Bandgang Biggs explains being on residence arrest for charge card fraud! via Paid Will & Masoe (VLOG)

Bandgang Biggs describes being on house arrest for credit card fraud! via Paid Will & Masoe (VLOG)

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Using stolen credit cards on the net is increasing, as crooks make even more deceptive expenditures on the web to bypass stricter in-person retail security measures. WSJ’s Lee Hawkins describes.

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St. Catharines Masonic Hall 23 Centre Street Ontario Canada (25)
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A multitude of Jacob’s Ladders.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

– Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin
JACOB’S LADDER

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold ………….. Sun …………… Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……….. Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………….. World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……….. Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ……….. Heaven
2. Quicksilver .. Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead …………… Saturn ………. First World

– Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

– Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

– Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America
Museum of Freemasonry – Masonic Library

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . .with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament..

Early Rose Croix. www.flickr.com/photos/colmaralchimique/33540362490/in/pho…

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred inin a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

Muskoka Lodge No. 360 Bracebridge, ON
home equity
Image by antefixus21
A Masonic Jacob’s Ladder.

An important symbol of the Entered Apprentice Degree. A ladder of several staves or rounds of which three are illustrated tot he candidate as Faith, Hope and Chairty; the three theological virtues.

Source: Masonicdictionary.com

Articles On Jacob’s Ladder:

Mackey’s Encyclopedia Article
1897 Canadian Craftsman Article
1935 MSA Short Talk Bulletin

JACOB’S LADDER:

The introduction of Jacob’s ladder into the symbolism of Speculative Freemasonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is thus substantially recorded in the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Genesis: When Jacob, by the command of his father Isaac, was journeying toward Padanaram, while sleeping one night with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, he beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy posterity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, finds its analogue in all the ancient initiations. Whether this is to be attributed simply to a coincidence-a theory which but few scholars would be willing to accept-or to the fact that these analogues were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism, or whether, as such by Brother Oliver, the origin of the symbol was lost among the practices of the Pagan rites, while the symbol itself was retained, it is, perhaps, impossible authoritatively to determine. It is, however, certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, presenting itself either as a succession of steps, of gates, of Degrees, or in some other modified form. The number of the steps varied; although the favorite one appears to have been seven, in reference, apparently, to the mystical character almost everywhere given to that number.

Thus, in the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ascent of the ladder of perfection Each of these caverns was the representative of a world, or w state of existence through which the soul was supposed to pass in its progress from the first world to the last, or the world of truth. Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal of measuring purity, and was dignified also with the name of its protecting planet. Some idea of the construction of this symbolic ladder may be obtained from the accompanying table.

7. Gold …………… Sun …………. Truth
6. Silver …………. Moon ……… Mansion of the Blessed
5. Iron …………… Mars ………… World of Births
4. Tin ……………. Jupiter ……… Middle World
3. Copper …….. Venus ………. Heaven
2. Quicksilver . Mercury ……. World of Pre-existence
1. Lead ………….. Saturn ………. First World

Source: Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry

Jacob’s Ladder: Author Unknown

When this symbol, which is taken from Jacob’s Vision (Genesis xxviii), was introduced into English Speculative Freemasonry is not exactly known. But we find allusions to it a little after the middle of the last [18th] century. It apparently was not originally a symbol of Speculative Masonry, but was probably introduced from Hermetic Masonry, about 1776. But we fancy that it came from Hermeticism, of which it was a favorite symbol. Certain it is that we do not find it in any of our far oldest known rituals if indeed they can be depended upon. Gadicke says of it, "Either resting upon the floor cloth or on the Bible, the compasses, and the square, it should lead the thoughts of the brethren to heaven. If we find that it has many staves or rounds, they represent as many moral and religious duties. If it has only three, they should represent Faith, Hope and Charity. Draw Faith, Hope, and Charity from the Bible with these three encircle the whole earth, and order all thy actions by the square of truth, so shall the heavens be opened upon thee."

Curiously enough, in Germany, the `Handbuch’ tells us this symbolism is not used, nor on the continent generally. It has been pointed out by Oliver, by the `Handbuch,’ and by others, that this is a mystical ladder to be found in the teaching of most other occult systems. Thus in the Mithraic mysteries the seven-runged ladder is said to have been a symbol of the ascent of the soul to perfection. Each of the rungs was termed a gate, and the `Handbuch’ declares that the aspirants had to pass through a dark and winding cavern. The last, or Adytum, was full of light, and also assures us that in the old Hebraic Cabala the number of steps (for they had a cabalistic ladder also), was unlimited, until the Essenes reduce the number to seven. The latter Cabalists are said to have made ten Sephriroth – the Kingdom, the Foundation, Splendor, Firmness, Beauty, Justice, Mercy, Intelligence, Wisdom, and the Crown, by which we arrive at the Infinite, as Mackey and others put it.

It is alleged that in the mysteries of Brahma and in the Egyptian mysteries this ladder is also to be found. But this fact seems a little doubtful especially as the Egyptian mysteries little is known. The ladder is, however, to be seen among the hieroglyphics. In the Brahmic mysteries there is, we are told a ladder of seven steps, emblematic of seven worlds. The first and lowest was the Earth; the second, the World of Pre-Existence; the third, Heaven; the fourth, the Middle World, or intermediate region; the fifth, the World of Births; the sixth, the Mansions of the Blest; and the seventh, the Sphere of Truth. Some little difference of opinion exists as to the representation of the Brahmic teaching. It has been stated that in Hermetic or higher Masonry, so-called, the seven steps represent Justice, Equality, Kindness, Good Faith, Labor, Patience and intelligence. They are also represented as Justice, Charity, Innocence, Sweetness, Faith, Firmness and Truth, the Greater Work, Responsibility. But this is quite a modern arrangement in all probability. In Freemasonry it has been said that the ladder with its seven rungs or steps represents the four cardinal and three theological virtues which in symbolism seems to answer to the seven grades of Hermetic symbolism. It must be remembered that we have no actual old operative ritual before us, and on the other hand we must not lay too much store by the negative evidence of later rituals – that is, because we do not find until then actual mention of certain words and symbolisms therefore conclude they did not exist earlier. On the whole, Jacob’s ladder in Freemasonry seems to point to the connection between Faith and Heaven, man and God, and to represent Faith, Hope and Charity; or, as it is declared, Faith in God, Charity to all men, and Hope in Immortality.

Source: The Craftsman – December 1897

THREE PRINCIPAL ROUNDS:

“And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and beheld a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac.” These words (Genesis XXVIII, 10-13 inclusive)v are the foundation of that beautiful symbol of the Entered Apprentice’s Degree in which the initiate first hears”. . . the greatest of these is charity, for our faith may be lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity.” At least two prophets besides the describer of Jacob’s vision have spoken aptly reinforcing words Job said (XXXIII, 14-16):

“For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instructions.”

And St. John (I,51):

“And he said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”

Since the dawn of thought the ladder has been a symbol of progress, of ascent, of reaching upward, in many mysteries, faiths and religions. Sometimes the ladder becomes steps, sometimes a stairway, sometimes a succession of gates or, more modernly, of degrees; but he idea of ascent from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge and from materially to spiritually is the same whatever the form of the symbol.

In the Persian Mysteries of Mithras, the candidate ascended a ladder of seven rounds, and also passed through seven caverns, symbolized by seven metals, and by the sun, moon and five planets. The early religion of Brahma had also a seven stepped ladder. In the Scandinavian Mysteries the initiate climbed a tree; the Cabalists made progress upward by ten steps. In the Scottish Rite the initiate encounters the Ladder of Kadosh, also of seven steps, and most of the early tracing boards of the Craft Degrees show a ladder of seven rounds, representing the four cardinal and three theological virtues. At one time, apparently, the Masonic ladder had but three steps. The Prestonian lecture, which Mackey thought was an elaboration of Dunkerly’s system, rests the end of the ladder on the Holy Bible; it reads:

“By the doctrines contained in the Holy Bible, we are taught to believe in the Divine dispensation of Providence, which belief strengthens our “Faith,” and enables us to ascend the first step. That Faith naturally creates in a “Hope” of becoming partakers of some of the blessed promises therein recorded, which “Hope” enables us to ascend the second step. But the third and last being “Charity” comprehends the whole, and he who is possessed of this virtue in its ample sense, is said to have arrived at the summit of his profession, or more metaphorically, into an etherial mansion veiled from mortal eye by the starry firmament.”

