Complete: US2,525,058
Bundlers: 851
Lobbyist Bundlers: 77

Understand Center for receptive Politics Presidential campaign monies for a better perspective:

2008: Obama AND McCain – US.3 BILLION

(Obama: US0,767,963 million / McCain: US2,525,058 million)

2004: Bush AND Kerry – US.2 BILLION

2000: Gore AND Bush – US.56 MILLION

1996: Dole AND Clinton – US.82 MILLION

1992: Clinton AND Bush – US.24 MILLION

* TO SEARCH FOR MEGA-DONERS, view here: www.whitehouseforsale.org/searchDonor.cfm?CandidateSelect… McCain&StateSelect=&SortOrder=Last_Name, First_Name, Middle_Name, Suffix.*

Democrats in Washington and will be under enormous stress to "play it safe", whilst everyone knows We need bold action many variety of new, brand new Deal. And, whenever we allow the "play-it-safe" audience to dominate, after that Obama (therefore we) will likely not succeed. Make NO blunder: the organization big-wigs and free-market fundamentalists see this for what it really is: THE FIGHT OF A VERY LONG TIME. They want only for Democrats to let you down, because then your HOPEfulness that Obama signifies is crammed back the bottle and cynicism can once more restore its invest Our nationwide governmental tradition.

We Cannot Let This Happen!

Whether it’s revamping our health and wellness treatment system…implementing a fair-based trade policy…creating an audio, practical and well thought-out immigration plan…jobs programs…organizing rights in Washington, or campaign election reform, household leave or fair fees, this election features set the phase for a completely brand new social agreement amongst the government while the People. This election starts up a genuine possibility – little, but real – we will make real development as a society, regarding equality and freedom and true sustainability. This means, the democracy We preach, but try not to instruct. What comes next is to US. And, We need to seriously ready OURSELVES.

In a nutshell, the real concept of this election hasn’t yet already been decided.

Overall, there are many work to do. It is crucial that EVERYONE do his share – whether what this means is attending a neighbor hood or union meeting, signing a petition, organizing or driving a coach to a demonstration, going on a lobby see, making a financial share, or simply just talking to a complete stranger in regards to the need and desirability for the typical good.

Thanks for all you do!
Real time your values. Love your nation.
And, remember: TOGETHER, we could make a D-I-F-F-E-R-E-N-C-E !

Nice Residence Equity photos

Check out these home equity images:

St. Catharines Masonic Hall 23 Centre Street Ontario Canada (25)
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A multitude of Jacob’s Ladders.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

– Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin
JACOB’S LADDER

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold ………….. Sun …………… Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……….. Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………….. World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……….. Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ……….. Heaven
2. Quicksilver .. Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead …………… Saturn ………. First World

– Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

– Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

– Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America
Museum of Freemasonry – Masonic Library

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . .with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament..

Early Rose Croix. www.flickr.com/photos/colmaralchimique/33540362490/in/pho…

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred inin a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Muskoka Lodge No. 360 Bracebridge, ON
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Image by antefixus21
A Masonic Jacob’s Ladder.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin

JACOB’S LADDER:

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold …………… Sun …………. Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……… Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………… World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……… Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ………. Heaven
2. Quicksilver . Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead ………….. Saturn ………. First World

Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . . with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament.

Early Rose Croix:

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred in a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

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Hamilton Hatter Part 2 – Books would be the Holy Road TRT: 25:43s
youtu.be/H95odtzcU1k

Browse script with matching photos –

1_My_Heart_Is_In_The_Mountains.jpg
(music) mama of limestone fountains! My heart goes back because of the establishing sun — My heart, my heart is within the Mountains!

2_The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (songs) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,

3_seizes opportunities to find out and get over
Hamilton Hatter seizes opportunities to learn and get over. At one college he develops youthful minds and even its structures –

4_then launches another university in his beloved western Virginia
then launches another college in his beloved western Virginia again – building minds – and buildings. But initially he’d to overcome. (songs)

5_and i will rejoice today within the belief the CLASS IS CERTAINLY GOING ON
"and I Could rejoice now in belief the SCHOOL IS CERTAINLY GOING ON!”

6_The kids were of both sexes, which range from three to twenty years of age
The kids were of both sexes, which range from three to twenty years old, neatly and easily clad, well fed, healthier, and cheerful,

7_intelligent countenances
with an unusual assortment of acceptable and smart countenances peering within the tops for the desks.

8_Northern reporter John Trowbridge stumbled on Charlestown
Northern reporter John Trowbridge found Charlestown in the early summer time of 1865, a war-worn city

9_with its ruins and seething
featuring its damages and seething and 6 months before Hatter’s college had been established truth be told there.

10_Trowbridge reached Charlestown
Trowbridge reached Charlestown in about May, 1865 expecting absolutely nothing in particular.

11_At the termination of an extended hour’s ride
At the conclusion of a lengthy hour’s ride, we attained Charles Town, mainly interesting in my opinion as host to John Brown’s martyrdom.

12_on the side of boundless unfenced areas
We alighted from train on the side of boundless unfenced areas, into whose melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied themselves – rivers to this ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my attention some unprotected female sitting,

13_sorrowfully from the wayside
sorrowfully in the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses dropped negligently about functions which could when were attractive.

14_On the measures of a boarding residence
Regarding measures of a boarding household i came across a friend whose countenance gleamed with pleasure

15_“at sight,” while he stated, “of one devoted face
“at picture,” while he said, “of a single loyal face for the reason that nest of secession.” He’d already been two or three times within the place looking forward to baggage which had been miscarried.

16_the belief toward secession through the entire County ahead of the Civil War varied extensively
While Jefferson County, western Virginia remains tiny, the sentiment toward secession through the entire County before the Civil War varied extensively, utilizing the hotbed of secessionist belief in the area around Charlestown and adjacent huge farms.

17_“They are Rebels here – all rebels!”
“They are typical Rebels right here – all rebels!” he exclaimed while he took his cane and stepped beside me. “They tend to be a pitiable poverty-stricken ready, there’s absolutely no money in the spot, and barely almost anything to eat.

18_We have for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We’ve for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for supper. At dinner, the fare is a little varied, and we also have actually treason, salt-fish potatoes, and more treason.

19_My landlady’ s girl is south fire incarnate
My landlady’ s child is south fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing north people together with federal government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Often I venture to answer the lady, whenever she flies at me personally, figuratively talking, like a cat. The ladies are not the only out-spoken Rebels, although they would be the worst.

20_The guys do not hesitate to declare their sentiments
The men don’t think twice to declare their particular sentiments, in period and out-of-season.” My buddy concluded with this particular figure:

21_The war feeling here is like a burning-bush with a wet blanket
“The war feeling listed here is like a burning bush with a wet-blanket wrapped around it. Viewed through the exterior, the fire seems quenched. But simply peep under the blanket and indeed there it really is, all live and eating, eating in. The wet blanket could be the present federal government policy; and every work of conciliation shown the Rebels is just permitting in a great deal environment to feed the fire.”

22_The day Hamilton came to be
A single day Hamilton came to be in April, 1856,

23_36-year-old Frank Hatter is apparently working
his parent 36-year-old Frank Hatter seems to be working one of Washington family members homesteads in County and

24_his mother 30-year-old Rebecca McCord ended up being working
most useful evidence suggests their mommy 30-year-old Rebecca McCord had been working together with the household Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their particular Charles Town home at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.

25_or with Rebecca’s moms and dads, William and Maria McCord, who lived in Kabletown, being neighbors for the big landowner here, Logan Osburn.
It’s unclear whether Hamilton, their brother George (who was simply born in 1853) along with his sibling Charlotte (born in 1858) existed with their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, who lived in Kabletown, being neighbors associated with large landowner indeed there, Logan Osburn.

26_School may be the Holy Road
Class may be the Holy path Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868

27_Once the complimentary will most likely Baptist Residence Mission community established a school
Once the totally free Will Baptist Residence Mission Society established a school to instruct those now freed,

28_Hamilton every day would go to the school
Hamilton daily would go toward college in Charles Town for freed African-Americans where

29_he would devote the revolutionary work
he’d dedicate the brand new act of learning to review, compose and think critically,

30_setting his footsteps on the long, hard but enthralling roa
establishing their footsteps regarding the long, hard but enthralling road to large grant and success.

31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of many women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, was one of several women from Maine borne by their particular Free will likely Baptist belief to begin Mission institutes in locations like Charlestown.

32_They had been determined to release the thoughts
They certainly were determined to free the minds of simply freed African-Americans –

33_and in 1860 27 % associated with County’s residents were enslaved individuals
as well as in 1860 27 percent associated with County’s residents were enslaved people. Multiple had opted during the war. Dudley, also a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,

34_and two other instructors
and two other educators who would show at Charlestown

35_came straight down by ship and train
came down by ship and train,

36_likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
most likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.

37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Skip Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach in the Charlestown Mission college too.

38_Dudley had written Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley composed Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight kilometers from Charles Town: “my goal is to Charlestown to open a school there in a few days.

39_The spirit that hung John Brown nevertheless lives
The character that hung John Brown however life, in addition to folks are strongly against schools the Freedman indeed there, plus right here.

40_I go alone
I go alone, but We trust the law in addition to Lord will shield me personally.”

41_townspeople at best were OK with teaching
Much more exactly the townspeople at the best were OK with training

42_but having refined ladies in general public relationship
those as soon as enslaved, but having refined women in public connection with those they as soon as had enslaved breeched a hackneyed presumption.

43_lady associated with the city to keep company with such a lady such as for example Miss Dudley
As well as a lady of the town to keep company with these types of a lady like skip Dudley from in other places – worse nonetheless from a Yankee state – could be a personal committing suicide in Charlestown.

44_Dudley wrote: “i really could get no permanent boarding location for almost 8 weeks”
Dudley wrote: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding location for nearly 8 weeks (for it would-have-been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee instructors while the

45_there might be no return to friends and culture
Rubicon when passed, there might be no come back to friends and culture, a maximum of across hills of caste in India, as general public belief ended up being)

46_so I became truth be told there alone
and so I was truth be told there alone, boarding myself and training day-and-night,

47_until I Experienced 150 scholars of all of the centuries and complexions”
until I’d 150 scholars of ages and complexions” teaching the rudiments of reading to all the “from white to black,

48_and of all of the ages
as well as all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” Because of this shunning, Dudley could only discover board and a school space all

49_freed African United States blacksmith
underneath the single roofing of freed African United states blacksmith Achilles Dixon along with his partner.

50_southeast spot of Samuel and Liberty streets
It was located on the southeast corner of Samuel and Liberty roads.

51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – formally the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. First organized in July, 1865, – 30 days after Trowbridge’s go to –

52_crucial part implementing the rights
the Bureau extended its jurisdiction on Eastern Panhandle witnessing the requirement and played a crucial role enforcing the liberties associated with the

53_when the West Virginia state was unable
recently freed and their educators at the same time as soon as the West Virginia state ended up being struggling to do so, particularly in Jefferson County.

54_the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent
Actually, the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent so she could have a school space, albeit just fifteen square feet. After becoming confronted with a mob, the troops with the Freedmen’s Bureau offered this lady an escort.

55_Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter within mind of my sleep during the night,

56_resolved to market my entire life since dearly as you can – if necessary
remedied to market my life as dearly as you can – if need be.”

57_to replace the ground-breaking Dudley with two educators
Overwhelmed by work that caused the house Mission community to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers as opposed to one out of the springtime of 1866, Dudley wrote that February:

58_No one could ever before understand the anxiety i’ve sensed
“No one could ever before understand the anxiety I have considered, in addition to energy i’ve must make those two lengthy months, since I have arrived here, occupying a rough wood house, cold as a barn, teaching and boarding in the same rooms because i possibly could not get board in other places, resting there without any man or guy in the house for solitary evening, whilst enemies for the school had been threatening without, and never once you understand what the next hour might bring; hearing a hundred various scholars recite lessons in a single day. performing my very own work, obtaining business, composing letters, etc. etc. and I can rejoice now within the belief that it’ll CONTINUE!”