The theological ladder is not very old in Masonic symbolism, as far as evidence shows. Some historians have credited it to Matin Clare, in 1732, but on very slender evidence. It seems to appear first is a tracing board approximately dated 1776, and has there but three rounds. As the tracing board is small, the contraction from seven to three may have been a matter of convenience. If it is true that Dunkerly introduced Jacob’s ladder into the degrees, he my have reduced the steps from seven to three merely to emphasize the number three, so important Masonically; possibly it was to achieve a certain measure of simplicity. Preston, however, restored the idea of seven steps, emphasizing the theological virtues by denominating them “principal rounds.

The similarity of Jacob’s Ladder of seven steps to the Winding Stairs, with three, five and seven steps has caused many to believe each but a different form of the same symbol; Haywood says (“The Builder, Vol.5, No.11):

“Other scholars have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological Ladder, and had the same historical origin. Inasmuch as this Theo-logical Ladder symbolized progress, just as does the Winding Stair, some argue that the latter symbol must have come from the same sources as the former. This interpretation of the matter my be plausible enough, and it may help towards an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an almost utter lack of tangible evidence.”

Three steps or seven, symbol similar to the Winding Stairs or different in meaning and implications, the theological virtues are intimately interwoven in the Masonic system. Our many rituals alter the phraseology here and there, but the sense is the same and the concepts identical.

According to the dictionary (Standard) Faith is “a firm conviction of the truth of what is declared by another . . .without other evidence: The assent of the mind or understanding to the truth of what God has revealed.”

The whole concept of civilization rests upon that form of faith covered in the first definition. Without faith in promises, credit and the written word society as we know it could not exist. Nor could Freemasonry have been born, much less lived through many centuries without secular, as distinguished from religious, faith; faith in the integrity of those who declared that Freemasonry had value to give to those who sought; faith in its genuineness and reality; faith in its principles and practices.

Yet our ritual declares that the third, not the first, round of the ladder is “the greatest of these” because “faith may be lost in sight.” Faith is not needed where evidence is presented, and in the far day when the human soul may see for itself the truths we now except without demonstrations, faith may disappear without any con- sciousness of loss. But on earth faith in the divine revelation is of the utmost importance to all, especially from the Masonic standpoint. No atheist can be made a Mason. Any man who misstates his belief in Deity in order to become a Mason will have a very unhappy experience in taking the degrees. Young wrote:

“Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death To break the shock blind nature cannot shun And lands though smoothly on the further shore.”

The candidate that has no “bridge across the gulf” will find in the degrees only words which mean nothing. To the soul on its journey after death, the third round may indeed be of more import than the first; to Masons in their doctrine and their Lodges, the first round is a foundation; lacking it no brother may climb the heights. Hope is intimately tied to faith: “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”

The dictionary declares hope to be “desire with expectations of obtaining: to trust confidently that good will come.” But the dictionary definition fails to express the mental and spiritual importance of hope. Philosophers and poets have done much better. “Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor,” says Samuel Johnson, phrasing a truism everyone feels though few express. All ambitions, all human actions, all labors are founded on hope. It may be crystallized into a firm faith, but in a world in which nothing is certain, the future inevitably is hidden. We live, love, labor, pray, marry and become Masons. bury our dead with hope in breasts of something beyond. Pope wrote:

“Hope spring eternal in the human breast; Many never is, but always to be, blest,” blending a cynicism with the truth.

Shakespeare came closer to everyday humanity when he said: “True hope is swift, and flies with swallow’s wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures, kings.”

Dante could find no more cruel words to write above the entrance to hell than:

“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter here.”

Nor can we be argued out of hope; doctors say of a loved one, “she must die,” but we hope; atheists attempt to prove there is no God – we hope. Facts demonstrate that our dearest ambition can never be realized – yet we hope. To quote Young again, we are all:

“Confiding, though confounded; hope coming on, Untaught by trial, unconvinced by proof, And ever looking for the never seen.” And yet, vital though hope is to man, to Masons, and thrice vital to faith. our ritual says that charity is greater than either faith or hope.

To those whom charity means only handing a quarter to a beggar, paying a subscription to the community chest, or sending old clothes to the Salvation army, the declaration that charity is greater than faith or hope is difficult to accept. Only when the word “charity” is read to mean “love,” as many scholars say it should be translated in Paul’s magnificent passage in Corinthians, does our ritual become logically intelligible. Charity of alms can hardly “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.” To give money to the poor is a beautiful act, but hardly as important, either to the giver or the recipient, as faith or hope. But to give love, unstinted, without hope of or faith in reward – that, indeed, may well extend to the very foot of the Great White Throne.

It is worth while to read St. Paul with this meaning of the word in mind; here is the quotation from the King James version, but with the word “love” substituted for the word “charity:”

“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing. Love suffereth long, and is kind; Love enveith not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.”

Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love never faileth; but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face; now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, love; these three; but the greatest of these is love.”

It is of such charity that a Mason’s faith is made. He is, indeed, taught the beauty of giving that which is material; the Rite of Destitution shows forth the tender lesson in the first degree; Masonic Homes, Schools, Foundation, Orphanages and Hospitals are the living exponents of the charity which means to give from a plenty to those who have but a paucity.

The first of the principal tenets of our profession and the third round of Jacob’s Ladder are really one; brotherly love is “the greatest of these” and only when a Mason takes to his heart the reading of charity to be more than alms, does he see the glory of that moral structure the door to which Freemasonry so gently, but so widely, opens.

Charity of thought for an erring brother; charity which lays a brotherly hand on a troubled shoulder in comfort; charity which exults with the happy and finds joy in his success; charity which sorrows with the grieving and drops a tear in sympathy; charity which opens the heart as well as the pocket book; charity which stretches forth a hand of hope to the hopeless, which aids the helpless, which brings new faith to the crushed . . .aye, these, indeed, may “extend through the boundless realms of eternity.”

Man is never so close to the divine as when he loves; it is because of that fact that charity, (meaning love,) rather than faith or hope, is truly, “the greatest of these.”

Source: Short Talk Bulletin – Apr. 1935
Masonic Service Association of North America

Jacob’s Ladder:

Jacob’s Ladder is the only reference from the volume of the Sacred Law which is mentioned twice in the Craft Ritual; it must therefore, be considered to be of great importance. In our Masonic ritual, the first mention of Jacob’s ladder describes how Masons are enabled to ascend to the summit of masonry, i.e. Charity. This ascent is made possible from it’s beginning in the doctrines of the Holy Book followed by ascending the steps of Faith and Hope which in turn lead to the summit – CHARITY.
The second mention of Jacob’s Ladder in the ritual is in the explanation of the first Tracing Board which refers to the Volume of the Sacred Law supporting Jacob’s Ladder, but this time it brings us directly to God in Heaven, provided that we are conversant with the Holy Book and are adherent to it’s doctrines.

The Introduction of Jacob’s Ladder into speculative Masonry is to be traced to the vision of Jacob, which is recorded in the book of Genesis. “When Jacob, while sleeping one night , with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for his pillow, beheld the vision of a ladder, whose foot rested on the earth and whose top reached to heaven. Angels were continually ascending and descending upon it, and promised him the blessing of a numerous and happy prosperity. When Jacob awoke, he was filled with pious gratitude, and consecrated the spot as the house of God.”

This ladder, so remarkable in the history of the Jewish people, is to be found in all the ancient initiations. Whether by coincidence, or that they were all derived from a common fountain of symbolism is unknown. However, it is certain that the ladder as a symbol of moral and intellectual progress existed almost universally in antiquity, as a succession of steps, of gates, of degrees or in some other modified form. The number of steps varied; but most commonly was seven in allusion to the mystical importance given to that number. Thus in the Persian mysteries of Mithras, there was a ladder of seven rounds, the passage through them being symbolical of the soul’s approach to perfection. These rounds were called Gates, and, in allusion to them, the candidate was made to pass through seven dark and winding caverns, which process was called the ‘Ascent of the Ladder of Perfection’.

Each round of the ladder was said to be of metal and of increasing purity, and was dignified also with the name of it’s protecting planet. The highest being Gold . &. . . The Sun, next Silver and the Moon . . . through to Lead and Saturn. In the mysteries of Brahma we find the same reference to a ladder of seven steps, with similar names. In Scandinavian mysteries the tree Yggrasil was the representative of the mystical ladder. The ascent of the tree, like the ascent of the ladder, was a change from a lower to a higher sphere – from time to eternity, and from death to life.

In Masonry we find the ladder of Kadosh, which consists of seven steps, commencing from the bottom : Justice – Equity – Kindness – Good Faith – Labour – Patience and Intelligence. The idea of Intellectual progress to perfection is carried out by making the top round represent Wisdom or Understanding.

The ladder in Craft Masonry ought also to consist of seven steps, ascending as follows : Temperance – Fortitude – Prudence – Justice – Faith – Hope – and Charity. But the earliest examples of the ladder present it only with three, referring to the three theological virtues, whence it is sometimes called the Theological Ladder. It seems, therefore, to have been determined by general usage to have only three steps. In the 16th. century it was stated that Jacob’s ladder was a symbol of the progressive scale of intellectual communication between earth and heaven; and upon this ladder, as it were, step by step, man is permitted – with the angels – to ascend and to descend until the mind finds blissful and complete repose in the bosom of divinity.

Jewish writers differ very much in their exposition of the ladder. Abben Ezra thought that it was a symbol of the human mind, and that the Angels represented the sublime meditations of man. Maimonides supposed the ladder to symbolise Nature in it’s operations, giving it four steps, to represent the four elements – the two heavier earth and water – and the two lighter – fire and air. And Raphael interprets the ladder, and the ascent and descent of the Angels, as the prayers of man and the answering inspiration of God. Nicolai says that the ladder with three steps was, among the Rosicrucian Freemasons in the seventeenth century, a symbol of the knowledge of nature. Finally Krause says that Brother Keher of Edinburgh, whom he described as a truthful Mason, had in 1802 assured the members of a Lodge in Altenberg that originally only one Scottish degree existed, whose object was the restoration of James III (1460 ) to the throne of England and that Jacob’s ladder had been adopted by them as a symbol. An authentic narrative is purported to be contained in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In the Ancient Craft degrees Jacob’s ladder was not an original symbol. The first appearance of a ladder is in a Tracing Board, on which is inscribed the date 1776, which agrees with the date of Dunkerley’s revised lectures. In this Tracing Board the ladder has only three rounds, a change from the seven-stepped ladder of the old mysteries, and was later described as having many rounds, but three principal ones.

The modern Masonic ladder, is, as I have already said, a symbol of progress, as it was in the ancient initiations. It’s three principal rounds, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, present us with the means of advancing from earth to heaven, from death to life, from the mortal to immortality. Hence it’s foot is placed on the floor of the Lodge, which is typical of the world, and it’s top rests on the covering of the Lodge, which is symbolic of heaven. Which explains the statement given in the lecture on the Tracing Board of the First Degree in Craft Masonry, that the ladder rests on the Holy Bible and reaches to the heavens.

The Stone:

Before I close I would like to take you back to those words from the Book of Genesis, namely, “. . . . with the bare earth for his couch and a stone for a pillow. . . . “

Almost 4,000 years ago fate brought Jacob’s caravan to a place called Bethel near Jerusalem, then as even now it was the custom for a traveller to bolster his pillow and bedding with stones for a more comfortable position.

With his head resting on a particular stone, Jacob is said to have had his famous dream, which we have heard earlier.

Jacob prospered in wealth and knowledge and was directed by God to return to Bethel. On his return, the Lord again appeared to him saying “I am the God of Bethel”, thus the Lord associated himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone. Jacob took the Stone with him and, from that time on it was always set up as a pillar marking the altar to the God of Israel.

The Bethel Stone, finally, was returned to Jerusalem where it served as the Coronation Stone for the Jewish Kings, ending with the infamous Zedekiah in 581 B.C. According to Irish historians, a few years later (578 B.C. ) a small but distinguished group of strangers, who had fled from Palestine, arrived in Ulster. They had brought with them the Bethel Stone, or Stone of Destiny, together with a Royal harp and an Ark. It is significant to note that a Harp has been the royal arms of Ireland for the last 2,500 years.

The Stone remained in Ireland for over 1,000 years where every king of Ireland was crowned upon it. Till Fearghus Mor ( The Great )took it to the Scottish island of Iona. Here 48 kings of Scotland were crowned upon it until the ninth century, when it was transferred to the town of Scone near Perth for safe keeping by Coinneach Cruadalach (the Hardy) who became King of Scotland. There it remained for 400 years as that nations coronation stone.

In the reign of England’s Edward I it was removed from Scotland (1292 ), either by force or by mutual agreement (the Authorities disagree), and there it remained located under the Coronation Chair in the Westminster Abbey until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland by a special Act of Parliament.

Early Rose Croix:

It would appear from reliable documentation that was still in existence, in Austria, prior to the Second World War, that a form of Rose Croix Masonry was first known in 1747, which had formerly been known as “Knights of the Pelican”. There are a number of references, under a variety of different titles, which all purport to relate to Rose Croix Masonry. These variously date back as far as the Knights Templars of Palestine in 1188 A.D. However, the earliest reference to Rose Croix without any additional appendage, and which seems most likely to be to be in accord with the Order as we know it today, first appeared in 1747.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from which the Rose Croix Masons of America first received the degree, it was placed 18th. on the list – thus the degree became known ( by common usage ) as the Eighteenth Degree. The degree was conferred in a body known as a chapter, which derived it’s authority directly from a Supreme Council of the Thirty Third degree, and which conferred with it only one other and inferior degree, that of “Knight of the East and West”. A chapters principal officers being a Most Wise Sovereign and two Wardens. Interestingly, the order had two ‘Obligatory’ days of meeting, Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Maundy Thursday or Holy Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, observed by Christians in commemoration of Christ’s Last Supper. The name ‘Maundy is derived from MANDATUM ( Latin: “commandment” ).

The Jewel of the Rose Croix is a Golden Compasses, extended on an arc to the sixteenth part of a circle – or twenty two and a half degrees. The head of the compasses is surmounted by a triple crown, consisting of three series of points arranged by three, five and seven. Between the legs of the compasses is a cross resting on the arc; it’s centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem entwines around the lower limb of the cross; at the foot of the cross, on the same side, on which the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a Pelican wounding it’s breast to feed it’s young, which are in the nest surrounding it.

An interesting article:

www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/masonic_ladder.htm

13b – Kraft Residence – 1913 La Salle Ave – 1913 – Earl E Scherich (E)

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13b – Kraft Residence – 1913 La Salle Ave – 1913 – Earl E Scherich (E)
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West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

01 – Harvard Street Monument – Harvard Blvd & Washington Blvd, 1902.

Nearly destroyed by neglect and vandals over decades of inner city decay, the Harvard and Hobart Boulevard monuments were restored in 2002.

02 – Frank Southerland & Grace Pirtle Hutton, and John A Pirtle Residence – 2047 La Salle Ave – 1907

According to the property permit, the house was built for E B Spencer in 1906. Most likely he built this house on speculation (as he did two years earlier at 2039-2041 La Salle Ave), because according to the LA County Tax Assessor’s Office, John A Pirtle purchased this property in 1907. The same year there appears an article in the LA Herald announcing the engagement of Frank Southerland Hutton to Miss Grace Pirtle, who lived with her parents at 1819 S Union Ave, and their plans to build a house in Los Angeles after their honeymoon. Another 1907 article indicates the happy couple were married and moved into their new home on La Salle Ave. But, by 1909, they’ve moved to 1827 S Normandie and John A Pirtle is shown at the La Salle house. John Pirtle was a Southern California industrialist who appears to have made his fortune in the oil fields of Tennessee, Alabama, and Texas, through a company called the Beaumont Exchange and the Oriole Oil Company. He also speculated in water, with the West Los Angeles Water Company, West Side Water Company and the Glendale Consolidated Water Company. Frank Hutton was a well-known and respected Los Angeles lawyer, a partner of the firm Schweitzer and Hutton. This 1907 house is an unassuming looking American Craftsman bungalow, which hides its actual size. Beneath the long, low slung slope of the gable is a rather large house of 2-1/2 stories. The rounded, Colonial Revival styled balcony rail is an unusual feature.