59_Every day coming through little door
Every day coming through little door was her fondest hope.

60_Strother described them
Strother described them: The room is definitely complete to overflowing.

61_reduced one-half owing to the requirement
During the summer the attendance is reduced one-half owing to the need of this older pupils going on to service,

62_remunerative work of some type
or doing remunerative work of some sort.

63_comfortably clad, well-fed, healthy, and cheerful
The kids were of both sexes, neatly and easily clad, well-fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an unusual variety of agreeable and intelligent countenances peering over the tops regarding the desks. These were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,

64_rudeness related to the street-corner brat
without a trace for the barbaric squalor and rudeness regarding the street-corner brat of former days, sporadically found nowadays the type of which don’t go to school.

He continues:

65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
As the most of the students have come into existence since the Emancipation Proclamation, there is nonetheless lots over the age of that occasion, and some whose recollections antedate the great war. Yet inside their job of schooling they usually have all begun also.

66_It may also be seen the great scholars usually are outstripped by the little ones
It would likely additionally be observed the great scholars usually are outstripped by the kids, which just visits confirm the usually received opinion that young plants are far more effortlessly transplanted and trained than older ones more definitely real in mind and morals compared to horticulture.

67_i will remember the oft repeated prayer
Dudley had written to "The Morning Star," the complimentary will most likely Baptist publication: all coloured people manifested the greatest kindness towards us. I will always remember the oft-repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the teacher that comes a far distance to instruct us. Forward and fight her battles and deliver her safe house to Glory, if you please Jesus.”

The focus shifted to presenting a permanent school building. State law, because of amendments in 1865, segregated pupils by battle. State law by 1867, in addition needed going the task of offering training to African Americans

68_from the mission schools into regional college board.
from objective schools towards regional college board. But before a reorganization removed the Freedman’s Bureau altogether from Jefferson County in October, 1868,

69_the brand new school, supplying some 20,000 bricks and money for materials
Bureau management prodded the Charlestown’s college board to building the newest school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for materials to complement incomes the township school board would be to gather to construct the permanent school because of its African Us americans. The school under brand-new administration unsealed over time the autumn session in 1868.

70_The Freedmen Bureau men additionally engineered a match. It generated a choice by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall within the Tenth District associated with circuit courtroom reaffirming the ability to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling was then distributed and became getting a de facto policy through the condition.

71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) published in her own journal: “And here, I must confess your instructors at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert that the coloured folks of their costs will compare positively with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate just as much.”

72_Wrote Strother how the School Board eventually emerged around
Wrote Strother the way the class Board finally emerged around, throwing their reduced expectations: The County Commission of Examiners report most positively associated with the basic intelligence displayed because of the colored pupils, and of their progress in most the primary limbs of common-school training.

73_One regarding the brilliant faces when you look at the classroom
Among brilliant faces in class to benefit ended up being the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, whom saw

74_his globe starting
his globe starting and great through reading, it had been the road to his future.

Principal Credits:

With good, community-minded support from American Public University System. (The sentiments in this production cannot in any way mirror modern policies of APUS). Much more at apus.edu

Explored, Written, Produced, Narrated – Jim Surkamp

Musicians
"My Heart is in the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (public domain) Music by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright laws symbol) 2010, GHF musical, (terrytucker.net)

Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (cammillar.com)

Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright Shana Aisenberg. (shanasongs.com)

Sound FX:
kids playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free sfx.uk.com”

Sources:

Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An American Phoenix: A History of Storer university from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer printing-house.

Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. amount 49 concern 292 (September, 1874).

Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land in which we had been thinking, along with other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, combined ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.

“Sarah Jane Foster: Teacher associated with Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine Woman in the South following the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.

Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Western Virginia.” Western Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.

Taylor, James L. “A History of Black knowledge in Jefferson County, western Virginia, 1866-1966.”

Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The Southern: a trip of their battlefields and ruined towns, a trip through the desolated states, and speaks aided by the men and women: becoming an information associated with ongoing state associated with the country – its farming – railroads – business and finances.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.

Charles Ro Supply Co, “America’s Greatest Train Store”: Mustang and Corsair/Corvair
3 credit agencies
Image by Chris Devers
Charles Ro Supply Co, "America’s Largest Train Store". Pasting from Wikipedia:

Charles Ro Provide Business
USA Trains started out within Charles Ro Supply Company, the greatest train store, in addition to America’s biggest Lionel dealer. USA Trains is a family-run company, begun by dad and son Charles Ro senior and junior.

Lionel
Charles Ro Supply business ended up being established in also it started out as a beauty store company of 4 salons with sixty hairdressers but moved into the pastime business whenever Charles Ro, Sr. began attempting to sell made use of Lionel trains at one of the storefronts in Everett, Massachusetts. In 1972 Ro began buying straight from Lionel to sell them mail-order. By 1980, Ro had completed Lionel’s very first million dollar order. In addition currently, the organization moved to an innovative new location in Malden, Massachusetts into an old supermarket building. [4]

Garden trains
In 1982, Lionel relocated manufacturing to Mexico, perhaps not creating model trains for 9 months. Which will make up because of this, Ro began attempting to sell German-made large-scale design trains that were appropriate outdoor usage. Realizing their particular popularity, Ro started making his own large scale design trains underneath the name Charles Ro Manufacturing business. In 1989, business ended up being moved into a unique building, it really is existing place, in Malden, Massachusetts with 3 storeys and over 50,000 sqft of area. Until 1995, whenever manufactuuring ended up being moved offshore, USA Trains had been manufactured as of this new location that also served while the shop.