03 – Robert K Wilson, J Frank & Virginia N Waters, and Mark & Mamie (May) E Phelps Residence – 2039-2041 La Salle Ave – 1905 – Frank Dale Hudson and Julius W Krause

Dutch Colonial in West Adams Heights is a rare architectural style, probably already deemed to be passé, but two examples exist nonetheless. The other Dutch is on South Hobart, built for C I D Moore, and is turned on its side, giving it a more Cotswold appearance. This Dutch Colonial is a straight-on interpretation of the vernacular. The architect of the house is reported to be Julius W Krause. Prior to 1895 Krause was partnered with Frank Dale Hudson, of the firm Hudson and Munsell. For a time Krause was also the Superintendent of Building for the City of Los Angeles. The original builder of this house was E B Spencer, however it’s obvious he built it in 1905 on speculation (just as he did two years later the house at 2047 La Salle Ave). This house was quickly sold the same year to Robert K Wilson who Just as quickly flipped it in 1907 to J Frank Waters. Six months later Waters sold the residence to Mark and Mamie (May) E Phelps. The Phelps’s lived at this resident until Mark’s death in 1924. Mark Phelps was described as a pioneer of Los Angeles, first finding success in mining, then as a live-stock dealer. He retired just 3 months before his death. By 1926 J E Phillips who was reported to be living at this address was arrested for smuggling Moonshine Whiskey in his car. In 1943, William J Morris, a building contractor, was the resident, according to his obituary.

04 – Wilbur Wells & Blanche Lillian Smith Keim Residence – 2033 La Salle Ave – 1904

Wilbur Wells Keim graduated from the Pharmacy School at UC Berkeley in 1902. He married Miss Blanche Lillian Smith in 1903. A large reception for the couple was held at the West Adams Heights mansion of Wesley W Beckett, 2218 S Harvard Blvd. The couple began building their house on La Salle in 1904. Keim opened a pharmacy with Edward R Neill (Keim-Neill Drug Co) just a few blocks away on the Southwest corner of Washington and Normandie, at 1890 W Washington Boulevard. Their daughter, Lorraine Keim was a 1925 graduate of USC and a member of the Kappa Alpha Sorority. The house itself is a mystery. The front porch is Craftsman. The eves under the second story and the overall shape appear to be Colonial Revival. The front door with the half sidelights and smaller window openings suggest an older structure which was moved to this location and remodeled. The effect, unfortunately, isn’t quite successful.

05 – William A & Rose H Jenkins Residence – 2029 La Salle Ave – 1909

Originally the address was 1949 La Salle Ave, but a reorganization of addresses by the city to make them more uniform changed it to 2029 La Salle Ave sometime around 1909-1910.

06 – Frank A & Marie C Von Violand Vickery Residence – 2025 La Salle Ave – 1909

When Frank A Vickery passed away he left a sizable estate. Numerous properties were advertised for auction in the February 28, 2014, issue of The California Outlook, including three in West Adams Heights (1947 La Salle Ave, 2017 La Salle Ave, and 2025 La Salle Ave). Vickery had purchased these unimproved lots in 1906 from the Gopher Land Company as investments and improved the lots. Frank Vickery was a mining industrialist with many interests, including the Pan-American Hardwoods Company in Mexico and the San Gabriel River Rock Company. The Vickery’s lived at 341 Andrews Blvd (S St Andrews Pl), in a 1907 mansion they built for ,000. According to the LA Times and LA Herald society pages, they entertained often. In May, 1910, the Vickery’s sold their St Andrews Pl home through the Althouse Brothers for ,000, to Mrs. Frederick Fischer, and relocated to their 2025 La Salle Ave home. After Frank Vickery’s death, auction, either the house didn’t sell at auction or his wide decided to continue living at the residence. The 1923-24 Southwestern Blue Book lists her at this location, with visiting on “Third Wednesdays. “ Mrs. Vickery was also a member of the Ebell and Friday Morning Clubs. Although this house must have been smaller and less opulent than their St Andrews Place residence, it is still a handsome American Craftsman home, with only minor alterations.

07 – Income property owned by Frank A Vickery – 2017 La Salle Ave – 1909

When Frank A Vickery passed away he left a sizable estate. Numerous properties were advertised for auction in the February 28, 2014, issue of The California Outlook, including three in West Adams Heights (1947 La Salle Ave, 2017 La Salle Ave, and 2025 La Salle Ave). Vickery had purchased these unimproved lots in 1906 from the Gopher Land Company as investments and improved the lots. Frank Vickery was a mining industrialist with many interests, including the Pan-American Hardwoods Company in Mexico and the San Gabriel River Rock Company. The house is American Craftsman, and the architect and builder was the Alfred E Georgian, Co.

08 – La Salle Ave Streetscape
Looking South on La Salle Ave (from left to right):
A. 2047 La Salle Ave – Hutton-Pirtle Residence
B. 2041 La Salle Ave – Phelps Residence
C. 2029 La Salle Ave – Hull Residence
D. 2033 La Salle Ave – Keim Residence
E. 2025 La Salle Ave – Frank A & Marie C Von Violand Vickery Residence
F. 2017 La Salle Ave – Income Property owned by Frank A Vickery

09 – Stanley Frederick & Sue A Shaffer McClung – 1959 La Salle Ave – 1905 – Robert Farquhar Train & Robert Edmund Williams

Imagine this house as it might have been in 1905: the long sloping roof of natural shingles, which would have matched the color of the shingled siding; ornate rails along the porch, widows weep, and above the bay window; a full chimney and no bars on the windows or doors. The effect would have been striking, and will again when the house is one day restored. It’s one of the most significant surviving houses on La Salle. It was designed by the architecture team of Robert Farquar Train and Robert Edmund Williams (Train & Williams), for Pacific Mutual Secretary Stanley F McClung. He was part of the “Old Company” forced out of power in the early 1930’s along with his brother-in-law George Ira Cochran.

10 – Income property owned by Frank A Vickery – 1947 La Salle Ave – 1909

When Frank A Vickery passed away he left a sizable estate. Numerous properties were advertised for auction in the February 28, 2014, issue of The California Outlook, including three in West Adams Heights (1947 La Salle Ave, 2017 La Salle Ave, and 2025 La Salle Ave). Vickery had purchased these unimproved lots in 1906 from the Gopher Land Company as investments and improved the lots. Frank Vickery was a mining industrialist with many interests, including the Pan-American Hardwoods Company in Mexico and the San Gabriel River Rock Company. The house is a handsome American Craftsman residence, making use of horizontal siding to make it appear wider.

11 – Evan G & Matilee Loeb Evans and William A & Rose H Haley Jenkins Residence – 1929 La Salle Ave – 1903 – Allied Arts Co

This home is American Craftsman designed in 1903 by The Allied Arts Co (as was its neighbor at 1919 La Salle Ave), a prominent architecture firm responsible for many LA landmarks, including the recently restored Hall of Justice. A J Carlson was the contractor. Evan G Evans, from Chicago, IL, arrived in Los Angeles in the late 1990’s, and married Matilee Loeb in 1898. The Mr & Mrs Evans were prominent in the society pages. The second owner, William (Will) Jenkins, was like many of his neighbors, a Capitalist. Jenkins appears to have had his hand in many enterprises, including the Madera Canal & Irrigation Company. Mrs. Jenkins passed away August 5, 1933, at her home at 148 S Irving Blvd, survived by her husband.

12 – John H & Evangeline “Eva” Rose Clark Tupper and Thomas M & Mary P Sloan Residence – 1919 La Salle Ave – 1903 – Allied Arts Co

John H and Wilbur S Tupper were born in Evansville, Wisconsin, the children of John H and Mary Sophia Foster Tupper. In the 1800’s the brothers relocated in San Francisco found themselves in the insurance industry. Wilbur Tupper became Vice-President of Conservative Life and again both brothers moved to Los Angeles. Wilbur was destined for success and after the death of then-president Frederick Hastings Rindge, he became president of both Conservative Life and Pacific Mutual (founded by Leland Stanford). Wilbur’s house was located at 2237 S Harvard Blvd and John’s at 1919 La Salle Ave, within the same tract. In 1906 Wilbur suddenly resigned from the company in scandal involving another woman (not his wife). He fled to Chicago, abandoning his wife and position. His brother John probably suffered for his brother’s indiscretion, which may help explain his sudden departure from the neighborhood and the sale of his house to Thomas M Sloan. About the same time Thomas Sloan had been promoted to Assistant General Freight Agent of the Sante Fe Railroad. This transitional Victorian/Craftsman house was designed in 1903 by the Allied Arts Co, (as was its neighbor at 1929 La Salle Ave), a prominent architecture firm responsible for many LA landmarks, including the recently restored Hall of Justice. A J Carlson was the contractor.