Awards/Recognition

In 1998, the GP 7/9 locomotive won Model Railroader‘s Reader’s Possibility Award
The Ultimate Series range introduced in 1999 won four audience’s option prizes
In 2003 , USA Train’s Jle Hudson won the 2003 Reader’s solution Award
United States Of America Trains claims to really have the earth’s largest variety of G scale rolling stock

Call Center Telemarketing – Choosing the right listing
3 credit agencies
Image by mgb321
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Nice Credit Bureaus photos

Some cool credit bureaus pictures:

[IDAHO-A-0359] Arrowrock Dam
credit bureaus
< img alt=" credit report bureaus" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/35269230890_0239eb941a.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Photo by< a href= ” http://www.flickr.com/photos/23487245@N08/35269230890″ > waterarchives Picture Title: Arrowrock Dam Day: July 13, 1916 Place: Boise River, 13

miles east of Boise, Idaho Description/Caption: On verso,” Arrowhead Rock Dam Idaho””

. Medium: vernacular black and white photograph.

Photographer/Maker: Unknown.

Point out as: ID-A-0359, WaterArchives.org.

Constraints: There are no known U.S. copyright constraints on this photo. While the electronic image is openly readily available, it is requested that < a href=" http://www.waterarchives.org "rel =" nofollow" > www.waterarchives.org be attributed as its source. For better recreations of the original physical variation contact< a href=" http://www.waterarchives.org "rel=" nofollow" >

www.waterarchives.org, constraints could apply. [IDAHO-A-0361] Arrowrock Dam< img alt=" credit scores bureaus" src=" https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4130/35269229990_d152f8152d.jpg" width=" 400"/ >
Image by
< a href=http://” http://www.flickr.com/photos/23487245@N08/35269229990″ > waterarchives Photo Title: Arrowrock Dam. Day:
c. 1920. Place: Boise River, 13 miles east of Boise, Idaho.
http://Description/Caption:
http://Tool: vernacular black and white negative.
http://Photographer/Maker: Unidentified.
http://Mention as: ID-A-0361, WaterArchives.org.
http://Limitations: There are no recognized U.S. copyright limitations on this picture. While the digital image is easily readily available, it is requested that
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05910201
credit application
< img alt="credit history application"src ="https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/33026034324_c4100ab7af.jpg"width ="400"/ > Picture by IAEA Imagebank The IAEA contributes unique devices as well as trains
researchers at the University of Bangui, Central African Republic, in the usage of nuclear-derived strategies. The researchers research study isotopes in water to discover things like the resource, quality as well as age of the water people consume alcohol. Main African Republic, 6 March 2017. Picture Debt: Laura Gil Martinez/ IAEA

Nice Good Credit Credit Card photos

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Check Credit
good credit credit card
Image by cafecredit
Photo by CafeCredit under CC 2.0

You can use this photo for FREE under Creative Commons license. Make sure to give proper author attribution to www.cafecredit.com.

Thank you for respecting Creative Commons license.

P.S. Need more photos like this? Check out my flickr profile page.

When you attempt to make a large purchase such as an automobile for example, the company will check your credit to ensure that you’re in good standing to make the purchase. Credit is also checked when you apply for credit cards by the credit card company to ensure you can make payments on time.

Web shots08068
good credit credit card
Image by ajschroetlin
The Chalk Bluffs early in the morning.

Taken on a trip to the Miracle Mile in Wyoming on the last weekend in March of 08 with a few of my pals. The fishing was no good because of the weather but it created ideal conditions for me.
So this place is somewhere my family has been taking me forever. My grandparents have a little Airstream trailer that sits up at the river year round. Propane heat, oven and stove. Roughing it, with a little comfort mixed in.
Conditions can be pretty rough, both in summer and winter…..and in March! It’s a long way out on dirt roads that see VERY little activity. If you break down it could be a day before you see anyone. On this trip we were reminded of just how vulnerable we as humans are to nature.

On Sunday, the day we planned to leave, we awoke to a little snow on the ground and pretty cold temperatures. It really wasn’t sticking to the ground though. The boys weren’t afraid and they tried their luck at the fishing again that morning. After a few hours they called it quits and we started to pack up and clean the trailer. My buddy really wanted to try and land a fish in the tough conditions so he went down to the river to try one last time before we headed home.
I joined him, to try and take a few photos of him fishing in the snow. As soon as we got to the river the snow picked up a little. Then a lot. He had barely gotten himself into the freezing cold water before he turned around and looked at me like, "Holy $%@#, we should probably get out of here!"
And we did. We locked up the trailer and hit the road.

Now my buddies were in a 4 wheel drive Jeep and I was in a front wheel drive Altima. No chains. We drove in on dry roads and we were leaving in blizzard conditions. There are a few different roads leading out of the Mile and I had to choose which one to take. One road takes you up and over a pass but once you get over the pass the roads are paved and it’s the shortest route. The other way is pretty flat but it’s out on the plains and many times the road drifts over and it’s hard to see where the road is. Sometimes the drifts are 10 feet tall and then you’re screwed, for lack of a better term. So I thought we’d try our luck at the pass. Yeah, not so much. The first major hill and my car started spinning about three quarters of the way up. Luckily we hadn’t gone down that road long before we realized it was not an option.

We turned around, or rather my car did a donut and turned me around and we headed the other way. I’ve driven in white out conditions before but nothing prepared me for the journey I, and my trusty friends, would take. Just like I suspected the road was full of drifts and with the blizzard conditions visibility was next to nothing. For two and a half hours I followed a few little bushes sticking out of the road hoping that I was on the right path. Honestly it was hard to see if I was on the road or out in the prairie. White as white could be.

We made it off of the dirt roads and to a little town called Hanna. Now if you’ve ever been to Wyoming you know that outside of a few of the "major" cities, EVERYTHING closes down at 6pm on a Sunday. We rolled into town about 5:55. Just enough time for me to get a pack of smokes at the grocery store and trust me I needed them. The folks at the store told us EVERY road out of Hanna was closed. Hanna has NO motels. None. I was pretty sure I was sleeping in my car that night cuddled up to my furry dog.

At this point we needed gas too. I always fill my tank before I head out on the dirt roads because I know what can happen. No real gas stations in Hanna but they do have a few pumps that take a credit card. That works, if only the pumps worked. No luck.

So we decided to drive a few more miles to Interstate 80 because we figured that was our best option. Luckily the highway ramp wasn’t closed and we decided to press our luck and try and get to Laramie which was about 70 miles away. Laramie was the only gas or lodging available. I had less than a quarter tank.