13 – Charles Kraft Residence – 1913 La Salle Ave – 1913 – Earl E Scherich

A more modest and later addition to the neighborhood, this 1913 Craftsman Bungalow was built for Charles Kraft, Vice-President of the J C Huggins Co, a brokerage and loan company. The home was designed by Architect Earl E Scherich, and May L Greenwood, builder.

14 – Roland Paul Residence Gates – 1986 W Washington Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager (Demolished)

Between a bicycle shop and a convalescence home are the gates to 1986 W Washington Blvd, which remain the only evidence that a home designed by Hunt & Eager once stood here. Originally commissioned by Mrs. R Fitzpatrick of Pico Blvd, in February of 1905, it was quickly turned over to pioneer Col Charles F Howland, who lived around the corner at 1902 S Harvard Blvd. He attempted to sell it in September, 1905, to Walter Rose, but the deal apparently fell through. In November, 1905, Col Howland successfully sold the home to Roland Paul.

15 – Elizabeth L Kenney Residence – 2012 W Washington Blvd – 1906 – Philip Gengembre Hubert (Attributed)

When this home was built, Philip Gengembre Hubert, celebrated New York City architect, was listed as the owner. It was most-likely designed by him on speculation. His residence was already established in 1903 at 2144 S Hobart Blvd. Hubert was responsible for designing many New York City landmarks, including the Chelsea Hotel, and after nearly 40 years in practice Hubert retired to Los Angeles, where he died in 1911. This home was sold to Elizabeth L Kenney, the second female to graduate the law department at Stanford University and continued her education at Northwestern University in Chicago. Kenney became the first practicing female attorney in Los Angeles in 1897, entering into practice with her uncle. The house, unfortunately, has been mistreated with a layer of stucco and aluminum windows. We can only hope evidence of the house’s original nature lies underneath.

16 – Commercial Block – 2034 W Washington Blvd (formerly the home of Nathaniel Dryden, 1902 S Harvard Blvd)

Evidence of how quickly Los Angeles was changing in the early 20th Century can be seen in this attractive commercial block. Nathaniel Dryden, an architect and engineer who built the Brand Library in Glendale and the Robinson Mansion in Beverly Hills, built his home on this corner in 1903. Just 20 years later it had been replaced by a commercial building already. Such was the value of land in the quick-growing city.

17 – Clara Pitt Durant Residence – 1909 S Harvard Blvd. 1908. Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

Barely visible from the street, the current owners prefer to be hidden by the trees and shrubs. This large Craftsman home was designed by Hunt & Eager for Ms. Clara Pitt Durant. A divorcee from Michigan, Ms. Pitt took her settlement and began a new life in Los Angeles. The history of the house is recorded at: www.invisiblemanor.com

18 – Charles Clifford and Belle Case Gibbons Residence – 1915 S Oxford Ave – 1903 – Frank M Tyler.

This house, designed by Frank M Tyler, is unusual for the neighborhood because it is completely sheathed in shingles, including the front porch columns. It is a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman in the Shingle Style, with Colonial and Tudor touches. It was built for Charles Clifford Gibbons and Belle Case Gibbons, who came to Los Angeles in 1884. Mr. Gibbons worked his way to from stock boy to general manager of Hale’s Dry Goods Store. His employer, Jas M Hale was a relation of San Francisco’s Hale’s Bros. Department Store, the national chain. C C Gibbons died in 1910 after an illness and in 1912 the house was sold to Matt and Mary Conway. Matt Conway made his business in real estate and land speculation. Coincidentally, the third owner, Jon Fukuto, was also a proprietor of a chain of Los Angeles grocery stores call Jonson’s Supermarkets (the name being a play on words, combining “Jon” and “Sons”). In 1945, after being released from the Gila Internment Camp in Arizona, Mr. Fukuto moved his family to Los Angeles where he established the business.

UK Police History – use of firearms in the United Kingdom
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Image by brizzle born and bred
Police use of firearms in the United Kingdom has been a slow, controversial and developing process as senior officers wanted their forces to still have the "British Bobby" or Dixon of Dock Green effect on the community.

During the Second World War, firearms were only carried while protecting 10 Downing Street and the Royal Family, but police were given many firearms in case of invasion. They were never taken on general patrol, partly because a revolver was usually issued without a holster, as holsters were in short supply because of the war.

Training for the Webley & Scott Revolvers usually consisted of firing six shots and to pass, it was required that three shots had to be on target although loading of the actual weapon was not taught. In 1948, after the Second World War Concerns were aired by the Home Office of the police forces role of another war or nuclear attack, to combat this it was decided that some of the forces would be loaned Sten Guns by the Ministry of Defence and a number of Lee Enfield No4 Mk 2s.

These, along with revolvers and ammunition, were kept in secret depots around the United Kingdom so every force had the weapons close and could get access to them when and if the time should come.

Historically, officers on night patrols in some London divisions were frequently armed with Webley revolvers. These were introduced following the murder of two officers in 1884, although individual officers were able to choose whether to carry the weapons. Armed police were rare by the turn of the century, and were retired formally in July 1936. Although, after the Battle of Stepney in 1911, Webley semi-automatics were issued to officers.

From the 1936 date on, firearms could only be issued by a Sergeant with good reason, and only then to officers who had been trained in their usage.

The issue of routine arming was raised after the 1952 Derek Bentley case, in which a Constable was shot dead and a Sergeant severely wounded, and again after the 1966 Massacre of Braybrook Street, in which three London officers were killed. As a result, around 17% of officers in London became authorised to carry firearms.

After the deaths of a number of members of the public in the 1980s fired upon by police, control was considerably tightened, many officers had their firearm authorisation revoked, and training for the remainder was greatly improved. As of 2005, around seven per cent of officers in London are trained in the use of firearms. Firearms are also only issued to an officer under strict guidelines.

The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in the late 1960’s was a rifleman himself. Although there was the possibility that planes at London Airport might be hijacked – in 1969 the british Airports Authority Constabulary were refused permission to hold firearms, because of this the Metropolitan Police specialist Firearms unit D.11 had to provide 24 hour cover. This duty was later taken over by the ‘T’ and ‘X’ Divisions of the Met. Initially specialist Rifle teams were trained and issued with 7.62mm L42A1 rifles – fitted with the No.32 telescope. These rifles were initially hired from the Ministry of Defence at a cost of £310.00 per year.

In order to allow armed officers to respond rapidly to an incident, most forces have patrolling Armed Response Vehicles (ARVs). ARVs were modelled on the Instant Response Cars introduced by the West Yorkshire Police in 1976, and were first introduced in London in 1991, with 132 armed deployments being made that year.

Although largely attributable to a significant increase in the use of imitation firearms and air weapons, the overall increase in firearms crime between 1998/99 and 2002/03 (it has been decreasing since 2003/04, although use of imitations continued to rise) has kept this issue in the spotlight. In October 2000.

Nottinghamshire Police introduced regular armed patrols to the St Ann’s and Meadows estates in Nottingham, in response to fourteen drug-related shootings in the two areas in the previous year. Although the measure was not intended to be permanent, patrols were stepped up in the autumn of 2001 after further shootings, after which the firearms crime declined dramatically.

As of September 2004, all forces in England and Wales have access to tasers, but they may only be used by Authorised Firearms Officers and specially trained units. The Police Federation have since called for all officers to be issued with tasers, with some public support.

In 2010, following the serious injury of an unarmed officer in a knife attack, the chairman of the Police Memorial Trust, Michael Winner stated that he had put up memorials to 44 officers and that he believed, "It is almost certain that at least 38 of those Police Officers would be alive had they been armed".