Actually I-80 was the best driving conditions we saw but that really isn’t saying much. Visibility was a little better though. We made it to Laramie, and gas, and we were again told that all roads out of Laramie were closed. Hundred of semis, cars and trucks sat at on ramps around Laramie. We decided to call Wyoming Dep’t of Transportation to see if Highway 287 was open. They said yes but probably not for long. We made it out of Laramie and got past the gates before they closed them. I’m not sure if that was a good thing or not, looking back.

By now it was dark, very cold, and the wind was blowing like crazy. My buddy took the lead because he had the 4 wheel drive and better headlights. The snow was whipping around and making it really hard to see. We had to drive a little ways, find a road marker, drive a little more till we spotted the next. Most cars in the other lane were stopped with their hazard lights on. We kept on trucking. Up and over the pass we went. We drove through piles of drifted snow. The wind howled like I’ve never seen it before. At one point it literally moved my car about 4 feet. Slid it right along the frozen ground. All of a sudden I was in the oncoming lane, or what I thing was the oncoming lane. Scary stuff.

So we finally made it back to Fort Collins. The wicked conditions didn’t let up until we reached the city limits. A trip that usually takes three and half hours took almost seven!
Seven hours of hunching over the steering wheel to see out of the windshield. Seven hours of gripping that steering wheel like it was a piece of rope and I was dangling over the edge. 🙂

I’m glad I had a few friends that didn’t panic and knew what they were doing. I’ve never been so glad to be home from a trip.

Thanks for reading my story.

Nice Complimentary Credit File Government photos

Some cool no-cost credit history government photos:

UK 2010 election: imagine if the Spanish electoral system had been used?
free credit file government
Image by oledoe
Licence: This image and associated information is licensed under an innovative commons licence. Which means it is possible to replicate it at no cost, however must credit me personally for creating it and connect back to these pages, e.g. "(cc) oledoe flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md". If any political party or any other organisation or individual with governmental association or propensity utilizes these, they ought to make it clear that I am not endorsing them or other political party or cause.

UK 2010 “what if” general election outcomes
The united kingdom recently voted in a broad election therefore the outcome is a parliament without any party having an outright bulk. One of the problems being hotly debated is electoral reform, possibly altering from a plurality (first-past-the-post) system to a single of proportional representation. There are various designs for this, each with positives and negatives. Some look for to mirror the diverse views for the electorate since precisely as you possibly can, others reduce this precision for greater governability or sensed equity (e.g. amplifying or decreasing results for small events or areas).

This is certainly only a believed experiment to fulfill my desire for just what the UK parliament would seem like had the ballots in 2010 general election been cast in an unusual electoral system. The four examples offered are “pure proportional representation”, the Spanish system, the German system and counting the vootes in line with the d’Hondt method. Due to the differences in amounts of MPs, regions and amounts of ballots, the results of these examples are necessarily approximations. If these system ended up being utilized in the UK, it would very first have to be adjusted to its special situations. Lastly, numerous voters might have voted in a different way in an unusual system. Therefore, do add a grain of sodium to those results!

Actual British results for comparison: flic.kr/p/7Zv9yA
"Pure" proportional representation: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Gy
Spanish system: flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md
German system: flic.kr/p/7ZrYpv
d’Hondt system: flic.kr/p/7ZZD7e

Note: so that you can attempt to illustrate possible majorities, I had to put the functions into some type of purchase from remaining to right. Since I have always been unfamiliar with most smaller parties, they might be in an order it doesn’t make much sense. No offence meant. I’d appreciate ideas for enhancement.

Note: the data resource may be the election result as reported by the BBC here: news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/election2010/results/ . During the time of writing, 649 off 650 seating being declared. Where appropriate to these calculations, I am assuming that the Conservatives will win the seat in Thirsk & Malton.

Note: in which applicable, I did not actually determine variety of seats using an approach including d’Hondt or Sainte-Laguë, as it is carried out in truth. Instead I simply utilized proportions and rounded the outcomes. This might lead to a difference of a seat or two every now and then according to which strategy is used.

— ABOUT THIS IMAGE —

This image ( flic.kr/p/7Zv9Md ) reveals the hypothetical result of the UK 2010 basic election if the seating in Parliament was allocated in accordance with the exact same system that chairs are allocated in Spanish Congreso de los Diputados. Truth be told there, each area gets a number of chairs in line with population dimensions, that are then distributed towards the functions proportionally relating to their leads to these areas. There is a 3per cent entry threshold, which means that parties who don’t get 3per cent of the vote, do not get any seating.

Hypothetical seat allocation within scenario:
Conventional: 240 seats
Labour: 199 seating
Liberal Democrat: 154 chairs
British Independence Party: 15 chairs
Scottish National Celebration: 11 seating
Democratic Unionist Party: 6 seating
Sinn Fein: 6 seats
British National Celebration: 5 seats
Plaid Cymru: 4 seats
Social Democratic & Labour celebration: 4 seating
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new energy: 4 chairs
Alliance Party: 1 chairs
Conventional Unionist Voice: 1 seats

So that you can approximate the Spanish electoral system utilising the Uk ballots, here’s what I did:

In place of the Spanish regions We used the 9 government workplace areas of England plus Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, leading to 12 regions. The Spanish Congreso de los Diputados has actually 350 chairs, whereas the united kingdom Parliament has 650 (which can be 1.86 times the maximum amount of). Therefore, rather than allocating 2 automatic seating to each area, we allocated 4 to every. The remaining 602 seats where allotted to the regions based on population information from the 2001 census ( www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001 ).

The Spanish system has a threshold of 3per cent of this vote for a celebration to get seats inside Congreso. I actually do perhaps not understand whether this limit is applied on the across the country results or within each area. But if it was applied to the entire British instead of by area, then just the big three plus UKIP would get any chairs, barring such events because the SNP or Plaid Cymru from entry into Parliament (ultimately punishing all of them for maybe not fielding prospects in England). Since I have never believe that such a system would previously be contemplated, I used the 3percent limit within each area. Therefore, the seating for every single area are distributed proportionately between all parties that received at least 3percent of the vote for the reason that area.