In response, chairman of the Metropolitan Police Federation Peter Smyth said, "A lot of police officers don’t want to be armed. We don’t want a call to arms, I don’t think that’s necessary."

Police Federation surveys have continued to show police officers’ considerable resistance to routine arming. In the Federation’s most recent (2006) Officer/Arming survey, 82% of respondents were against the routine arming of police, although 43% supported an increase in the number of officers trained and authorised to use firearms.

Road trip Germany Denmark Sweden and back.
used car loan
Image by F.d.W.
Road trip Germany Denmark Sweden and back.

These are not my pictures. When this road trip ended the laptop containing my pictures was stolen from the car, these pictures are on loan from Marianne and give me some content for the lost days (of pictures). See www.flickr.com/photos/mariannedewit/sets/7215762723080480…

The Swedish Air Force Museum (in Swedish, Flygvapenmuseum) is located at Malmen, just outside of Linköping, Sweden. Malmen is where Baron Carl Cederström, nicknamed the "Flyer Baron" founded his flying school in 1912. Along with the Swedish Army Museum (Armémuseum) in Stockholm, and the Marinmuseum at Karlskrona, it constitutes the government agency Statens försvarshistoriska museer ("Swedish Museums of the Defence Forces").[citation needed]

Aircraft from every stage of Swedish military aviation history are on display. Noteworthy exhibition objects from the pioneering days of World War I include an Albatros 120 trainer, as well as a Nieuport and Bréguet combat aircraft. A Saab-built Junkers Ju 86 twin-engined bomber, and a wide range of British, American, Italian and Swedish-made planes reveal the diversity of aircraft types used by the Swedish Air Force during World War II . All service aircraft of significance from the post-war years are exhibited, from the Saab J 29 "Flying Barrel", a sturdy fighter of the 1950s, to the contemporary 4th generation multirole fighter JAS 39 Gripen. Recently, a new exhibition has been added, based around the salvaged Tp 79 (Swedish Air Force designation for C-47) ELINT aircraft, shot down by a Soviet MiG-15 in 1952. The museum also hosts a Saab 39 Gripen simulator.[citation needed] In 2010 the museum had a major expansion and rebuild.

Market Residence Fast In Washington DC And Acquire The Desired Cost Quickly

Reports expose that regular United states resident modifications home every 3-4 times in his or the woman life time. This might sound bit strange nevertheless thing is that there are numerous good reasons behind it including bad tenants, foreclosure, personal bankruptcy, split etc which force the proprietors sell house quickly against right cash. The quick home buyers are amazing for the purpose as they possibly can present many feasible solutions regardless of how dilapidated home is. As a homeowner, you need to get touching real estate investor online and provide it with a few basic details to get suitable money provide at the earliest.

Sell Home Quick – just how Flexible is It?

optimal amounts of individuals think that there isn’t that much versatility in attempting to sell house fast in Washington DC due to the fact real estate professional often has a tendency to bargain in the place of consumers and complete the deal depending on the present marketplace standing. The realtors ask the individuals who are wanting to sell home fast to bring along the home sale cost or hold back until and unless they find the right buyer. However, to help make a fair deal, if you opt to handle quick home buyers in Washington, you’d be able to get the greatest price for your house, whatever problem its.

To be really honest, residents in Washington face numerous difficulties in attempting to sell house as there are inadequate buyers you can purchase. Moreover, the purchasers that urgently buying homes either undergo a careful approach or are quite certain about their acquisition requirements. In addition to that, furthermore interesting is that nowadays you will see that the amount of house sellers are exceeding fast as compared to number of home buyers. More or less nearly every owner has faced these issues which makes an attempt to offer house in the great outdoors market. Such circumstance, fast home buyers arrived at your rescue. They provide high-quality home attempting to sell solutions and put a conclusion to all the hassles in no time making home offering knowledge a pleasing one altogether.

Professional homebuyers buy homes in any problem and pay money for unsightly, dilapidated houses which could not otherwise be sold shopping. Regardless of how terribly affected the house is- be it foundation problem, serious water damage and mold, peeling of shows from wall surface, moisture issue, plumbing dilemmas etc, they take care of the same and present home owners ideal money provide.

thinking about get in touch with These Property Investors

You tend to be liberated to get in touch with these property investors just in case you:

* want to offer home fast
* desire to shut the deal rapidly
* Want quickly money provides on your own residence sale
* want the most effective value for your home

So, with fast home buyers, you’ll not need to battle to discover audience in Washington, DC. They will certainly take away your entire tension associated with residence purchase and help you remain relaxed through the entire entire exchange.

Andrew Gomez has been in this real estate business for more than 10 years. He understands that there are lots of sites which claims “sell home fast“, “sell house fast Washington DC” who can really assist you receive your house offered in Washington DC within an agreed upon time frame.

“Market Residence Rapid” Investment Business – Altering The Regulation of Financial investment Standards

sell home
by CC Chapman When you have a troubled property or an acquired house in probate, it usually comes to be difficult to decide exactly what you ought to do with it. If you are incapable to maintain it or do not wish to keep it as-is, then the “Sell House Rapid “financiers could pay you very easy cash money for your home sale, even if it has lawful problems, or it is broken and need instantaneous repair work and/or remodelling. At quick sale house purchasers, expert realty agents are constantly offered to evaluate your problem and also provide you complimentary and no required cash deal. If you are looking for fast cash home offering services to your rental home or troubled house,”Market House Rapid in Virginia “can offer you distinct cash conserving options and aid it get offered fast at reasonable price.If you are unsure to obtain the very best value for your home in Virginia, you could think about

benefiting from” Market Home Rapid in Virginia” investment service.No Stepping Back in Residential or commercial property Deal”Market Residence Fast “capitalists will certainly provide you ensured cash deals for marketing your
residence or rental residential or commercial property. They won’t back out of their

assurance after undergoing your house problem or circumstance. In addition to generating an immediate money offer, quick residence capitalists will wait to obtain your approval for it.Direct Support as well as Advice of Property Professionals Quick residence sale capitalists work with a group of genuine estate professionals who could simplify your house sale procedure

as well as let you remain kicked back throughout. They are

devoted to remove all your financial troubles with an all cash money quick offer as well as guarantee you the greatest feasible contentment together with different special facilities. If you are waiting to locate a possible buyer for long, you can gamble with “Offer My Residence in Virginia”capitalists who focus on closing your offer fast and also easy. The finest point is that the quick cash home sale offers will certainly be available to you regardless of the problem or area of your home for sale in Virginia.Best Ever before Consumer Assistance for Quick Money Deals Many”Offer My Residence in Virginia”business are acknowledged for supplying client assistance unequaled in the sector. It
consists of even more compared to just keeping you notified about the

residence sale procedure. The beneficial and also reliable methods in the location of house sale are personalized by them to satisfy your individual requirements. When you decide to collaborate with”Offer Home Fast”investors, they will certainly execute a relative market evaluation on your Virginia based residence or home and existing you a record to allow you understand the genuine rate of your home in”As Is “condition as well as after undergoing a renovation.A Bargain Experience Without Any Kind of Inconvenience as well as Hidden Price “Market Residence Rapid”capitalists recognize the usual inconveniences you might face while attempting to sell your troubled home or house on the open market. It is capable of personalizing your house offering remedy and keeping it cost-free from any type of kind of service fee, real estate agent compensations
, or lawful costs. With fast cash home sale firms you will certainly never ever have to pay any type of concealed price. Additionally, you will certainly receive a no-obligatory cash offer. Andrew Gomez has actually remained in this property industry for over a years. He recognizes that there are some web sites which say”< a rel= "nofollow"href= "http://www.housebuyersofamerica.com/Sell-My-House-Fast.php" > Market residence quickly”, ” Sell my house Virginia” who can truly aid you get your house sold in Virginia within a set amount of time. Relevant Sell Residence Articles

Federal Real estate Authority Approves Prepaid Credit report For Residence Purchasers

3 credit bureaus
by Chris Devers FHA approves pre-paid debt

card background. FHA looks for a minimum of 12 month credit rating on non-traditional credit rating. Cord, smart phones, land line phones, lease, get below pay here vehicle loan, rent to own, occupants insurance policy, car insurance policy any point that you spent for YEAR or more.