For completeness, here are the intermediate figures associated with computations:

FEW SEATING:
Region :: Population :: Pop per cent :: automated seats :: chairs for pop :: Total chairs
Scotland :: 5,062,011 :: 8.61% :: 4 :: 52 :: 56
Wales :: 2,903,085 :: 4.94per cent :: 4 :: 30 :: 34
Northern Ireland :: 1,685,267 :: 2.87per cent :: 4 :: 17 :: 21
North-west :: 6,729,764 :: 11.45percent :: 4 :: 69 :: 73
North East :: 2,515,442 :: 4.28% :: 4 :: 26 :: 30
Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: 4,964,833 :: 8.45percent :: 4 :: 51 :: 55
East Midlands :: 4,172,174 :: 7.10percent :: 4 :: 43 :: 47
Western Midlands :: 5,267,308 :: 8.96per cent :: 4 :: 54 :: 58
Eastern :: 5,388,140 :: 9.17per cent :: 4 :: 55 :: 59
South East :: 8,000,645 :: 13.61per cent :: 4 :: 82 :: 86
South West :: 4,928,434 :: 8.38% :: 4 :: 50 :: 54
London :: 7,172,091 :: 12.20% :: 4 :: 73 :: 77
TOTAL :: 58,789,194 :: 100.00per cent :: 48 :: 602 :: 650

SEATS with PARTY BY REGION (only those functions with 3percent or higher regarding the ballots in that area):

Scotland :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Labour :: 1035528 :: 0.43 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 465471 :: 0.19 :: 11
Scottish National Celebration :: 491386 :: 0.2 :: 11
Traditional :: 412855 :: 0.17 :: 10
Total :: 2405240 :: 1 :: 56

Wales :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Labour :: 531601 :: 0.39 :: 13
Conventional :: 382730 :: 0.28 :: 9
Liberal Democrat :: 295164 :: 0.21 :: 7
Plaid Cymru :: 165394 :: 0.12 :: 4
Total :: 1374889 :: 1 :: 34

Northern Ireland :: Ballots :: percent :: Chairs
Democratic Unionist Celebration :: 168216 :: 0.27 :: 6
Sinn Fein :: 171942 :: 0.28 :: 6
Social Democratic & Labour celebration :: 110970 :: 0.18 :: 4
Alliance Celebration :: 42762 :: 0.07 :: 1
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – brand-new power :: 102361 :: 0.16 :: 3
Traditional Unionist Voice :: 26300 :: 0.04 :: 1
Total :: 622551 :: 1 :: 21

North West :: Ballots :: percent :: Seats
Labour :: 1292978 :: 0.41 :: 30
Traditional :: 1038967 :: 0.33 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 707770 :: 0.23 :: 16
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 103782 :: 0.03 :: 2
Complete :: 3143497 :: 1 :: 73

North-east :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Labour :: 518261 :: 0.46 :: 14
Traditional :: 282347 :: 0.25 :: 7
Liberal Democrat :: 280468 :: 0.25 :: 7
British National Party :: 51940 :: 0.05 :: 1
Total :: 1133016 :: 1 :: 30

Yorkshire therefore the Humber :: Votes :: percent :: chairs
Labour :: 821368 :: 0.37 :: 20
Conservative :: 769895 :: 0.34 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 543684 :: 0.24 :: 13
British National Celebration :: 104177 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2239124 :: 1 :: 55

East Midlands :: Votes :: % :: Chairs
Conventional :: 915933 :: 0.42 :: 20
Labour :: 661813 :: 0.3 :: 14
Liberal Democrat :: 462988 :: 0.21 :: 10
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Celebration :: 72659 :: 0.03 :: 2
British Nationwide Party :: 69706 :: 0.03 :: 1
Complete :: 2183099 :: 1 :: 47

West Midlands :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Traditional :: 1044081 :: 0.42 :: 24
Labour :: 808114 :: 0.32 :: 19
Liberal Democrat :: 540160 :: 0.22 :: 13
British Independence Celebration :: 106273 :: 0.04 :: 2
Complete :: 2498628 :: 1 :: 58

Eastern :: Ballots :: per cent :: Seats
Conventional :: 1356739 :: 0.5 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 692932 :: 0.25 :: 15
Labour :: 564581 :: 0.21 :: 12
UNITED KINGDOM Independence Party :: 123437 :: 0.05 :: 3
Total :: 2737689 :: 1 :: 59

South-east :: Votes :: % :: Seating
Conservative :: 2140895 :: 0.52 :: 44
Liberal Democrat :: 1124786 :: 0.27 :: 23
Labour :: 697567 :: 0.17 :: 14
UK Independence Celebration :: 177269 :: 0.04 :: 4
Complete :: 4140517 :: 1 :: 86

South-west :: Votes :: % :: Seats
Conventional :: 1187637 :: 0.44 :: 24
Liberal Democrat :: 962954 :: 0.36 :: 19
Labour :: 426910 :: 0.16 :: 9
British Independence Party :: 123975 :: 0.05 :: 2
Complete :: 2701476 :: 1 :: 54

London :: Ballots :: per cent :: Chairs
Labour :: 1245637 :: 0.39 :: 30
Traditional :: 1174568 :: 0.37 :: 29
Liberal Democrat :: 751561 :: 0.24 :: 18
Total :: 3171766 :: 1 :: 77

Opening May plenary session
free credit report federal government
Image by European Parliament
The EP’s position from the future negotiations for a trade arrangement between the EU and US are finalised through the May plenary. MEPs will also vote on resolutions to bolster media freedom, reports in the progress made by Bosnia and past Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia towards joining the EU as well as the dates the 2014 European elections. They will in addition encourage EU governing bodies to step-up the battle against tax evasion prior to the EU summit on Wednesday dedicated to this problem.

Read more: www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/content/20130517…

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33_and in 1860 27 per cent regarding the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
free credit file federal government
Image by Jim Surkamp

Hamilton Hatter role 2 – publications would be the Holy path TRT: 25:43s
youtu.be/H95odtzcU1k

Browse script with matching photos –

1_My_Heart_Is_In_The_Mountains.jpg
(songs) mama of limestone fountains! My heart extends back using establishing sunshine — My heart, my heart is within the Mountains!