Pre-paid bank card enable you to establish expense payment with all above. All payments need to be paid in a timely issue to qualify. Pre paid charge card reports to the debt bureau on non-traditional credit background if you enroll in the program. Yet remember it will likewise report unexpected settlements also.

FHA needs minimum of 3.5% deposit with appropriate credit rating. But some loan can originate from gifts or grants. All collections have to be paid in complete. Just enabled to have actually 1 contested financial institution sometimes of application. Documents has to be attended to disputed financial institution.

There is no minimal credit rating score demand, contending the very least 620 rating or higher will make you an extra serious residence purchaser to obtain approved. You also won’t be automatically invalidated if you have a bankruptcy or repossession if sufficient time has actually passed.

FHA likewise enables you to acquire a multifamily home as a resident and also the 3.5% still uses. This aids to lift several of the worry off the a home owner. If you acquire the home with a lessee and 12 lease holds. Rental earnings is included in your income in order to help with your financial obligation to income ratio.

All homes will certainly call for a home assessments on all FHA home loan. Which helps see unpredicted issues in the future. The objective is that the property owner will certainly not have to go in making repair works after closing. This is in the ideal interest for the home purchaser as well as the lending institution. Vendors makes fixings prior to closing.

The government tax credit report due date has passed needing customers to have a residence under agreement by April 30 has included to the appeal of FHA Loans. Providing low down payment, adaptable underwriting, and also more forgiving credit scores demands, FHA loans help very first time as well as modest earnings purchasers with budget-friendly house financing options.

FHA standards are developed to offers much more leniency for assessing each borrowers require. Where Fannie Mae & & Freddie Mac doesn’t provide adaptability for borrowers scenarios.

Obtain a duplicate of your debt record from all 3 credit scores bureaus to see where you should begin. You will certainly be amazed what may get on your credit score record. If you have no credit scores obtain prepaid credit cards and start paperwork on repayment background. Contact a Home loan lending institution to figure out your choices. What should be done to prepare your self to buy a home.

Prepaid debt cards allow straight deposit for payroll. Card to card transfer at no price. Many have numerous cards. One for costs settlement and also an additional for investing money to stay within their budget plan & & one for their deposit. Assists numerous accomplish their objective and stay focused on the job available.

Sadie T O’Neal experience comes from 15 years of home mortgage underwriting Request your F * R * E * E Prepaid Card, that reports to the credit scores bureaus and Lexus Nexus. Lots card anytime and get.00 for on-line applications or call 1-866-787-4227 usage promo code: creditbuilderstoday. Check out Currently: http://creditbuilderstoday.com Relevant 3 Credit history Bureaus Articles

Purchasing a residence? Find out how you can select the best home mortgage prices initially

loan rates
by denisbin The process of house buying can be tedious to say the least. Combing via the substantial details offered could be time consuming. Remembering additionally the effects of not being extensive in the due process likewise, one can not manage to take shortcuts. The results could me calamitous.Different individuals rate home loan products in the marketplace individually, one

male’s meat being the other’s poisonous substance when it come to their preference. To identify the residence loan which fits one’s requirements, a mix of mortgage attributes have to be thought about such as: Rates of interest, Are they repaired or Variable?Purpose of the Mortgage Fee framework Overall earnings and also credit line etc.With all this tokeep in mind, it might seem that a tiresome

task lies ahead yet, worry not as there exists many home mortgage suppliers to pick from. With this boosted competition comes large amounts for the customer that adds larger smiles to their faces. This scenario is seen globally consisting of right here in Australia. We simply need to find out, what the very best offers are.Finding the most effective mortgage in Australia.As noted above, the check listing of aspects will be crucial. And the procedure of locating the most effective home purchase deals will involve comparing what gets on deal among various mortgage providers.
These we shall after that contrast with our choices and capabilities to
finance the home loan. For example, people looking for a home mortgage product for financial investment will have a divergent point of view with a homeowner on just what item is best. As choices will certainly vary in between individuals it is crucial that you look for loan providers that supply a variety of specialised along with prime mortgage items that suit private needs.Find the most effective rates of interest as well.This is the very first point all home owners look for to discover and with excellent factor also. The reason being as it will certainly determine the overall expense of getting funding to obtain your house. Nonetheless even as you consider this an extra critical look is should discover other associated facets such as exactly how the financing
will be amortised. Generally the shorter the amortisation period, the more loan saved on interest. Additionally, a low rate of interest rate does not necessarily indicate the loan will economical. Usually, you will find much more added fees with items with lower rate of interest. The rate could likewise be repaired of varied. Figuring out the benefits and drawbacks of these will certainly assist in your quest to locate the best product.Compare and also Compare again.This will certainly rather basically guarantee you the very best deals when you determine to purchase a house. So take your time and also compare home mortgage rates provided by various carriers. What are the home loan terms of one mortgage provider? Are they far better or worse contrasted to the next supplier? Discover out if it’s an open home loan where you can increase the amount paid in costs or its closed and you could only pay

a set premium through the regard to the mortgage. Additionally, compare the customer care. Having a service provider that is knowledgeable, punctual as well as friendly will certainly be extremely impact-full in your pursuit. It will also make the process tension complimentary as well as perhaps also enjoyable.All the finest though, in your research and also eventual house acquiring expedition. loantech Australia Apply Online or Compare Home mortgage Fees with our mobile lending institutions.

Kind Residence Equity Loans photos

Check out these home equity financial loans photos:

Demolition
home equity loans
Image by A.Davey
When a building’s interior is exposed similar to this, the structure loses its feeling of permanence, while the living rooms look like phase units.

This building, which sticks during my mind principally given that residence regarding the long-shuttered Jazz Quarry and something of Portland’s final "adult" cinemas, it becoming demolished to create method for the Sky 3 Apartments.

New condo construction in Portland died with all the worldwide financial crisis of 2007-2008 and has yet becoming resurrected. So, while household prices rise, no new condos are arriving online, just apartments. The cost of a perch in one of our hip "Portlandia" communities can now exceed 0K. One explanation financial institutions aren’t financing new condominiums could be the extremely high threat of construction-defect litigation, which can be practically inevitable nowadays. At the very least townhouses are still being built, nonetheless they’re away from sight and if they’re in the core.

It was reported that the "Las Vegas based Molasky number of companies . . .and Portland-based E&F qualities are intending to develop a 15-story mixed-use building with 196 units, at Southwest Jefferson Street and 11th Avenue."

The delopers sent applications for a 10-year property tax exemption of almost 0,000 in exchange for maintaining a number of the products at below-market rents to market the availability of moderate-income housing.

"While most associated with units of Sky3 Put would hire at market rate – as high as ,250 30 days for a two-bedroom apartment – 20 per cent would hire at a reasonable price for folks making 80 percent of this area’s median family members earnings – ,850 for an individual or ,500 for a household of four. Those flats would range in rent from 1 four weeks for a studio to ,118 for a two-bedroom product."

oregonon.org/blog/2014/portland-housing-bureau-dangles-ta…

Truthfully, i cannot imagine investing ,250 in after-tax bucks on rent, whenever residence ownership and a home loan would offer tax-deductible interest and home fees, the alternative of equity in the future and, depending on the amount of the loan, reduced monthly payments.

Opportunity Needs to be Knocking
home equity loans
Image by Viewminder
Once the government assured all of these mortgages and basically residence equity loans…

few people like going individuals were bitching in regards to the financial institutions.

Cash had been simple…

debt was being given away like candy on Halloween.

Today the money’s kinda dried out.

Plus the individuals gotta make great on those loans their particular government guaranteed.

Four years ago I didn’t have to view the news headlines to see how the economy ended up being performing.

I possibly could inform on garbage time.

I would see a few of these vacant boxes for plasma display televisions along with other big customer things made in China.

Today garbage time seems different.

At the least within my area there’s a whole lot less consumin’ goin’ on.

I have heard some amazing some ideas on Occupy Chicago demonstration.

I’ve heard some actually nutty a few ideas.

The one thing that could make every person delighted… at the very least the folks with all the power to be delighted… is if the playing industry were levelled…

if there clearly was window of opportunity for everybody.

Twelve years ago I began a company… I strolled in to the bank and with just my motorists lisense and quarter-hour I wandered completely with two bank reports and two checkbooks.

Just last year I went to start two new business lender reports.

I really couldn’t believe the paperwork I required.

It took me two weeks to get it completely.

I decided to go to Six Flags this weekend for FrightNight.

I experienced to walk-through metal detectors and become put through search.

I experienced to quit my small pocket-knife after walking through the material detectors.

I assume I could have walked the mile back again to my automobile and stashed it truth be told there in interest of public safety nevertheless kids were jonesin’ to jump on a rollercoaster.

I am all for layin’ along the legislation to kick some terrorist ass…

but it is stuff like that that makes me groan.

If it was our freedom the terrorists were wanting to destroy…

they made their particular point and additionally they scored.

We do not need even more laws.

We don’t need certainly to give up any longer legal rights.

We want even more freedom.

Less legislation.

Among the ironies we see using the Occupy action… and there are many…

is wanting to make use of federal government to repair the issue.

I love just how Ronald Reagan place it…

‘Government is the issue.’

Redemption Track

Nice Residence Equity pictures

Examine out these home equity pictures:

Strolling along the Cambridge side of the Charles River (upright)
home equity
< img alt=" residence equity" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2725468638_3a0610e5de.jpg" size=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/9161595@N03/2725468638" >
Chris Devers This photo has been gone into in the
< a href=" http://metrofuture.org/content/enter-2010-metrofuture-photo-contest-1" rel=" nofollow "> MAPC MetroFuture photo competition, in the< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/node/42/goals" rel=" nofollow "> Transport Options category, and also showed up on the MAPC MetroFuture web page, under” Equity”:–RRB- The Transport Choices web page is< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/node/42/goals" rel=" nofollow" > defined as complies with: – – – – – –< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/44" rel=" nofollow ” > 44. An increased transit system will supply far better service to both metropolitan and suburbs, connecting more homes and also tasks. MetroFuture would make transit a more eye-catching choice by improving solution on existing lines as well as by extending the reach of solution to new areas that can support it with transit-friendly land uses( new, old, or a mix of both). –< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/45 "rel =" nofollow" >45. Even more people will certainly use transit for job and also individual trips.

MetroFuture would greater than double the variety of journeys made on transit, with expansion and also renovations to the existing system; creation of even more rural transit services; land usage plans as well as website designs that promote transportation usage; as well as a steady boost in gas prices.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/46" rel= "nofollow "> 46. Commuters will certainly have much more choices to prevent congestion
. A boosting share of workers would stay clear of blockage with transportation, flextime, telecommuting, car pool, and also various other nontraditional job and also travelling arrangements.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/47 "rel=" nofollow" > 47. Many people will select to stroll or bike for brief journeys.
MetroFuture would certainly increase the share of trips made by walking or biking.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/48 "rel=" nofollow" > 48. The typical individual will certainly drive less miles on a daily basis.
MetroFuture’s emphasis on alternative settings would certainly permit the region’s residents to depend less on their autos, with an objective of decreasing the regionwide vehicle setting share from 77% in 2000 to 61% by 2030.

< a href =" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/49" rel=" nofollow" > 49. Far-flung locations will see little boost in website traffic blockage.
MetroFuture focuses growth in metropolitan areas and also developed suv areas with the framework to sustain it.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/50" rel=" nofollow" > 50. Individuals with specials needs will find it less complicated to obtain around the area. MetroFuture’s focus on small development, different transportation, and social solutions would make it less complicated for individuals with disabilities to obtain around in City Boston.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/51" rel=" nofollow" > 51. Regional transportation planning will certainly be related to lasting land use planning.
The MetroFuture area would certainly utilize minimal transport sources wisely.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/52" rel= "nofollow" > 52. The transportation system will be dependably moneyed and also transport firms will certainly show responsibility to the general public.
MetroFuture would certainly supplement standard transportationrevenue sources with tolling, congestion pricing, influence charges, worth capture tools, and various other innovative methods to leverage private resources.

< a href=" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/53" rel= "nofollow "> 53. Transport tasks will be designed and constructed swiftly and also cost-effectively.
Transport projects will certainly be selected in an efficient, transparent fashion, and also those choices will be based on reasonable price quotes of prices as well as revenues.

< a href =" http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/54" rel=" nofollow" > 54. Roadways, bridges, and railways will be risk-free and well maintained. With a renewed concentrate on growth in developed areas where infrastructure is available, more funding would be assigned to upkeep or enhancements (including security improvements as well as multimodal adjustment) of existing transportation possessions.

< a href= "http://www.metrofuture.org/goal/55" rel=" nofollow" > 55. The region’s services will certainly access the global industry via an effective freight transport network.
City Boston’s services will contend in the global market many thanks to efficient activity of items as well as individuals on a well-maintained system of railways, streets, ports, as well as flight terminals.

Palestine_Jaffa_Jaffa_NK23048
home equity
< img alt=" home equity" src=" https://www.credit-report-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/3333235854_32936436fa.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/34409164@N06/3333235854" > gnuckx As specified by United Nations
General Setting up Resolution 194 (III) 11 December 1948 Having actually considered further the situation in Palestine, … 11. Settles that the evacuees wanting to
return to their residences and live tranquil with their neighbors need to be permitted to do so at the earliest possible date, and also that settlement must be paid for the building of those choosing not to return and also for loss of or damage to residential or commercial property which, under principles of global regulation or in equity, must be made great by the Federal governments or authorities liable; Advises the Conciliation Commission to facilitate the repatriation, resettlement and financial and also social recovery of the refugees and also the settlement of payment, and also to keep close relationships with the Supervisor of the United Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees and, with him, with the proper organs and also firms of the United Nations; Free Palestine! Copyright note: This photo has actually
been launched to

the general public Domain, or it is certified under Creative Commons or cc0, or it falls under the doctrine of Fair Use since United States copyright legislation, or I have actually obtained written consent by the author, rights proprietor, certified resource, or otherwise accredited by source to republish images with no limitations. Consequently, anyone can republish this image anywhere else in the Internet or other publication in conformity to the legal copyright standing of the photo. Please call me with flickrmail ought to you feel you retain legal copyright legal rights to this photo. This picture has actually been published specifically for didactical and/or historical purposes, and also disemination is not only enabled, however also motivated. At the minimum, you are cost-free to copy/link this picture as long as you identify the resource. Please do not create me to ask more approval or educate regarding further use. Resource: www.palestineremembered.com TAGS palestine palestinian al-aqsa al-quds al-quods jerusalem nakba plight uniformity evacuee acre west-bank gaza safad ramallah tiberias jaffa tulkarem haifa hebron beersheba al-ramla baysan zionist zionism u.s.a aipac america war 1948 1956 1973 olp fatah arafat hamas peace united-nations middle-east syria siria lebanon iran olive castielli youngsters kid land israel israeli occupation pilgrims amnesty human-rights arab muslim islam islamic protest cost-free flexibility justice hijra exodus CC0 cc public_domain www.palestineremembered.com

14 Issaquah residence

Some great purchase residence pictures i came across:

14 Issaquah home
buy residence
Image by nicwn
My mother purchased this new from an import look for almost 00 a few years ago, and possesses been sitting indeed there when you look at the dining area for design from the time. She also got matching red silk cushions from the chairs while the plastic covers haven’t even already been removed however! 100per cent new with no defect! So it’s as if you’re having to pay half-price for a fresh set. Exactly why we’re selling is basically because we are offering the home. We have all relocated on and far from Washington State, so we must sell all furnitures! Every thing has to go!

Go here one out on the web, comparable but our set is better!

www.chinafurnitureonline.com/closeup.asp?cid=60&pid=2…

Workplace & Dining Area
buy house
Image by osiristhe
Turqouise arch paint is ‘beach bath towel’ from Behr/Home Depot, curtains by me/BYOV in Riley Blake Chevron material, LOVE artwork (influenced by Robert Indiana) by myself, and table & Herman Miller molded Eames seats from craigslist,

Family area with Petrol Fireplace
buy home
Image by Evan Courtney
Adorable cape cod residence based in a peaceful area close to gorgeous west Avenue and Lytle Park.

Enjoy particularly this 3 room, 1 restroom house of the goals!

For sale purchase owner residence.
3413 Prairie
Mattoon, Illinois

www.3413prairie.com