2_The “Most Exceptional” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (songs) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,

3_seizes opportunities to find out and over come
Hamilton Hatter seizes possibilities to find out and over come. At one university he builds youthful thoughts plus its structures –

4_then launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia
after that launches another college inside the beloved western Virginia once more – building thoughts – and buildings. But first he had to overcome. (music)

5_and I am able to rejoice today inside belief your CLASS GOES ON
"and I Could rejoice today when you look at the belief that THE CLASS IS CERTAINLY GOING ON!”

6_The children had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years of age
The kids had been of both sexes, including three to twenty years old, nicely and comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful,

7_intelligent countenances
with an unusual assortment of acceptable and intelligent countenances peering on the tops of the desks.

8_Northern reporter John Trowbridge found Charlestown
North reporter John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summertime of 1865, a war-worn town

9_with its ruins and seething
along with its ruins and seething and six months before Hatter’s school was exposed here.

10_Trowbridge reached Charlestown
Trowbridge attained Charlestown in about might, 1865 anticipating nothing in particular.

11_At the termination of an extended hour’s ride
At the conclusion of a lengthy time’s trip, we arrived at Charles Town, mainly of great interest in my opinion due to the fact host to John Brown’s martyrdom.

12_on the edge of boundless unfenced industries
We alighted from the train in the edge of boundless unfenced areas, into whoever melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied by themselves – streams to that particular ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected feminine sitting,

13_sorrowfully from the wayside
sorrowfully regarding the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses dropped negligently about functions which could as soon as being attractive.

14_On the tips of a boarding household
In the tips of a boarding residence i discovered an acquaintance whoever countenance gleamed with satisfaction

15_“at sight,” as he stated, “of an individual devoted face
“at picture,” as he said, “of a single loyal face because nest of secession.” He’d already been two or three days within the location waiting around for baggage which was in fact miscarried.

16_the belief toward secession through the entire County before the Civil War varied extensively
While Jefferson County, West Virginia continues to be little, the belief toward secession through the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist belief in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large facilities.

17_“They are all Rebels right here – all rebels!”
“They are typical Rebels here – all rebels!” he exclaimed while he took his cane and stepped beside me. “They tend to be a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there’s absolutely no profit the spot, and barely anything to consume.

18_We have actually for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We now have for morning meal salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for lunch. At supper, the fare is slightly diverse, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason.

19_My landlady’ s child is south fire incarnate
My landlady’ s girl is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern folks in addition to government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Often I venture to resolve this lady, whenever she flies at me, figuratively talking, like a cat. The ladies aren’t the only out-spoken Rebels, even though they would be the worst.

20_The males don’t think twice to declare their particular sentiments
The guys don’t think twice to declare their sentiments, in period and out of season.” My buddy determined with this specific figure:

21_The war sensation the following is like a burning bush with a wet blanket
“The war sensation let me reveal like a burning-bush with a wet blanket covered around it. Viewed through the outside, the fire appears quenched. But simply peep underneath the blanket and truth be told there its, all alive and eating, consuming in. The wet blanket is the present government plan; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is permitting in such air to feed the fire.”

22_The time Hamilton came to be
The day Hamilton was born in April, 1856,

23_36-year-old Frank Hatter seems to be working
his daddy 36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working certainly one of Washington family homesteads into the County and

24_his mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord ended up being working
most useful evidence shows their mom 30-year-old Rebecca McCord had been using the household Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their particular Charles Town house at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.

25_or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, whom lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors regarding the big landowner here, Logan Osburn.
it is unclear whether Hamilton, his cousin George (who had been born in 1853) and his sibling Charlotte (created in 1858) existed using their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, just who lived-in Kabletown, and being next-door neighbors of large landowner here, Logan Osburn.

26_School may be the Holy path
Class could be the Holy path Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868

27_Once the totally free will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a college
After the complimentary will most likely Baptist Home Mission community established a school to teach those today freed,

28_Hamilton each day would go to the school
Hamilton every day would go into school in Charles Town for freed African-Americans in which

29_he would dedicate the newest act
he would dedicate the brand new work of learning to read, compose and think critically,

30_setting his footsteps regarding the long, hard but enthralling roa
establishing their footsteps on the lengthy, difficult but enthralling road to large grant and achievement.

31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of the women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, ended up being one of many ladies coming from Maine borne by their complimentary will most likely Baptist faith to begin Mission institutes in places like Charlestown.

32_They were determined to release the thoughts
They were determined to release the minds of only freed African-Americans –

33_and in 1860 27 percent associated with the County’s residents were enslaved individuals
plus 1860 27 per cent of this County’s residents had been enslaved people. Multiple had opted during war. Dudley, in addition a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,

34_and two various other teachers
as well as 2 other teachers who does show at Charlestown

35_came straight down by ship and train
arrived down by ship and train,

36_likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.
likely with with Baptist spiritual tracts.

37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Skip Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach-in the Charlestown Mission college too.

38_Dudley penned Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley published Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight miles from Charles Town: “I am going to Charlestown to open a college there a few weeks.

39_The nature that hung John Brown however life
The nature that hung John Brown nevertheless life, plus the individuals are highly against schools the Freedman indeed there, also right here.

40_I-go alone
I go alone, but I trust the law and also the Lord will protect myself.”

41_townspeople at best had been okay with training
More the townspeople at the best had been okay with training

42_but having refined feamales in public connection
those as soon as enslaved, but having processed ladies in public connection with those they when had enslaved breeched a hackneyed presumption.

43_lady regarding the town to associate with such a woman eg Miss Dudley
And a lady for the city to associate with these types of a female particularly skip Dudley from elsewhere – worse nevertheless from a Yankee condition – would-be a personal suicide in Charlestown.

44_Dudley composed: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding location for almost 2 months”
Dudley penned: “i possibly could get no permanent boarding place for almost 8 weeks (for it would have been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee educators while the

45_there could be no return to pals and society
Rubicon as soon as passed, there might be no return to buddies and culture, no more than on the hills of caste in Asia, as community belief ended up being)

46_so I became here alone
thus I had been here alone, boarding myself and teaching night and day,

47_until I had 150 scholars of ages and complexions”
until I experienced 150 scholars of centuries and complexions” training the rudiments of reading to any or all “from white to black,

48_and of all of the many years
as well as all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” With this shunning, Dudley could only discover board and a school space all

49_freed African United States blacksmith
in solitary roofing of freed African United states blacksmith Achilles Dixon along with his partner.

50_southeast part of Samuel and Liberty streets
It had been on the southeast part of Samuel and Liberty roads.

51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – formally the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. Initially arranged in July, 1865, – 30 days after Trowbridge’s go to –

52_crucial part enforcing the legal rights
the Bureau stretched its jurisdiction on Eastern Panhandle seeing the requirement and played a vital role implementing the legal rights associated with the

53_when the western Virginia local government ended up being not able
recently freed and their educators at a time whenever West Virginia local government had been incapable of do so, particularly in Jefferson County.

54_the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s lease
Actually, the Bureau paid skip Dudley’s rent so she could have a college room, albeit just fifteen sqft. After being confronted by a mob, the soldiers using Freedmen’s Bureau gave her an escort.

55_Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a great axe and six-shooter during the mind of my sleep during the night,

56_resolved to sell my entire life as dearly as possible – if you need to
resolved to sell my entire life as dearly possible – if necessary.”

57_to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two instructors
Overwhelmed by work that prompted home Mission Society to change the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers rather than one in the springtime of 1866, Dudley wrote that February:

58_No it’s possible to previously understand the anxiety i’ve sensed
“No you can ever know the anxiety I have felt, additionally the energy i’ve needed to make these two long months, since I have came here, occupying a harsh wood household, cool as a barn, teaching and boarding in identical rooms because i possibly could perhaps not get board elsewhere, resting there without any guy or son inside your home for single night, although the opponents regarding the school had been threatening without, and not knowing just what next time might deliver; hearing 100 different scholars recite lessons in one day. doing my personal work, obtaining company, writing letters, etc. etc. and I also can rejoice today into the belief that IT WILL CONTINUE!”

59_Every time coming through the little home
Daily coming through little door was the woman fondest hope.

60_Strother described them
Strother described all of them: The room is obviously full to overflowing.

61_reduced one-half due to the necessity
In summer the attendance is decreased one-half due to the requirement of this older pupils going on to service,

62_remunerative labor of some kind
or engaging in remunerative work of some sort.

63_comfortably clad, well-fed, healthier, and cheerful
The children had been of both sexes, nicely and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an unusual array of pleasant and smart countenances peering over the tops for the desks. These people were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,

64_rudeness related to the street-corner brat
without a trace of this barbaric squalor and rudeness with respect to the street-corner brat of former times, sometimes found today among those who didn’t visit college.

He continues on:

65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
As the most the students attended into existence considering that the Emancipation Proclamation, there clearly was however lots more than that event, plus some whose recollections antedate the truly amazing war. Yet within their profession of schooling they have all started even.

66_It are often seen that great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones
It might probably additionally be observed that the great scholars usually are outstripped by the kids, which just visits verify the typically gotten viewpoint that younger plants tend to be more effortlessly transplanted and trained than older ones more positively true at heart and morals compared to horticulture.

67_i will never forget the oft repeated prayer
Dudley published to "The day Star," the complimentary will most likely Baptist book: all of the colored men and women manifested the greatest kindness towards united states. I will remember the oft-repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the instructor which comes a far distance to show united states. Front and fight the woman battles and deliver her safe home to Glory, if you be sure to Jesus.”

The main focus shifted to presenting a permanent school building. State legislation, due to amendments in 1865, segregated pupils by race. State legislation by 1867, additionally required going the duty of providing knowledge to African Us citizens

68_from the goal schools towards regional college board.
through the objective schools towards neighborhood school board. But before a reorganization eliminated the Freedman’s Bureau entirely from Jefferson County in October, 1868,

69_the new school, supplying some 20,000 bricks and money for materials
Bureau management prodded the Charlestown’s college board to building this new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for products to match profits the township college board was to gather to construct the permanent college for its African Americans. The college under new administration unsealed with time the fall program in 1868.

70_The Freedmen Bureau males in addition engineered a match. It resulted in a determination by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit judge reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling ended up being circulated and became getting a de facto plan through the state.

71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) wrote in her own diary: “And right here, i have to confess your instructors at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert your colored individuals of their particular charges will compare positively with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much.”

72_Wrote Strother how the class Board finally came around
Wrote Strother how the class Board eventually emerged around, tossing their reduced objectives: The County Commission of Examiners report many positively associated with general cleverness exhibited by the colored students, and of their particular progress in all the primary limbs of common-school knowledge.

73_One of this bright faces into the class
The brilliant faces in the class room to profit was the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, which saw

74_his world starting
his world opening and vast through reading, it absolutely was the trail to his future.

Main Credits:

With generous, community-minded assistance from American Public University program. (The sentiments within manufacturing never by any means mirror modern-day guidelines of APUS). Much more at apus.edu

Investigated, Written, Developed, Narrated – Jim Surkamp

Musicians
"My Heart is within the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (general public domain) songs by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright laws logo) 2010, GHF Music, (terrytucker.net)

Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (cammillar.com)

Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright laws Shana Aisenberg. (shanasongs.com)

Sound FX:
children playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free sfx.uk.com”

Sources:

Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An United states Phoenix: a brief history of Storer College from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer Printing House.

Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s brand new Monthly mag, nyc, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 concern 292 (September, 1874).

Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land where we had been dreaming, as well as other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, shared ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.

“Sarah Jane Foster: instructor of this Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine girl in the South After the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.

Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Western Virginia.” West Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.

Taylor, James L. “A History of Ebony Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966.”

Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The Southern: a trip of the battlefields and ruined locations, a trip through desolated says, and talks using men and women: being a description of this current state associated with the country – its farming – railroads – business and funds.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.